Does gender affect land-access, water-access and food security among smallholder farmers? : A case of Msinga local municipality, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
Author(s)Mthembu, Sithembile Amanda.
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AbstractWhile South Africa may be food secure as a country, large numbers of households within the country, particularly female-headed households, are food insecure. Unequal distribution of agricultural production resources between men and women has been identified as one of the main causes of household food insecurity in developing countries. However, information on how the social, economic, cultural and institutional factors affect access to production resources across household head’s gender is limited. Therefore, this study set out to understand the disparities in women’s access to land and water resources and, how these differences impact the food security status of different households. A random sample of 159 households was selected in Msinga local municipality, KwaZulu-Natal province in South Africa. Data were analysed using both descriptive statistics and econometric analysis (OLS, Tobit, binary and ordered logit models). The study results indicated that gender of the household head determines access to land, perceived water and land security, and household food security. The results indicated that female-headed households always have smaller sizes of land and their frequency of access to irrigation water is less than that of male-headed households. This implies that there is gender discrimination against women with regards to access to production resources, which leads to their worsened food insecurity. Marital status was also found to be an important determinant of households’ access to both land and water, implying that women gain or improve their access to resources through marriage. The Tobit model results indicated that land access was also influenced by factors such as the source of land and livestock head size. Water access was also determined by age of the household head, membership to farmer associations, irrigation type and extension services. Results indicate that level of education, water security and access to irrigation improved household food security. Therefore, there is need for a multifaceted approach, where some interventions will improve access to water security while others will improve land security. Improved water security improves food security via its impact on irrigation. Moreover, women should be empowered through farming education, opening formal job opportunities and access to support services such as extension, credit and farming inputs to close the gender gap.
M. Agric. University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg 2014.
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Determinants of rainwater harvesting technology (RWHT) adoption for home gardening in Msinga, KwaZulu-Natal, South AfricaBaiyegunhi, LJS (Water Research Commission (WRC), 2014-12-02)Home gardening is extremely important for resource-poor households that have limited access to production inputs. However, in South Africa attempts to implement home garden programmes often fail to improve food security of the poor due to water scarcity. Rainwater harvesting technology (RWHT) has been used to supplement the conventional water supply systems, but its potential has not been fully exploited. An understanding of the factors influencing the adoption of improved technologies is therefore critical to successful implementation of agricultural development programmes. This study evaluated the determinants of farmers’ decisions to adopt rainwater harvesting technology (RWHT) in rural Msinga, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, using a binary logistic regression model based on a household survey of 180 rural home gardeners. The result of the logistic regression model showed that gender, age, education, income, social capital, contact with extension agent and perception/attitude towards RWHT are statistically significant in explaining farmers’ adoption of RWHT in the study area. Implications for agricultural and rural development policy were discussed.Keywords: home gardening, rainwater harvesting technology, adoption, logistic regression, South Africa
for home gardening in Msinga, KwaZulu-Natal, South AfricaThe Pennsylvania State University CiteSeerX Archives; Lloyd James; S Baiyegunhi (2016-09-02)Home gardening is extremely important for resource-poor households that have limited access to production inputs. However, in South Africa attempts to implement home garden programmes often fail to improve food security of the poor due to water scarcity. Rainwater harvesting technology (RWHT) has been used to supplement the conventional water supply systems, but its potential has not been fully exploited. An understanding of the factors influencing the adoption of improved technologies is therefore critical to successful implementation of agricultural development programmes. This study evaluated the determinants of farmers ’ decisions to adopt rainwater harvesting technology (RWHT) in rural Msinga, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, using a binary logistic regression model based on a household survey of 180 rural home gardeners. The result of the logistic regression model showed that gender, age, education, income, social capital, contact with extension agent and perception/attitude towards RWHT are statistically significant in explaining farmers’ adoption of RWHT in the study area. Implications for agricultural and rural development policy were discussed.
Small-scale farming, marketing and organisational support received since 2002 on the Mooi River irrigation scheme in Muden, Central KwaZulu-Natal.Green, J. Maryann.; Nyiraneza, Immaculee. (2014-12-23)Small-scale farming plays a significant role in rural people's lives. Small-scale farming contributes to food production, household income and to the employment of people in rural South Africa. They also face many constraints in their farming activities such as lack of capital, of quality seed, of fertilizer, of equipment, of water for irrigation, of technology, of storage facilities, of transport, of market, of training and finance. These in fact, limit farmers in their farming activities and affect their farming outputs. In this regard, small-scale farmers rely on government, private companies and NGOs for agricultural support. These are often insufficient as farmers still face many challenges in their farming and their needs tend not to change for the better. This study investigated whether there had been changes or improvements in small-scale farming on the Mooi River irrigation scheme in Muden over the past three years since the previous baseline survey was conducted in 2002. The study also investigated the activities of farmers' associations, Provincial Department of Agriculture and Environmental Affairs (DAEA) and NGOs in Muden and determined the activities that were needed for small-scale farmers to overcome their constraints. The research took place amongst small-scale farmers from block 6, 12 and 15 that were randomly selected from 15 blocks on Mooi River irrigation scheme in 2002. Convenience sampling of individuals was done resulting in an estimated 25 percent sample of the farmer population. A household survey was conducted with each participant to provide data on demographic detail. Aspects of the sustainable livelihood analysis data tool were used to guide this data collection and to encourage the farmers to identify their assets in terms of people in households, age, education level, skills, contribution to farming and off-farm income. Focus group discussions were also conducted with each selected block, guided by sustainable livelihoods analysis in order for the farmers to identify their assets, institutions as well as constraints; and strategies to improve their small-scale farming. The findings of this study showed that since 2002 the farmers' household size decreased which resulted in decreased family labour. In addition, the findings reflected that few young people were involved in farming. The level of illiteracy was still high among small-scale farmers and the few off-farm income-earning activities for farmers did not change for the better. Furthermore, off-farm income and farmers' markets to sell fresh produce decreased. The farmers had more skills and acquired more tools for farming. But accessing modern tools such as a tractor, bakkie, and water pump were still a challenge for the farmers. The findings showed that the farmers on the Mooi River irrigation scheme obtained support from farmers' associations, NGOs, and Provincial Department of Agriculture and Environmental Affairs which assisted them in their farming activities. Though the farmers obtained some support from the above-mentioned institutions, their farming constraints still persisted. As a result, the farmers made plans of action to minimize their constraints and improve their farming. The farmers planned to obtain fencing, undergo leadership training, use farmers' association constitutions, obtain a tractor, find markets, attend agricultural meetings, and obtain more dams, sprinklers and water pumps. This study recommends that young people be encouraged to be involved in farming through the introduction of cash crops. The study also recommends that farming be made more attractive to young people as they are stronger and more educated than their parents. In addition, it was recommended that adult education and farmers' training be introduced because there is high level of illiteracy. There was a need for job creation for farmers to be able to earn incomes to support their farming. Market opportunities, promoting credit facilities, and promoting modern technology were recommended to improve small-scale farming on the Mooi River irrigation scheme.