Research Ethics by Disciplines is part of Globethics.net Educational Collections; it is focusing on main disciplines of research and related specific ethical concerns.

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  • Présentation. Réparer les corps et les sexes : des rituels sexués aux chirurgies sexuelles

    Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS); Laboratoire d'anthropologie sociale (LAS) ; École des hautes études en sciences sociales (EHESS)-Collège de France (CdF (institution))-Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS); Fortier, Corinne (HAL CCSDCHAD (UPN), Association Droit et Cultures, L'Harmattan, 2020)
    Cette version auteur est la dernière et la bonne
  • Aspectos éticos de la clonación humana: Con fines terapéuticos y reproductivos

    Universidad de Sevilla. Departamento de Personalidad, Evaluación y Tratamiento Psicológicos; Río Sánchez, Carmen del (el Col.legi Oficial de Psicologia de la Comunitat Valenciana, 2018-05-07)
    Ni en la comunidad política y científica ni en la población general hay un acuerdo unánime en la consideración ética
 de la clonación humana, ni siquiera en la forma más admitida, es decir, la clonación terapéutica. No obstante, es la clonación con
 fines reproductivos la que produce un mayor rechazo ya que se considera poco fiable en términos técnicos y éticamente repudiable.
 Los que se oponen a la clonación fundamentan su prohibición en el hecho de que ésta supone un atentado a la dignidad humana
 o en su carácter antinatural. Respecto al argumento de la dignidad, el problema es que no existe acuerdo en qué se entiende por
 dignidad humana y hasta qué punto la clonación la vulnera. Actualmente, la oposición a la clonación en humanos se está articulando
 en la proclamación de un «derecho a ser fruto del azar» y de un «derecho a la ignorancia», a no saber (o creer saber) demasiado de
 uno mismo por adelantado (Jonas, 1997).
 Si se analizara la clonación humana como un mero procedimiento técnico, el debate ético debería dirigirse a su seguridad y
 eficacia y serían los biotecnólogos los principales implicados, pero ese análisis no es suficiente ya que la clonación, de llegar a
 producirse, afectaría a seres humanos, a los propios clonados y a su entorno familiar y social, aspectos en los que los psicólogos
 podríamos aportar relevantes conocimientos. Por tanto, se precisan estudios y debates multidisciplinares por parte los principales
 expertos implicados (biotecnólogos, psicólogos, filósofos, juristas, etc.) y la formación de Comités de Bioética plurales, así como
 la valoración de la situación en función de los principios éticos básicos (aceptables para cualquier persona, independientemente
 de su credo religioso), una supervisión pública de las investigaciones y una regulación legislativa internacional para evitar, entre
 otros aspectos, que los científicos dispuestos a seguir investigando sobre la clonación humana emigren a los países con legislaciones
 más permisivas.
  • Marginalised groups protest against social welfare and public health: conceptualising the challenge for social workers

    Aaslund, Håvard; Chear, Charles (Taylor & Francis, 2020-10-06)
    As neoliberalisation and other global disruptions change the understanding of human rights and social justice for social workers, how are protests organised by marginalised groups against social welfare and public health regimes understood and participated, or even resisted, by social workers? Although there is a vast literature on protest and community organising in the social work tradition, there is less exploration of marginalised groups organising against the systems in which social workers are employed, thereby leading to dilemmas for social workers. Hence, more knowledge is necessary about social workers’ capability to respond to such protests.
 
 Using collective action and social movement theories, this paper introduces a conceptual framework in order to identify key factors and variables when marginalised groups organise against social welfare and public health regimes and social workers are involved. The conceptual framework concerns social workers’ value negotiation of human rights and social justice principles, collective action framing, ethical decision-making, and ultimately, the thought process behind a social worker’s response to collective actions against social welfare and public health regimes.
  • Innovative animal-free training to stereotaxic neurosurgery

    Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 (UCBL) ; Université de Lyon; Centre de recherche en neurosciences de Lyon (CRNL) ; Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 (UCBL) ; Université de Lyon-Université de Lyon-Université Jean Monnet [Saint-Étienne] (UJM)-Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM)-Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS); Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS); Vogt, Catherine; GERVASONI, Damien (HAL CCSD, 2020-08-23)
    International audience
  • Ohio 21 (March 1990)

    Knebusch, K. R.; Turner, S.; Ernst, S.; Gillespie, D. R.; Carroll, M.; Kauffeld, J.; Knebusch, K. R. (Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, 2021-01-04)
    OHIO 21 is published semi-annually for alumni and Ohio agricultural leaders by the College of Agriculture, the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center and the Ohio Cooperative Extension Service of The Ohio State University.
  • Transcranial Electrical Stimulation to Enhance Cognitive Performance of Healthy Minors: A Complex Governance Challenge

    Schuijer, J.W.; de Jong, I.M.; Kupper, J.F.H.; van Atteveldt, N.M. (2017-03-27)
    An increasing number of healthy adolescents are consuming products that can enhance their cognitive performance in educational settings. Currently, the use of pharmaceuticals is the most widely discussed enhancement method in the literature, but new evidence suggests that other methods based on Transcranial Electrical Stimulation (tES) also have potential as cognitive enhancer. Just like pharmaceutical enhancers, the availability and education-related use of tES-devices raise a broad range of ethical, legal, and societal issues that need to be addressed by policy-makers. Few studies, however, have specifically explored these issues in relation to child wellbeing. In this narrative review with systematic search, we describe the issues for child wellbeing that could arise from the availability and education-related use of tES-based enhancers by healthy minors. We demonstrate that the issues form a complex web of uncertainties and concerns, which are mainly incited by two factors. First is the high level of factual uncertainty due to gaps in empirical evidence about the exact working mechanisms and efficacy of tES. Moreover, a lack of insight into the technique’s (long-term) effects on healthy developing brains, and uncertainties about potential cognitive trade-offs have fueled concerns about the technique’s safety and impact. The second factor that contributes to the complexity of issues is the presence of moral diversity in our society. Different opinions exist on whether a certain enhancement effect would be desirable and whether potential risks would be acceptable. These opinions depend on one’s moral perspective, and the way one interprets and weights values such as the child’s autonomy and authenticity. The challenge for proper governance resides in the design of an appropriate framework that is capable of balancing the different moral perspectives in society, while recognizing the uncertainties that still exist. We therefore argue for a responsible innovation approach, which encourages an adaptive attitude toward emerging knowledge and dynamic societal values, to deal with the identified issues regarding tES-based enhancement appropriately.
  • Museum Exhibits or Ill-Gotten Gains: A Legal and Philosophical Look at Cultural Property Law

    Gambino, Anthony E (Fordham Research Commons, 2020-11-30)
    The foundation of cultural property laws was laid at the Hague Convention on the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict. The convention, which usually revolved around the discussions on former laws of warfare, had to switch gears to respond to the Nazi’s new tactic of intentionally stealing or destroying cultural property as a means to demoralize the enemy. The convention’s focus was inclusivity, which defined cultural property as any “movable or immovable property of great importance to the cultural heritage of every people.” However, that overly simplistic definition that intended to serve as a source of clarification, has been the catalyst of confusion and controversy in regard to who has custody of artifacts -- which many could claim are owned by all of humanity. Various alternate ideologies have emerged in trying to make sense of the ambiguity of who owns cultural property? In addition, a multitude of international efforts have formulated treaties that stem from Nazi Germany’s desire to accumulate wealth and to psychologically dominate and disable the Indigenous people’s culture through the seizure of famous works of art. What will follow is a discussion on the impact of how cultural repatriation laws, established during the post-Nazi occupation of Europe, encouraged the discovery and return of looted art during Nazi occupation as well as the reopening of cases that are hundreds of years old. However, while noble in nature, many of these laws formed to initially protect artifacts are being used to justify not returning artifacts to their homeland. Some argue "the notion that identity, whether individual or group, must forever remain attached to a particular object is unsettling.” A contemporary case where this idea was tested played out in the courts of the United Kingdom. Here, the UK rejected India's most recent demand to return its priceless artifacts like the "Kohinoor Diamond" and "Sultanganj Buddha" that were stolen, looted, and/or smuggled into England during British colonial rule. The British government is citing a law (British Museum Act 1963) that “justifies” the reasons for not returning the pieces. Other arguments employ a simpler ideology of whoever owned it originally, still owns it regardless of present circumstances. By using Kant’s Categorical Imperative and Mill’s ethical theory of Utilitarianism this Note will explore the benefits as well as the dangerous implications set within these cases and philosophical doctrines. Leading to the conclusion, that the idea of a ‘universal museum, for all its Enlightenment virtues and educational potential, is still at its core a problematic imperialist perspective. What is needed is the creation of a third impartial council skilled in repatriation law that works in conjunction with museums, indigenous tribes, nations, and the court to ensure a more just and cosmopolitan future of museums.
  • The development of the DISCO-RC for measuring children's discomfort during research procedures

    Staphorst, Mira S.; Timman, Reinier; Passchier, Jan; Busschbach, Jan J.V.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Hunfeld, Joke A.M. (2017-11-29)
    <
  • Summary: 2011 ESPAD Report: Substance Use Among Students in 36 European Countries, The

    Hibell, Bjorn; et.al. (European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA), 2012-01-01)
    24 pages.This is the summary and key findings report from the fifth data-collection wave of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD ). It is based on data from more than 100,000 European students. Over the years about 500,000 European students have answered the ESPAD  questionnaire. The first ESPAD  report, with data from 1995, included information from 26 countries, while this fifth report contains results from 36 countries. Contents: summary, introduction, methodology and procedures, methodological considerations, the situation in 2011, key results 2011 country by country, trends 1995-2011, the European average, the cannabis abuse screening test, polydrug use by European adolescents, sampling and data collection in participating countries, and student questionnaire.
  • Plausible Norms of Warfare: Reducing the Gap Between the Normative and the Empirical

    Centre de recherches internationales (CERI) ; Sciences Po (Sciences Po)-Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS); University of Leeds; Ariel Colonomos; Richard Beardsworth; Colonomos, Ariel; Beardsworth, Richard (HAL CCSDBrill PublishersCERI-Sciences Po/Canterbury Christ Church University (CCCU), 2020-12-17)
    This special issue argues in favor of a new approach to the study of norms of warfare, which combines a normative analysis of ethical problems arising in war with an explanatory analysis of the use of force. Norms of warfare go as far back as Antiquity, and their study has followed a long historical path. In recent years, the ethics of war, mostly grounded in philosophy, has considerably expanded as a field. Notwithstanding such efforts to refine our normative knowledge of what should be just norms for the use of force, we argue that a more interdisciplinary approach is required to orient the study of the laws of war. In this Special Issue, proposals are made that, along with normative analysis, bring to the discussion not only disciplines such as political science and international relations, but also social theory, psychology and the neurosciences. We argue from a non-ideal perspective, that in order for norms to be just, they need to be ‘plausible’ for those who should abide by them. They also need to make sense in the context of democratic societies that favor a pluralistic debate on justice and ethics. Epistemically, we argue that, in order to understand if norms are plausible and just, reducing the gap between the normative and the empirical is required.
  • Introduction – Plausible, Norms of Warfare: Reducing the Gap Between the Normative and the Empirical

    Centre de recherches internationales (CERI) ; Sciences Po (Sciences Po)-Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS); University of Leeds; Colonomos, Ariel; Beardsworth, Richard (HAL CCSDCERI-Sciences Po/Canterbury Christ Church University (CCCU), 2020-12)
    This special issue argues in favor of a new approach to the study of norms of warfare,which combines a normative analysis of ethical problems arising in war with anexplanatory analysis of the use of force. Norms of warfare go as far back as Antiquity,and their study has followed a long historical path. In recent years, the ethics of war,mostly grounded in philosophy, has considerably expanded as a field. Notwithstandingsuch efforts to refine our normative knowledge of what should be just norms for theuse of force, we argue that a more interdisciplinary approach is required to orient thestudy of the laws of war. In this Special Issue, proposals are made that, along withnormative analysis, bring to the discussion not only disciplines such as political scienceand international relations, but also social theory, psychology and the neurosciences.We argue from a non-ideal perspective, that in order for norms to be just, they needto be ‘plausible’ for those who should abide by them. They also need to make sense inthe context of democratic societies that favor a pluralistic debate on justice and ethics.Epistemically, we argue that, in order to understand if norms are plausible and just,reducing the gap between the normative and the empirical is required.
  • Screening Ethics when Honest Agents Keep their Word

    Toulouse School of Economics (TSE) ; Université Toulouse 1 Capitole (UT1)-École des hautes études en sciences sociales (EHESS)-Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)-Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement (INRAE); Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS); Institute for Advanced Study in Toulouse (IAST); Université Toulouse 1 Capitole (UT1); Université de Cergy Pontoise (UCP) ; Université Paris-Seine; Alger, Ingela; Renault, Régis (HAL CCSDSpringer Verlag, 2006-12-02)
    International audience
  • Plausible Norms of Warfare: Reducing the Gap Between the Normative and the Empirical

    Colonomos, Ariel; Beardsworth, Richard (Brill Publishers, 2020-12-17)
    This special issue argues in favor of a new approach to the study of norms of warfare, which combines a normative analysis of ethical problems arising in war with an explanatory analysis of the use of force. Norms of warfare go as far back as Antiquity, and their study has followed a long historical path. In recent years, the ethics of war, mostly grounded in philosophy, has considerably expanded as a field. Notwithstanding such efforts to refine our normative knowledge of what should be just norms for the use of force, we argue that a more interdisciplinary approach is required to orient the study of the laws of war. In this Special Issue, proposals are made that, along with normative analysis, bring to the discussion not only disciplines such as political science and international relations, but also social theory, psychology and the neurosciences. We argue from a non-ideal perspective, that in order for norms to be just, they need to be ‘plausible’ for those who should abide by them. They also need to make sense in the context of democratic societies that favor a pluralistic debate on justice and ethics. Epistemically, we argue that, in order to understand if norms are plausible and just, reducing the gap between the normative and the empirical is required.
  • Why the Ethics of War needs the Social Sciences

    Centre de recherches internationales (CERI); Sciences Po (Sciences Po)-Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS); Colonomos, Ariel (HAL CCSDCERI-Sciences Po/Canterbury Christ Church University (CCCU), 2020-12-17)
    This paper argues that, for both sociological and epistemic reasons, the ethics of war needs the social sciences and, accordingly, sets an alternative to the two prevailing approaches in the literature in the ethics of war field, i.e. the just war tradition model and the ethics of war theory. Given what we learn from the factual description of war and its interpretation in the social sciences, and given what their epistemic premises are, both models - and more particularly the second one – fail to address important normative issues that arise in the course of warfare. Based on the discussion of two case studies – states’ policy in the face of hostage-taking and the rule of proportionality – I argue it is important to move beyond the divide between a state-centric approach (the just war tradition) and an individualistic one (the ethics of war theory): it is indispensable to take into consideration other social spheres where norms emerge and find, between those spheres, some ‘overlapping normative ground’. I argue, both sociologically and normatively, that norms rely upon interlocking sets of expectations. I also argue that these social expectations need to be thoroughly examined in order to ascertain the plausibility of norms in warfare. As a conclusion, for reasons that are both sociological and normative, I stress the political importance, within a liberal and knowledge-oriented society, of the access to facts that always need to be interpreted when making normative claims.
  • PANDEMIC ETHICS AND THE BIOETHICS OF THE CRISIS

    Ștefan Vlăduțescu (Editura Sitech, 2020-12-01)
    This review is an analysis of the most significant book on applied ethics published in the last decade in Romania on bioethics. In essence, the bioethical effects of the coronavirus pandemic are highlighted. In a meta-analytical reading, the theme, problems, ethics and ideas of the study are highlighted. Both the theoretical and practical merits of the study are presented. Theoretical merits include
  • Plausible Norms of Warfare. Interview with Richard Beardsworth

    Beardsworth, Richard; Lequesne, Christian; Rocchi, François (2021-01-04)
    Issue 2/3 2020 of the European Review of International Studies (ERIS) has just come out. This special issue of ERIS on the Ethics of War offers an original range of contributions on the norms of warfare. The guest editors—Richard Beardsworth (POLIS, University of Leeds) and Ariel Colonomos (CERI – Sciences Po)—have attracted among the best authors in the field and have co-authored the introduction to the issue, available in open access . Professor Richard Beardsworth, the new director of the School of Politics and International Studies (POLIS) at the University of Leeds, has agreed to answer our questions on the special issue. Interview by Christian Lequesne and François Rocchi.
  • Le temps: un enjeu éthique dans les soins à domicile. L’exemple du canton de Vaud

    Archives Henri-Poincaré - Philosophie et Recherches sur les Sciences et les Technologies (AHP-PReST) ; Université de Strasbourg (UNISTRA)-Université de Lorraine (UL)-Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS); Laboratoire d'Histoire des Sciences et de Philosophie - Archives Henri Poincaré (LHSP) ; Université de Lorraine (UL)-Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS); Schwaar, Dominique (HAL CCSD, 2018-12-01)
    National audience
  • Éthique et intervention précoce en médecine

    Laboratoire d'Histoire des Sciences et de Philosophie - Archives Henri Poincaré (LHSP) ; Université de Lorraine (UL)-Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS); Archives Henri-Poincaré - Philosophie et Recherches sur les Sciences et les Technologies (AHP-PReST) ; Université de Strasbourg (UNISTRA)-Université de Lorraine (UL)-Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS); Danion, Anne (HAL CCSD, 2018-03-16)
  • Healthcare, Educating, ensuring ethical Stakes

    Laboratoire d'Histoire des Sciences et de Philosophie - Archives Henri Poincaré (LHSP) ; Université de Lorraine (UL)-Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS); Archives Henri-Poincaré - Philosophie et Recherches sur les Sciences et les Technologies (AHP-PReST) ; Université de Strasbourg (UNISTRA)-Université de Lorraine (UL)-Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS); Schwaar, Dominique (HAL CCSD, 2018)
  • La Procréation Médicalement Assistée, demande sociétale et interrogations éthiques

    Laboratoire d'Histoire des Sciences et de Philosophie - Archives Henri Poincaré (LHSP) ; Université de Lorraine (UL)-Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS); Archives Henri-Poincaré - Philosophie et Recherches sur les Sciences et les Technologies (AHP-PReST) ; Université de Strasbourg (UNISTRA)-Université de Lorraine (UL)-Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS); Danion, Anne (HAL CCSD, 2018-10-09)

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