Language Proficiency, Citizenship, and Food Insecurity among Predominantly Immigrant Caribbean Latinos in Massachusetts: A Masters Thesis
Author(s)Little, Tariana V.
Community Health Centers
Emigrants and Immigrants
Community Health and Preventive Medicine
Dietetics and Clinical Nutrition
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AbstractBACKGROUND: Latinos report higher food insecurity than the national average, and food insecurity has been associated with adverse health outcomes wherein Latinos experience disparities. This study quantified the independent effects of language-speaking proficiency and citizenship on increased food insecurity among a predominantly immigrant Caribbean Latino sample in Lawrence, Massachusetts. METHODS: The analytic sample comprised 574 participants aged 21-83 who visited a community health center in 2011-2013. Food insecurity was assessed via the 6-item US Household Food Security Survey. Multivariable logistic modeling (adjusted for self-reported age group, gender, education, and marital status) examined the independent associations between language proficiency and citizenship on increased food insecurity. RESULTS: One-third of participants were classified as food insecure. Most respondents were citizens (59.5%), foreign-born (92.4%; 70.3% from the Dominican Republic), and spoke monolingual Spanish (72.8%). Monolingual Spanish-speakers had marginally increased odds of food insecurity (odds ratio (OR) = 1.50, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00 to 2.26), compared to bilingual participants; however after adjustment this relationship was attenuated (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 0.79 to 2.00). Non-citizenship was not associated with increased odds of food insecurity (OR=1.18, 95% CI: 0.82 to 1.68). CONCLUSION: Food insecurity in this predominantly immigrant Caribbean Latino sample was higher than the national average for Latinos. Future research on food insecurity among different Latino ethnicities is needed in order to inform targeted interventions that promote food security.