An Ecological and Economic Assessment of the Nontimber Forest Product Gaharu Wood in Gunung Palung National Park, West Kalimantan, Indonesia
Contributor(s)Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, U.S.A., email email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org
Department of Biology, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755, U.S.A.
Department of Anthropology & Peabody Museum, Harvard University, 11 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138, U.S.A.
Forestry Research & Development Center, Jl. Gunung Batu No. 5, Bogor 16610, Indonesia
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AbstractEcological and economic data are essential to the identification of tropical nontimber forest products with the potential for sustainable and profitable extraction in a managed system. We studied the demographic effect and economic returns of harvesting aromatic gaharu wood from fungus-infected trees of Aquilaria malaccensis Lam. at Gunung Palung National Park, Indonesia, to evaluate the management potential of gaharu wood. Aquilaria malaccensis trees openface> 20 cm in diameter occurred at low preharvest densities (0.16 0.32 ha) but were distributed across five of six forest types surveyed. During a recent harvest, 75 of trees were felled, with harvest intensities ranging from 50 to 100 among forest types. Overall, 50 of trees contained gaharu wood, but trees at higher elevations contained gaharu wood more frequently ( 73 ) than trees at lower elevation (27 ). The mean density of regeneration ( juveniles> 15 cm in height) near adult trees (3 7 m away) was 0.2/m 2 , 200 times greater than at random in the forest (10/ha), but long-term data on growth and survivorship are needed to determine whether regeneration is sufficient for population recovery. Gaharu wood extraction from Gunung Palung was very profitable for collectors, generating an estimated gross financial return per day of US 8.80, triple the mean village wage. Yet, the estimated sustainable harvest of gaharu wood at natural tree densities generates a mean net present value of only 10.83/ha, much lower than that of commercial timber harvesting, the dominant forest use in Kalimantan. Returns per unit area could be improved substantially, however, by implementing known silvicultural methods to increase tree densities, increase the proportion of trees that produce gaharu wood, and shorten the time interval between successive harvests. The economic potential of gaharu wood is unusual among nontimber forest products and justifies experimental trials to develop small-scale cultivation methods.
Paoli, Gary D.; Peart, David R.; Leighton, Mark; Samsoedin, Ismayadi (2001). "An Ecological and Economic Assessment of the Nontimber Forest Product Gaharu Wood in Gunung Palung National Park, West Kalimantan, Indonesia." Conservation Biology 15(6): 1721-1732. <http://hdl.handle.net/2027.42/74107>
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