Research ethics philosophical focuses on the relations and differences between ethics and research, between on one side an instrumental rationality, which rules sciences and technical innovation, and the ethical dimension of the human action. It gathers documents on research understood philosophically as, on one side, a possible way to renew life, thus on research as an ethics of utopias. Utopias offer a glimpse of an alternative to dominant system dissatisfaction, open the image of a world not yet in existence that is different from and better than the world we inhabit now.Research norms and values mean on the other hand concrete applications, in various fields, on ethics in research involving human beings. Setting research standards in empirical sciences and publication related research, finding rules and common praxis to reaffirm the anthropological ground of knowledge formation and erudition is a long path, a field in development, coextensive with that of ethics in higher education, and permeable to technological evolutions inside our societies.

Recent Submissions

  • Transformation Through Transformative Education: From an Egg to a New Butterfly

    Sikha Gurung (Kathmandu University, 2018-10-01)
    This reflective note is a response to the first international Conference on Transformative Education Research and Sustainable Development that took place in Dhulikhel, Nepal, in October 2016. In this reflective note, I begin by pondering on what makes a novice academic creative and transformative. Then, I deal with the conference atmosphere, contemplate how it connects close to my heart, and finally conclude with my realisation of transformation inside. I particularly reflect on my experiences of being a volunteer to help the scholars from various parts of the world; a rapporteur to witness various talk presentations and report on them; and a participant to attend and learn from some exemplary reports and presentations – all centred at transformative education.
  • Research, Ethics and Risk in the Authoritarian Field

    Glasius, M.; de Lange, M.; Bartman, J.; Dalmasso, E.; Lv, A.; Del Sordi, A.; Michaelsen, M.; Ruijgrok, K. (Palgrave Macmillan, 2018)
    This Open Access book offers a synthetic reflection on the authors’ fieldwork experiences in seven countries within the framework of ‘Authoritarianism in a Global Age’, a major comparative research project. It responds to the demand for increased attention to methodological rigor and transparency in qualitative research, and seeks to advance and practically support field research in authoritarian contexts. Without reducing the conundrums of authoritarian field research to a simple how-to guide, the book systematically reflects and reports on the authors’ combined experiences in (i) getting access to the field, (ii) assessing risk, (iii) navigating ‘red lines’, (iv) building relations with local collaborators and respondents, (v) handling the psychological pressures on field researchers, and (vi) balancing transparency and prudence in publishing research. It offers unique insights into this particularly challenging area of field research, makes explicit how the authors handled methodological challenges and ethical dilemmas, and offers recommendations where appropriate.
  • Knowledge and Attitude About Research Ethics Among Iranian Dental Students

    Torabi,Molook; Shahravan,Arash; Afshar,Marzieh Karimi; Shenasa,Yasaman; Mobasher,Mina (Associação de Apoio à Pesquisa em Saúde Bucal, 2021-01-01)
    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the knowledge and attitude of the students of Kerman dental school (Iran) about ethics in dental research. Material and Methods: This cross-section study was conducted on 307 dental students selected through the census sampling method. Data were collected by a researcher-made questionnaire consisting of 12 items about knowledge and 17 items about attitude toward research ethics. Data analyzed in SPSS software using t-test and linear regression test. P-values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Of the respondents, 33.9% were male and 66.1% were female, and 44% had good knowledge and 20.8% had a positive attitude about research ethics. A significant correlation was found between knowledge and attitude. A significant correlation was also observed between knowledge and participation in research workshops. Knowledge and attitude showed no significant correlation with gender or year of admission. Conclusion: Participants had appropriate knowledge and attitude about research ethics. There is some room for improvement in research ethics education concerning experimental works and retrospective studies on biologic samples. Holding research workshops with an introduction to ethical codes of research is recommended.
  • Research Ethics

    Universitat Politècnica de València. Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos - Escola Tècnica Superior d'Enginyers de Camins, Canals i Ports; Universitat Politècnica de València. Departamento de Ingeniería e Infraestructura de los Transportes - Departament d'Enginyeria i Infraestructura dels Transports; García García, Alfredo (Universitat Politècnica de València, 2016-07-28)
    This presentation explains how ethics intervene in the development of research activities, starting with the general concept that distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable behavior. Moreover, when specific problems arise in the progress of research, the moral acceptability and appropriateness of specific conducts and the corresponding actions are described.
  • Relationale Phänomenologie, reflexive Methodologie und empirische Wissenschaftstheorie: Zur Kritik und Weiterführung der "Kommunikativen Konstruktion der Wirklichkeit"

    Knoblauch, Hubert (DEU, 2021-05-12)
    In diesem Beitrag soll die Kritik von Silke Steets (2019) und Jochem Kotthaus (2019) aufgenommen werden, die sich beide mit dem Buch "Die kommunikative Konstruktion der Wirklichkeit" und der daran anschließenden Skizze "Kommunikativer Konstruktivismus und die kommunikative Konstruktion der Wirklichkeit" (in dieser Zeitschrift) auseinandersetzen. Beide Beiträge werfen wichtige Fragen auf, die den theoretischen Ansatz mit Blick auf die Rolle der Subjektivität herausfordern und nach den methodologischen Folgen insbesondere für die qualitative Forschung stellen. Nach einer Zusammenfassung der zentralen Kritikpunkte möchte ich die Frage nach der theoretischen Rolle der Subjektivität aufnehmen. Im Sinne der geforderten offenen Theorie ist es zu einem gemeinsamen Versuch der Lösung dieser Frage durch die (Re-)Integration der "Dialektik" der gesellschaftlichen Konstruktion gekommen. Entgegen der Kritik von Kotthaus steht die vermeintliche Reduktion dieses Ansatzes auf lediglich zeitlich ausgerichtete Sequenzanalysen im Widerspruch zur theoretischen Rolle, die der Körperlichkeit des Handelns, der Materialität der Kommunikation und nicht zuletzt der Räumlichkeit zugeschrieben werden, die wesentliches Merkmal nicht nur der Theorie, sondern auch der daran anschließenden empirischen Forschung sind. Zudem baut der kommunikative Konstruktivismus auf einer entwickelten Methodologie auf, die nicht nur eine Systematik der empirischen Methoden ermöglicht, sondern diese zum Gegenstand einer reflexiven Methodologie macht, die auch eine Relationierung der Mundanphänomenologie erfordert. Um den konstitutiven Zusammenhang zwischen der Theorie, den Methoden und der Methodologie zu klären, zielt der kommunikative Konstruktivismus deswegen auf eine neue empirische Wissenschaftstheorie.
  • Glück und Nachhaltigkeit: Subjektives Wohlbefinden als Leitmotiv für nachhaltige Entwicklung

    Dallmer, Jochen (transcript VerlagDEUBielefeld, 2021-05-18)
    How can happiness and sustainability be combined? A draft of enlightened hedonism as a model for sufficiency.
  • High Definition: Medienphilosophisches Image Processing

    Linseisen, Elisa (meson pressDEULüneburg, 2021-05-19)
    Dieses Buch zoomt in informationsreiche und pixeldichte Welten in HD. Digitalbildliche Hochauflösung ist hier ein Potenzial, das es ermöglicht, mit und an Bildern Wirklichkeit zu erforschen und zu befragen. Dokumentarfilme, Videokunstarbeiten, Galaxiefotografien, Blockbuster, Pressebilder und Netflix-Serien bestellen diese visuelle Kultur in HD und zeigen auf, dass Bilder und Wirklichkeit nicht in fixierten Rahmen sitzen, sondern im Prozess werden. HD heißt Image Processing. Lässt man sich darauf ein, entfaltet sich das Angebot, mit HD zu denken und sich vom Denken der Bildprozesse mitreißen zu lassen.
  • Epistemische Gewalt: Wissen und Herrschaft in der kolonialen Moderne

    Brunner, Claudia (transcript VerlagDEUBielefeld, 2021-05-03)
    Gewalt ist nicht nur Ereignis, sondern auch Prozess und Verhältnis. Sie zerstört Ordnung nicht nur, sondern begründet sie auch und hält sie aufrecht. Der Dimension des Wissens wird in den meisten Gewaltdebatten nur wenig Bedeutung beigemessen, gilt sie doch als Gegenteil von oder als Gegenmittel zu Gewalt. Mit dem Begriff der "epistemischen Gewalt" rückt die Autorin den konstitutiven Zusammenhang von Wissen, Herrschaft und Gewalt in der kolonialen Moderne, unserer Gegenwart, in den Fokus. Ausgehend von feministischer, post- und dekolonialer Theorie entwickelt sie in Auseinandersetzung mit struktureller, kultureller, symbolischer und normativer Gewalt ein transdisziplinäres Konzept epistemischer Gewalt.
  • A scoping review of the literature featuring research ethics and research integrity cases

    Armond, Anna C V; Gordijn, Bert; Lewis, Jonathan; Hosseini, Mohammad; Bodnár, János K; Holm, Soren; Kakuk, Péter (2021-05-04)
    Background The areas of Research Ethics (RE) and Research Integrity (RI) are rapidly evolving. Cases of research misconduct, other transgressions related to RE and RI, and forms of ethically questionable behaviors have been frequently published. The objective of this scoping review was to collect RE and RI cases, analyze their main characteristics, and discuss how these cases are represented in the scientific literature. Methods The search included cases involving a violation of, or misbehavior, poor judgment, or detrimental research practice in relation to a normative framework. A search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, SCOPUS, JSTOR, Ovid, and Science Direct in March 2018, without language or date restriction. Data relating to the articles and the cases were extracted from case descriptions. Results A total of 14,719 records were identified, and 388 items were included in the qualitative synthesis. The papers contained 500 case descriptions. After applying the eligibility criteria, 238 cases were included in the analysis. In the case analysis, fabrication and falsification were the most frequently tagged violations (44.9%). The non-adherence to pertinent laws and regulations, such as lack of informed consent and REC approval, was the second most frequently tagged violation (15.7%), followed by patient safety issues (11.1%) and plagiarism (6.9%). 80.8% of cases were from the Medical and Health Sciences, 11.5% from the Natural Sciences, 4.3% from Social Sciences, 2.1% from Engineering and Technology, and 1.3% from Humanities. Paper retraction was the most prevalent sanction (45.4%), followed by exclusion from funding applications (35.5%). Conclusions Case descriptions found in academic journals are dominated by discussions regarding prominent cases and are mainly published in the news section of journals. Our results show that there is an overrepresentation of biomedical research cases over other scientific fields compared to its proportion in scientific publications. The cases mostly involve fabrication, falsification, and patient safety issues. This finding could have a significant impact on the academic representation of misbehaviors. The predominance of fabrication and falsification cases might diverge the attention of the academic community from relevant but less visible violations, and from recently emerging forms of misbehaviors.
  • Understanding and attitudes of the Jordanian public about clinical research ethics

    Mera A Ababneh; Sayer I Al-Azzam; Karem Alzoubi; Abeer Rababa’h; Saddam Al Demour (SAGE Publishing, 2021-04-01)
    In Jordan, research ethics committees exist in most health settings. However, little is known about Jordanian public views regarding the ethics of clinical research. This study aimed to evaluate Jordanian public understanding and attitudes about ethics in clinical research. A questionnaire was used to collect information that included demographics, public knowledge, and attitudes towards ethics in clinical research. It was administered via face-to-face interviews in two major cities in Jordan from 1st June to 15th August 2017. Of the 2315 respondents, 2.33% were found to have poor knowledge, 22.16% had fair knowledge, and 75.51% had good knowledge of ethics in clinical research. Furthermore, 75.81% of respondents had positive attitudes towards ethics in research. However, only 45.23% reported that they trust clinical researchers in Jordan. Even though a large majority of respondents were aware of key features of research ethics, efforts are needed to address negative perceptions and knowledge deficits.
  • Research ethics in practice: challenges of using digital technology to embed the voices of children and young people within programs for fathers who use domestic violence

    Katie Lamb; Cathy Humphreys; Kelsey Hegarty (SAGE Publishing, 2021-04-01)
    There has been growing enthusiasm amongst those who undertake research with children, for the development of participatory and visual research methods. The greater availability and affordability of digital technology (such as digital cameras, tablets and smart phones) has meant that there has been greater scope for digital technology to support participatory research methods, or augment more traditional qualitative research methods. While digital technology provides new opportunities for qualitative researchers, they also come with a series of challenges – some of which have been grappled with by those using more traditional research methods but also some which are new. Our study was undertaken in Victoria, Australia, and used a combination of interviews, focus groups and digital storytelling to bring together two strands of work which have historically occurred separately: work with children experiencing domestic violence and programs for men who use domestic violence. While digital storytelling proved to be an effective method of engaging children and young people in the research, a range of challenging ethical issues emerged. Some of these issues were considered as part of the formal ‘procedural ethics’ process, but additional and more challenging issues relating to anonymity and the complex safety considerations of using of the children’s digital stories within programs for men who use violence and dissemination emerged in practice. It is hoped that sharing our experiences and decision-making will contribute to the knowledge base for others considering engaging in sensitive research using digital technology.
  • Pour un "ouvroir d'architecture" : la recherche par-delà le pratique et le théorique

    réseau Philau [research center]; Dawans, Stéphane (2020-09)
    il s'agit de revendiquer un dépassement du couple oppositionnel Théorique/pratique qui affecte la représentation de la recherche en architecture.
  • <i>Standing by or Standing Up?</i>—How Philosophy Can (In)form Our Understanding of Bystander Behaviours in Workplace Bullying Dynamics

    Declan Fahie; Gerry Dunne (MDPI AG, 2021-03-01)
    There is increasing awareness of the value of interdisciplinary collaboration within academia. Scholars argue that by drawing upon the conceptual, methodological, and interrogative paradigms of at least two disparate disciplines, researchers are challenged to re-evaluate and reconsider their own discipline-centric assumptions. A consequence of such purposeful <i>boundary-blurring</i> is an increased rigour and richness in the analysis of raw data, as well as the development of revealing insights through the novel application of discrete conceptual perspectives and theories. In such a way, dominant, taken-for-granted methodological and analytical assumptions are destabilised, as researchers are obliged to embrace contrasting perspectives while reassessing the epistemological foundations of their work. This paper focuses on the phenomenon of bystander responses to workplace bullying dynamics. While traditional scholarship into workplace bullying emanates from disciplines such as business, psychology, law, medicine and sociology, for example, this paper argues that philosophy, as a subject/field, may provide the researcher with a fresh interrogative lens through which to (re)view the phenomenon of workplace bullying, along with the consequential response of bystanders to such noxious behaviours. It suggests that, by drawing upon the philosophical concept of virtue ethics—which posits the question “What would a <i>good</i> or <i>virtuous</i> person do?”—we are afforded a robust theoretical framework to support a thoughtful and reasoned destabilization of contemporary perspectives on bystander behaviours and motivations.
  • Knowledge and Attitude About Research Ethics Among Iranian Dental Students

    Torabi, Molook; Shahravan, Arash; Afshar, Marzieh Karimi; Shenasa, Yasaman; Mobasher, Mina (State University of Paraiba, 2021-03-25)
    Objective: To evaluate the knowledge and attitude of the students of Kerman dental school (Iran) about ethics in dental research. Material and Methods:This cross-section study was conducted on 307 dental students selected through the census sampling method. Data were collected by a researcher-made questionnaire consisting of 12 items about knowledge and 17 items about attitude toward research ethics. Data analyzed in SPSS software using t-test and linear regression test. P-values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Of the respondents, 33.9% were male and 66.1% were female, and 44% had good knowledge and 20.8% had a positive attitude about research ethics. A significant correlation was found between knowledge and attitude. A significant correlation was also observed between knowledge and participation in research workshops. Knowledge and attitude showed no significant correlation with gender or year of admission. Conclusion: Participants had appropriate knowledge and attitude about research ethics. There is some room for improvement in research ethics education concerning experimental works and retrospective studies on biologic samples. Holding research workshops with an introduction to ethical codes of research is recommended.
  • Media Activist Research Ethics: Global Approaches to Negotiating Power in Social Justice Research

    Sandra Jeppesen, Paola Sartoretto (Palgrave Macmillan, 2021-04-12)
    This book maps complex ethical dilemmas in social justice research practices in media and communication. Contributors critically analyse power dynamics that arise when building equitable research relations with media activists, social movements, and cultural producers, considering issues of access, control, affective labour, reciprocal critiques, and movement pedagogies. Authors probe the ethical challenges faced when horizontal relations inadvertently create conflicts leading to oppressive communication; when affective demands generate non-reciprocal relations of care; and when participant anonymity has to be balanced with self-expression and voice. Chapters explore engagements with digital technologies in developing research relations, covering new research practices from horizontal collectives to dialogical auto-ethnography; from community scholarship and pedagogies to decolonising research. The book asks researchers to consider the complexities of ethical practices today in socially engaged global research within the neoliberal university.
  • Kriminologija znanosti - preučevanje odstopanj od vrednot in načel znanosti

    Dolenc, Sašo (Študentska organizacija Univerze v Ljubljani, 2021-04-07)
  • Return of Positive Test Results to Participants in Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevalence Studies: Research Ethics and Responsibilities

    Grubbs, Joshua; Millum, Joseph; Rietmeijer, Cornelis A.; Kilmarx, Peter H. (2021)
    Background: In prevalence studies of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), investigators often provide syndromic management for symptomatic participants, but may not provide specific treatment for asymptomatic individuals with positive laboratory test results due to the delays between sample collection and availability of results as well as logistical constraints in recontacting study participants. Methods: To characterize the extent of this issue, 80 prevalence studies from the World Health Organization’s Report on global sexually transmitted infection surveillance, 2018, were reviewed. Studies were classified as to whether clinically relevant positive results were returned or if this was not specified. Results: More than half (56%) of the cited studies did not specify if participants were notified of clinically relevant positive STI test results. The percentages were similar for low- and middle-income country populations (57%) and high-income country populations (53%). Conclusions: The absence of documentation of the provision of test results raises the possibility that in some instances, results may not have been communicated, with potential negative effects for participants, their sexual partners, and newborns. From an ethical perspective, clinically relevant results should be returned to study participants and treating clinicians in a timely fashion to ensure appropriate management of identified infections. Study authors should document if they returned test results to study participants and report on numbers lost to follow-up.
  • Music composition as arts-based educational research & performative Inquiry in the creation of nostos: a journey of others

    Morin, Francine (Education); Carrabré, T. Patrick (Music); Honeyford, Michelle (Education); Andrews, Bernard (University of Ottawa); Zalis, Zane (2021-04-01)
    Music education and education through music are critical in addressing understandings of the human condition and learning. Musical expression connotes felt knowing and experiencing that reveal self in the confrontation of other. Using arts-based educational research (ABER), I establish cognition as a gestalt entanglement of reason and emotion, elevating the role of music in education. My research unfolds analytically and creatively though a constellation of inquiries intertwined thematically.
 I first engage in a theoretical inquiry of my experience as a composer-educator-researcher, working in music education and community as a composer and producer. Herein, the principles of phenomenology (Heidegger, 1949; Levinas, 1969; Merleau-Ponty, 2012), hermeneutics (Gadamer, 2013), gestalt theory (von Ehrenfels, 1988; Werthheimer, 1944) are explored and supported by neuroscience (Scherer, 2013).
 Second, I conduct a systematic mapping review, scoping the literature targeting music composition (music and words) as an act of performative inquiry (PI). A void in the literature was found that addresses music education, composition, PI, or performativity as a phenomenon of doing and experience or enactment. The outcome calls for further research and development of creative practices in music education which are performative, intellectually disruptive, aesthetic, and generative.
 My central inquiry augments understandings of human experience employing a genre of ABER—music composition as PI. The outcome is an original composition—Nostos: A Journey of Others, consisting of a 186-page orchestral/choral/soloist score (music and lyrics) exploring notions of otherness, destructive discrimination, and hope for a humane world.
 Finally, I present an auto-ethnographic account of Nostos as PI that is an irreducible first-person perspectival reading of composing as PI and in-depth account of my creative process. The unique perspective of me as researcher/observer provides insights that invites readers to walk a vicarious path.
 In conclusion, I posit becoming a person in a transcultural world of difference and différance (Derrida, 1995) recognizes knowledge of the particularity of a person as much more than a handmaiden for generalizing people, for its constitution is of the universal. The phenomenology of our actions as persons being and becoming brilliantly corresponds and relates to the phenomenology of music composition as PI.
  • Regulatory, scientific, and ethical issues arising from institutional activity in one of the 90 Italian Research Ethics Committees

    Benfatto, G.; Drago, F. (BioMed Central, 2021-04-07)
    BACKGROUND: This paper highlights the issues that one of the 90 Italian Research Ethics Committees (RECs) might encounter during the approval phase of a clinical trial to identify corrective and preventive actions for promoting a more efficient review process and ensuring review quality. Publications on the subject from Italy and the rest of Europe are limited; encouraging constructive debate can improve RECs’ service to the subject of the clinical trial. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed a cohort of 822 clinical trial protocols, initially reviewed by REC, from June 2014 to December 2018. Data collected for each protocol were type of trial, sample size, use of placebo, number and kind of revisions requested by the REC before approval, and time taken for approval. Data for each protocol were collected by a trained clinical research assistant using the REC’s files and electronic archives. RESULTS: Almost 45% of the reviewed studies (374/822) required clarifications, significant changes to the documentation, or minor changes before final approval. CONCLUSIONS: Preventive measures are needed to reduce the number of requested corrections and thus also the time required for approval, while maintaining review quality. All critical points and proposals presented in this paper require harmonization through updates to European regulations, as regulatory harmonization produces better compliance with rules and reduces the number of changes required before the trials’ final approval. Such updates include the development of standardized formats for informed consent, the verification of any evidence in favor of using off-label treatments over placebo as comparators, using multidisciplinary staff in clinical trials with children and adolescents, improving the legal definition of RECs to assign responsibilities and ensure independence, and providing guidance for RECs to engage clinical research assistants in internal audits.

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