Keywords明清国家 ;海洋文化 ;华侨 ;侨乡; 泉州
Ming and Qing State ;Sea Culture; Overseas Chinese; Overseas’ Hometown; Quanzhou
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Abstract泉州是福建省第一侨乡，华侨人数约占全省的四分之三。不仅如此，泉州还是将近一半台湾同胞的祖籍地。时至今日，泉州发展的一大动力依旧来自海外，泉州与海外世界始终保持着密切的联系。本文通过考察宋元以来泉州湾的地域社会与海外拓展，探讨中国传统国家与社会的关系及海洋文明的传承机制。全文分为七章，约20万字。 泉州湾地区背山面海、土地贫瘠，一年两次季风利于北上和南下的航行，当地土著居民是善舟楫、“以海为田”的闽越族。在唐宋时的泉州，闽越族的遗裔疍民被称为“白水郎”，被视为“夷户”，分布在晋江流域和泉州湾的海岸线上。北宋初期在泉州设立市舶司，其地位超越了广州港，土著居民在发展海外贸易中发挥了重要作用。随着泉州平原的开发和海外贸易带来的财富积累，大面积的水利工程改变了晋江南岸原来的生态环境，一些水上居民陆续登陆上岸，有的甚至发展成强宗大族。本地的土著族群、外来的农业移民和来自海外的番商，一起造就了宋元泉州港的黄金时代，再度强化了泉州的海洋商业传统。 在明初海禁政策的影响下，泉州港的海外贸易趋于衰落。明王朝通过建立里甲制度、卫所制度等手段，试图控制基层社会和海岸线，压制民间的海上活动。明中期后里甲解体，强宗大族通过地方治安和教化制度控制社会资源，卫所军士监守自盗参与走私贸易，泉州湾地区的私人海上活动再度蓬勃发展。在倭乱盛行时期，泉州湾居民建立了乡族武装，促成了基层社会的军事化，这是明末海盗猖獗与清代分类械斗盛行的重要原因。清初实行的迁界和海禁政策，将大批沿海居民逼向台湾和东南亚，而清廷对海外贸易的控制和对海外华侨的迫害，也未能阻止泉州人继续走向海外。日益增长的人口压力和生态危机，迫使当地的所有族群突破国家的控制和社区的边界，转向海外拓展的生计模式。 明清时期的国家政权，不仅未能扼杀泉州的海洋传统，也未能控制泉州的基层社会。明代普遍发展的家族组织，构成了泉州社会控制的基本单位，地方公共事务一般都在家族内部自行解决，或是由若干家族组成的地域联盟共同办理。在清末的都蔡冤分类械斗中，可以看到以社区神庙为中心的地域联盟，其基本成员都是聚族而居的村落。基层社会的自我控制形式，深刻地影响了泉州人的海外拓展活动。家族与地域联盟是海上活动的主要组织资源，为海外拓展提供了人员、资金和社会关系。从外地商埠和华侨社区的会馆、公司等组织中可以发现，其组织方式与故乡的基层社会组织是一脉相承的。 大航海时代为泉州人提供了新的商机，泉州人的海外贸易因而成为东亚、欧洲、美洲大三角贸易的重要一环。在中国大陆沿岸、台湾和东南亚各地，泉州人建立了庞大的商业网络，同时也广泛参与海外殖民地的开发和种植园生产。历代居留于海外的泉州人，并未因国家政权的压制而与故乡隔绝，他们依旧与故乡保持着密切联系，分享共同的社会生活。十九世纪后期，由于华侨身份的合法化，泉州迅速形成了侨乡社会，海外华侨积极参与了泉州的现代化历程，抵御了现代国家政权和主流意识形态的侵蚀，维系了富有地方特色的社会文化传统。 海洋传统造就了泉州地域社会的流动性，泉州史的边界随着其社会成员的脚步而不断向外拓展，历史研究的视野不应被行政区划所限制。泉州人在刺桐港衰落后的几百年中，足迹遍及中国海和东南亚海域，来自海外的财富支撑了泉州的社会经济。因此，宋元以后的泉州并未走向衰落，泉州的海洋传统也并未因明清时期的海禁而中断。
Quanzhou is the most important overseas Chinese hometown of Fujian Province, accounting for three-quarters of the total number in the Province. And Quanzhou is also the ancestral home of nearly half of Taiwan compatriots. Today, a major driving force for the development of Quanzhou still comes from overseas. Quanzhou and the overseas world are maintaining a close relation. Based on examining the local society and overseas development of Quanzhou since Song and Yuan Dynasties, the paper discussed the Chinese tradition country and society's relations and the sea civilization inheritance mechanism. The paper divides into seven chapters, approximately 200,000 characters. Quanzhou locates near the mountains and the sea, with barren land and the monsoon conducive to the north and south of navigation twice a year. The local indigenous inhabitant is good at navigation, and is called Fujian race闽越族 who “takes the sea as the field”. Descendants of the Fujian race during the Tang and Song Dynasties in Quanzhou was called Baishuilang白水郎and regarded as Yihu夷户, locating along the coast of Jinjiang River Basin and Quanzhou Bay. In the early period of the Northern Song Dynasty, government set up the City Ship Department市舶司 in Quanzhou, whose status has surmounted the Guangzhou port. The native inhabitant played an influential role in developing the overseas trade. With the development of Quanzhou plain and the accumulation of wealth by the overseas trade, the big area's hydraulic engineering changed the south side of Jinjiang river’s original ecological environment, some boat dwellers landed one after another, even developed wealthy, powerful and large clans. The local indigenous tribal groups, the external agricultural immigrants and Merchants from overseas business accomplished the golden age of Quanzhou port during Song and Yuan Dynasties and deepened Quanzhou's sea commercial tradition once again together. Under the maritime restrictions policy's influence in Ming dynasty, the Quanzhou port's ultramarine trade tended to decline. By establishing Lijia System里甲制度and Weisuo Systym卫所制度, government attempted to control the basic unit society and the coastline, and to suppressed the folk marine activity. Lijia System was disintegrated during Mid and late part of Ming, large clan controlled social resource by Lijia and Jiaohua System教化制度, and sergeants in Weisuo embezzled and participated in the smuggling trade. Personal marine activity in Quanzhou bay area developed once again. In the time of Japanese pirate riots, Quanzhou bay residents established local military, and facilitated the basic unit society's militarization, which was the reason that pirate of Ming and family weapon fights in Qing was rampant. The Qianjie policy and the maritime restrictions policy in Qing compelled large quantities of coastal resident to Taiwan and Southeast Asia, and government’s control on ultramarine trade and persecution to overseas Chinese was also not able to prevent the Quanzhou people to continue to move toward the overseas. The population pressure and the ecological crisis forced all local tribal groups to break through national control and community's boundary, and changed to the overseas livelihood pattern. The states of Ming and Qing Dynasties were not only able to strangle Quanzhou’s sea tradition, also not able to control its basic unit society. The universal development of family organization in Ming dynasty constituted the Quanzhou social control Fundamental unit. the local public affairs was solved generally in the family interior, and perhaps the region alliance, which was composed of certain families ,handled together. Though the weapon fights at the end of the Qing, we might see the region alliance, taken community temple as the central, and its basic members was the village which lived together as an ethnic group in one community. The basic unit society's self-control form affected Quanzhou person's overseas development profoundly. The family and the region alliance were the main organization resource of the marine activity. They provided the personnel, the fund and the social relations for the overseas development. From overseas commercial port, overseas Chinese community's clubhouse and company, we might discover that its organization way and the hometown basic social organization were inherit. The big maritime navigation era provided a new opportunity for Quanzhou people, the Quanzhou person's ultramarine trade has therefore became an important link of the big triangle trade among East Asia, Europe and Americas.In each region of mainland China coast, Taiwan and Southeast Asia, Quanzhou people established a huge commercial network, and simultaneously participated overseas colony development and plantation production widely. Quanzhou overseas residents in all previous dynasties didn’t lose contacting with their hometown because of state power suppression, and the relation was still close and they even shared the common social life.In the late-19th century, as a result of the overseas Chinese status's legalization, the overseas Chinese district society formed in Quanzhou rapidly, and overseas Chinese participated in Quanzhou's modernization positively. The sea tradition has accomplished the fluidity of Quanzhou region society,and the Quanzhou history boundary developed outward unceasingly with its social members' footsteps, so the vision of historical study should not be limited by the administrative regionalization. During several hundred years after Citong port 刺桐港declined, Quanzhou people’s trail spreaded all over China sea and Southeast Asia sea area. And the overseas wealth supported Quanzhou's social economy. Therefore, Quanzhou has not moved toward decline after Song and Yuan Dynasties, and Quanzhou's sea tradition has not interrupted by the maritime restrictions in Ming and Qing Dynasties. Key words: Ming and Qing State ;Sea Culture; Overseas Chinese; Overseas’ Hometown; Quanzhou.