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Abstract随着海岸带区域社会和经济的不断发展，海湾开发活动的强度日益提高，海湾生态系统的健康受到严重威胁，生态系统管理面临着挑战。因此，开展海湾生态系统健康评价研究，判断其健康水平，是加强海湾生态环境保护、强化海湾生态系统管理的必然要求，其研究成果可以为海洋管理工作提供科学依据。 兴化湾是福建省第一大海湾，湾内滩涂面积广大，海洋环境条件较好，长期以来为人类和其它生物提供了广阔的生存空间。当前兴化湾内资源开发活动日益增加，对海湾生态系统产生了较大干扰。及时了解兴化湾海湾生态系统所处的健康状况可以有效地为生态环境保护工作和下一步的开发活动提供指导，从而促进兴化湾的可持续发展。本文以压力－状态－响应（PSR）模型为基本框架构建指标体系，对兴化湾海湾生态系统健康水平进行了评价，并根据评价结果提出相应的管理建议。主要研究内容如下： （1）本文介绍了生态系统健康的概念和研究进展，以及海湾生态系统健康和其评价方法。健康的海湾生态系统必须是可持续的，面对自然的变化或人为的干扰能够保持结构的稳定，可以维持正常的物质循环和能量流动；可以为人类提供生态系统服务，满足社会经济发展的需要。本文构建了基于PSR模型的兴化湾海湾生态系统健康评价指标体系，分别阐述了压力、状态、响应三个部分的指标选择依据和评价方法。在介绍兴化湾海湾生态系统的基本情况，描述区域自然环境特征、社会经济概况和资源特征的基础上，依照构建的评价指标体系，采用定性与定量相结合的方法对研究区域的海洋生态系统健康情况进行了评价。 （2）压力评价结果表明，台风和风暴潮、赤潮、外来物种以及海平面上升的影响是兴化湾海湾生态系统面临的主要自然压力，这几种灾害对生态系统造成了干扰，对兴化湾海湾生态系统的健康影响较大。围填海工程对海湾生态系统造成了很大负面影响，是兴化湾面临的主要人为压力。伴随社会经济发展而进行的港口和临港工业开发建设活动是兴化湾目前面临的最大压力。海洋污染和非法海洋开发利用活动是目前兴化湾海洋生态系统面临的经常性压力。滨海电厂的建设和运行对兴化湾的生态系统健康构成了持久性压力。 （3）评价结果表明，兴化湾海湾生态系统健康状态评价分值为0.64。参照海湾生态系统健康分级标准，该海湾生态系统处于“较健康”的水平。随着社会经济的发展，将有更多的污染物质被排入海洋，使海湾面临严重的污染问题。围填海等海洋开发活动降低了海湾的生物多样性，对海湾内的重要生境造成了破坏。人类活动对环境质量、生物与生态、生境质量等3大类评价因子的评价结果均产生了一定的影响，在很大程度上影响了海湾生态系统健康。 （4）目前，兴化湾海湾生态系统对压力的的响应工作主要在科研监测、宣传教育等微观层面展开。虽然在海洋开发规划实施、管理机构设置、资金投入、海洋管理执法工作等方面已取得了一定的进展，但规划和机构设置的针对性、资金投入规模和执法力度都有待加强，尤其是在宏观层面上尚缺乏整个海湾开发保护的跨区域、跨部门协调机制。 （5）本文依据研究结果提出了兴化湾海湾生态系统管理建议，主要涉及协调机制的建立、开发活动的布局与管理、监管活动的开展、海湾流域管理等方面，希望可以有助于加强管理活动的针对性，促进海湾的可持续发展。
With the development of society and economy in the coastal zone, the development intensity in estuary area is raising while the estuary ecosystem health is suffering degradation and ecosystem management is facing the challenge. Therefore, assessing the estuary ecosystem health level can promote the environmental protection of estuary and strengthen ecosystem management, and the result could be treated as a scientific basis for management. Xinghua estuary is the largest estuary in Fujian Province, the tidal flat in this estuary is large with favorable physical and chemical conditions. The estuary has provided wide living space for human and animal for a long time. However the increasing development activities have disturbed the estuary ecosystem. Evaluating the ecosystem health level of Xinghua estuary can provide guidance for protection and development activities, and also promote sustainable development in Xinghua estuary. A framework of indicators based on PSR Model has been established in the paper and was used to assess the health level of Xinghua estuary ecosystem, then several proposals were offered according to the result to improve the status of the estuary. The results were principally as follows: (1) The concept of ecosystem health, its research progress, and the methods of its assessment were introduced. A healthy estuary ecosystem should be able to keep the stability of its structure and function, and should have high species diversity. It can provide ecosystem services and fill the reasonable needs of society and economy development. A framework of indicators based on PSR Model for Xinghua estuary ecosystem was established, including the research methods of pressure, state and response. The general situation of Xinghua estuary ecosystem was introduced, and the natural environment, social economic features and utilization of the resources were described then. After that, qualitative and quantitative analysis approaches were carried out based on the indicator system. (2) According to the result of pressure assessment, the major natural pressures of Xinghua estuary ecosystem were identified as typhoon and storm surge, red tide, alien species and sea level rise, which disturbed the ecosystem and affected the ecosystem health. Reclamation seriously threatened the ecosystem, it was always the major pressure of Xinghua estuary ecosystem. Port industry were currently the biggest pressure of the ecosystem. Marine pollution and illegal development were frequent pressure of the ecosystem. The construction and operation of littoral power plants was permanent threat of Xinghua estuary ecosystem health. (3) The index of Xinghua estuary ecosystem health was 0.64, presenting relatively healthy. With the development of society and economy, more and more pollutants were dumped into the sea, which contaminated the environment. Marine development like reclamation reduced species diversity and destroyed marine habitats. Artificial activities seriously harmed the 3 factors of estuary ecosystem health. (4) The response activities in microcosmic aspect such as scientific research, monitoring, propaganda and education were good. Response activities like compilation and implementation of plan, organization setting, government investment, law enforcement activities were helpful, but the pertinence of organization setting, the scale of investment and law enforcing power should be intensified. Especially, in the macroscopical aspect, there was no cross-region and cross-department coordination mechanism in the development and protection activities of the estuary. (5) Several proposals for ecosystem management were offered according to the result of assessment in this paper, including the establishment of coordination mechanism, the distribution and management of development activities, supervision, and watershed management. The proposals may help to achieve the sustainable development of Xinghua estuary.