Research Ethics Professional is a Globethics.net sub-collection on research ethics focusing on professional ethics, on work ethics in the research profession, namely on the specific responsibilities common among researchers who do the research, including the whole environment and other stakeholders.The main ethical normative aspects of research are presented in a systematic way as building blocks from a unifying principle, a limited set of virtues and a wide range of responsibilities as self-oriented or others-oriented duties. The collection as a systematic whole is highlighting a holistic approach on the ethics of duties in the research profession, from various points of views, constituting a comprehensive totality of all main aspects of this activity, based on The European Code of Conduct for Research Integrity, published recently by All European Academies (ALLEA). This collection borrows from ALLEA's expertise and results, it shows in short how to deal with failures to use good practice, which jeopardize by irresponsible behaviour the important harmony between the aim of increasing knowledge and remaining true to self-knowledge, proper to ethical life.

Recent Submissions

  • Accountability practices in research and publication ethics on the web. Linguistic and discursive features

    Tessuto, Girolamo; University of Campania 'Luigi Vanvitelli' (Coordinamento SIBA - Università del Salento, 2020-06-23)
    With the large increase in the amount of published research being carried out throughout the world, potential is mounting for ethical practices to take a back seat in the apparent frequency of reported cases of scientific misconduct. While these cases erode the credibility of scientific research and public trust in the publication process, they often delineate accountabilities between conflicting parties and require organisational and institutional responses to good research practices based on fundamental, ethical principles of research integrity. In this paper, I explore the linguistic and discursive features of research and publication ethics in a representative corpus of misconduct cases as a genre created and maintained by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) organisation over its website. Using a combined framework of methodological perspectives from functionally-defined criteria of discourse and genre categorizations (Askehave, Swales 2001; Bhatia 2004; Swales 2004) alongside evaluation (Hunston, Thompson 2000) and stance-taking (Biber et al. 1999; Hyland 2005), this study looks at the discourse organisational structure of texts with identifiable communicative moves and associated language use to unveil the types of social actors’ relations and identities constructed through “Action”, “Representation” and “Identification” (Fairclough 2003) of the social events and practices in question via recontextualization and interdiscursivity (Bhatia 2004, 2017; Fairclough 2003; Sarangi, Brookers-Howell 2006). Linguistic and rhetorical choices made on recontextualized and representational features of text reveal how cases set the tone for accountability between the social actors (parties) involved in matters of research ethics, and how they allow the organisation to take responsibility for the integrity of their research conduct by fostering a climate of responsible practices and adjusting party accountabilities. Attending to both linguistic and discursive features, the communicative practices of the case genre authenticate the competing social relations, identities, values or interests of the parties in this kind of discourse representation, and align the institutional action, identity and values of the organisation with social norms when legitimising its commitment to create and preserve conditions for ethical principles and professional standards essential for a range of responsible practices of research publishing.
  • Personenbezogene Forschungsdaten in unverdächtigen Disziplinen: Das Beispiel der Erd-, Umwelt- und Agrarwissenschaften

    Niklas K. Hartmann (Institut für Bibliothekswissenschaft Berlin, 2019-12-01)
    Am Beispiel der Erd- und Umweltwissenschaften (einschließlich der landschafts- und standortbezogenen Teilgebiete der Agrarwissenschaften) zeigt dieser Beitrag, dass auch in scheinbar „unverdächtigen“ Disziplinen personenbezogene Forschungsdaten vorkommen. Eine Auswertung der Literatur zeigt, dass allgemeine Handreichungen zum Datenschutz in der Forschung kaum Unterstützung bei der Arbeit mit den für diese Disziplinen besonders relevanten Fällen bieten. Für die in den Erd- und Umweltwissenschaften besonders relevanten raumbezogenen Daten kommt hinzu, dass selbst unter Fachjuristinnen Uneinigkeit über die datenschutzrechtliche Bewertung herrscht. Die Ergebnisse einer empirischen Vorstudie zeigen eine ganze Reihe verschiedener Arten personenbezogener Forschungsdaten auf, die in der Forschungspraxis der Erd- und Umweltwissenschaften eine Rolle spielen. Sie legen außerdem nahe, dass der Umgang mit personenbezogenen Daten in der Forschungspraxis der Erd- und Umweltwissenschaften auf Grund der mangelnden Vertrautheit mit dem Datenschutz nicht immer den rechtlichen Anforderungen entspricht. Auch Unterstützung durch Fachgesellschaften und Infrastruktureinrichtungen – etwa in Form disziplinspezifischer Handreichungen, qualifizierter Beratung oder institutionalisierten Möglichkeiten, Daten sicher zu archivieren und gegebenenfalls zugangsbeschränkt zu publizieren – bestehen kaum. Aus dieser Situation ergeben sich Herausforderungen an die Weiterentwicklung der disziplinären Datenkultur und Dateninfrastruktur, beispielsweise im Rahmen des Prozesses zum Aufbau einer Nationalen Forschungsdateninfrastruktur (NFDI). Zu den Möglichkeiten für Infrastruktureinrichtungen, diese Weiterentwicklung zu unterstützen, zeigt dieser Beitrag Handlungsoptionen auf.
  • Personenbezogene Forschungsdaten in unverdächtigen Disziplinen: Das Beispiel der Erd-, Umwelt- und Agrarwissenschaften

    Hartmann, Niklas K. (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 2019)
    Using the example of the earth and environmental sciences (including the branches of the agricultural sciences engaged in landscape- and plot-based research) this article shows how research data containing personal data can feature prominently even in disciplines usually assumed to be “unsuspicious”. A review of the literature shows that general recommendations on data protection in research offer little support regarding the kinds of data that are of particular relevance for these disciplines. In the case of spatial data, even specialised jurists disagree about the extent to which data protection law is applicable. Results of a pilot survey demonstrate a whole range of personal data that occur in the research practice of the earth and environmental sciences with at least some regularity. These results also suggest that, due to unfamiliarity with data protection, the handling of personal data during research does not always comply with regulatory requirements. Moreover, there is very little support by scholarly associations or infrastructure facilities in terms of e.g. discipline-specific recommendations, consultation services, or possibilities to institutionally archive personal data and possibly give restricted access for reuse. This situation presents a challenge to the development of disciplinary data culture and data infrastructures which the process to set up a National Research Data Infrastructure (NFDI) in Germany may be able to address. This article highlights possible courses of action for infrastructure facilities to support these developments.
  • Is There a Potential for Norway to Learn from the Ethics Education in the Educational System of India?

    Duesund, Knut (CSD (Centrum för de Samhällsvetenskapliga ämnenas Didaktik) vid Karlstads universitet, 2013-12-18)
    The aim of this article is to contribute to the on-going debate about how the Norwegian educational system can meet increasing diversity in schools. The focus here is to investigate ethics education in the Indian educational system and thereafter discuss to what extent Norway can learn from India. The background study in India was carried out to clarify the justification for, content of and pedagogy for ethics education and draws attention to the intended as well as the implemented sector of education. The following discussion highlights the main findings from the background study and relates these findings both to the current discussion in Norway and to international research in the field. The article concludes that Norway would do well to consider what can be learned from the Indian approach to ethics education in order to meet the challenges of the increasing diversity in the Norwegian schools.
  • Love and Hate in University Technology Transfer: Examining Faculty and Staff Conflicts and Ethical Issues

    Hamilton, Clovia (Digital Commons @ Winthrop University, 2016-01-01)
    With respect to university technology transfer, the purpose of this paper is to examine the literature focused on the relationship between university research faculty and technology transfer office staff. We attempt to provide greater understanding of how research faculty’s personal values and research universities’ organization values may differ and why. Faculty researchers and tech transfer office (TTO) staff are perceived to be virtuous agents. When both are meeting each other’s needs, a “love” relationship exists. However, when these needs are not met, a “hate” relationship exists that is replete with doubt and uncertainty. This doubt and uncertainty creates tension and subsequent conflicts. There are many accounts where faculty researchers have not followed university policies and expectations, often violating policy and ethical standards. Likewise, faculty report numerous examples of how TTO staff members’ negligence in servicing their attempts to be good institutional citizens have failed them. This paper explores this love/hate relationship and reveals numerous conflicts that call into question ethical concerns. It also provides a set of recommendations for reducing and potentially alleviating these concerns. Literature review. Results from a thorough review of the literature on the relationship between faculty and university TTOs reveals that perceived job insecurity is the primary reason that some research faculty members as well as some TTO staff, unethically violate their university policy to disclose invention disclosures and select to not provide full services, respectively. One way to alleviate the conflict between faculty’s personal values regarding their inventions and university’s organizational values is to enact measures that build trust and reduce insecurity among faculty members and TTO staff. In this paper, we not only examine this faculty/TTO staff ethical conflicts, but we offer a set of recommendations that we believe will reduce the likelihood of unethical behavior while encouraging greater institutional commitment and trust.
  • Orbit journal

    ORBIT, [2017]-
  • Accountability Practices in Research and Publication Ethics on the Web: Linguistic and Discursive Features

    TESSUTO, Girolamo (2020)
    With the large increase in the amount of published research being carried out
 throughout the world, potential is mounting for ethical practices to take a back seat in the
 apparent frequency of reported cases of scientific misconduct. While these cases erode the
 credibility of scientific research and public trust in the publication process, they often
 delineate accountabilities between conflicting parties and require organisational and
 institutional responses to good research practices based on fundamental, ethical principles
 of research integrity. In this paper, I explore the linguistic and discursive features of
 research and publication ethics in a representative corpus of misconduct cases as a genre
 created and maintained by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) organisation over
 its website. Using a combined framework of methodological perspectives from
 functionally-defined criteria of discourse and genre categorizations (Askehave, Swales
 2001; Bhatia 2004; Swales 2004) alongside evaluation (Hunston, Thompson 2000) and
 stance-taking (Biber et al. 1999; Hyland 2005), this study looks at the discourse
 organisational structure of texts with identifiable communicative moves and associated
 language use to unveil the types of social actors’ relations and identities constructed
 through “Action”, “Representation” and “Identification” (Fairclough 2003) of the social
 events and practices in question via recontextualization and interdiscursivity (Bhatia 2004,
 2017; Fairclough 2003; Sarangi, Brookers-Howell 2006). Linguistic and rhetorical choices
 made on recontextualized and representational features of text reveal how cases set the
 tone for accountability between the social actors (parties) involved in matters of research
 ethics, and how they allow the organisation to take responsibility for the integrity of their
 research conduct by fostering a climate of responsible practices and adjusting party
 accountabilities. Attending to both linguistic and discursive features, the communicative
 practices of the case genre authenticate the competing social relations, identities, values or
 interests of the parties in this kind of discourse representation, and align the institutional
 action, identity and values of the organisation with social norms when legitimising its
 commitment to create and preserve conditions for ethical principles and professional
 standards essential for a range of responsible practices of research publishing.
  • The Over-Extended Mind?:Pink Noise and the Ethics of Interaction-Dominant Systems

    Meacham, Darian; Prado Casanova, Miguel (2018-12)
    There is a growing recognition within cognitive
  • Orientations méthodologiques et théoriques d’une recherche collaborative sur le travail documentaire de professeures d’anglais langue étrangère

    Bento, Margaret (ACEDLERecherches en didactique des langues et des cultures, 2020-04-28)
    À partir des résultats d’une étude portant sur l’usage des ressources pédagogiques par des enseignants du secondaire en France, cet article présente une expérience de mise en œuvre de recherche collaborative entre une chercheure et cinq enseignantes d’anglais dans le secondaire sur leur travail documentaire. Les résultats mettent en évidence les logiques des enseignantes et de la chercheure orientées pour les unes sur le développement professionnel et pour l’autre sur la production de connaissances.
  • Connected moral capability: the missing link in doctorial educaton

    John A Bowden and Pamela J Green; Bowden, J; Green, P (Springer (Singapore), 2019)
    The missing link in doctoral education is connected moral capability. This chapter unpacks this statement, to further unravel what it means to act with integrity within a complex system that comprises interaction between a range of individuals with varying perspectives, capabilities and behaviours. According to our moral compass framework (MCF) acting with integrity in doctoral contexts reveals two key elements: the internal moral compass of the individual and the capacity of each individual to comprehend and take into account the variation across individual moral compasses (within the collective). To be able to work collectively towards optimal outcomes, individuals need to reflect on their own experiences and those of others, in order to become mutually aware and able to work together cooperatively. We use the term, connected moral capability, to capture this enabling attribute and argue for its development within the PhD endeavour. The development of capability through reflection on experience is represented in the form of a double helix model, originally developed to explain knowledge capability, the ability to discern the relevant aspects in any specific new context in the largely unknown future, and deal with them simultaneously. The depiction reveals a continual, never-ending process where experience and capability interact. The chapter explores the ways in which connected moral capability develops and how reflection upon each new experience further enhances capability. This chapter is a must read for all involved in doctoral education but also those passionate about education in other contexts, particularly in terms of resolving complex dilemmas and preparing for an unknown future.
  • Research Integrity (UK edition)

    Kolstoe, Simon; Steneck, Nick (Oxford University Press, 2020-02-21)
    Research Integrity identifies the principles and responsibilities required of every researcher throughout the research process, from planning through to publication, providing practical advice on dealing with complex issues.
  • SAPE : some architectural publications and ethics which requires the positing of a meta-ethics of Architecture

    Brown, Bernard Hugh (2016-12-07)
    The scholarly journals of architecture are a likely rich source to mine for matters of ethical concern pertinent to architecture. The thesis launches from this premise and develops a research tool, grounded in corpus linguistics and content analysis, to identify words in the essays of four important scholarly journals that are placeholders for matters of ethical concern. The result of this word-mining is the Ethical Universal Scholar of Architecture (Eusa). She is invited into the text of the thesis to make her own commentary on matters in general, and specifically on her four most important matters of ethical concern. Her commentary is interesting enough but if left here the thesis would leave itself open to the criticism that its findings are only constituted by the author's common sense, and Eusa's limited universe, which shows no knowledges of contemporary ethical discourse. For an informed discourse to continue an intellectual framework is required and this ought to be a Meta-ethics of architecture. From the literature it is readily apparent that this does not exist and, encouraged by a call from a few authors for such a construct, the thesis temporarily sets Eusa aside, and goes about to design and construct this Meta-ethics. The thesis, on sound historic grounds, defines the necessary and sufficient conditions for an entity to be named architecture to be that it must be both practical shelter and art. It now appropriates Rorty's propositions on liberal society and axiomatically names the Meta-ethics of architecture as the structure that, in the first place, separates practical shelter and art and deems them incommensurable. It names them the Creative Ethics and the Practical Ethics of architecture. Having done this it observes that architecture, because of its means of production, the material of its medium, and the immutability of the completed concrete artefact, is unlike other art forms and demands that decisions be made in the face of the self created incommensurables of the Practical and Creative Ethics. To effect this, the thesis turns to the affective valuing of Elizabeth Anderson, whilst not ignoring the limited usefulness of consequentualist ethics, makes the central claim that it is not irrational to make decisions and then act on them on the basis of the way we feel, provided we open them up for inter-subjective agreement. Eusa's is returned to, and her utterances, her fragments of texts, her four most important matters of ethical concern are re-interrogated to enable them to be located in the meta-ethics of architecture. This is done and the matrix is cross tabulated with the way she deploys, most probably in ignorance, affective valuing to adequately express her feelings towards the things that matter. The contents of the matrix are considered closely to identify where incommensurability, exists and then to deploy the affective reading of Eusa's utterances to ascertain if it does, or could, effect reconciliation. This is the test of the Meta-ethics in praxis, enabled by affective valuing.
  • Open Citations - Die Transparenzforderungen der San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment (DORA)

    Tüür-Fröhlich, Terje (DEU, 2020-03-19)
    Eine wachsende Anzahl von wissenschaftlichen Gesellschaften, Zeitschriften, Institutionen und wissenschaftlich Tätigen protestieren und bekämpfen den "allmächtigen" Journal Impact Faktor. Die bekannteste Initiative von Protest und Empfehlungen heißt DORA, The San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment. Kritisiert wird die fehlerhafte, verzerrte und intransparente Art der quantitativen Evaluationsverfahren und ihre negativen Auswirkungen auf das wissenschaftliche Personal, insbesondere auf junge Nachwuchskräfte und ihre wissenschaftliche Entwicklung, insbesondere die subtile Diskriminierung von Kultur- und Sozialwissenschaften. Wir sollten nicht unkritisch im Metrik-Paradigma gefangen bleiben und der Flut neuer Indikatoren aus der Szientometrie zujubeln. Der Slogan "Putting Science into the Assessment of Research" darf nicht szientistisch verkürzt verstanden werden. Soziale Phänomene können nicht bloß mit naturwissenschaftlichen Methoden untersucht werden. Kritik und Transformation der sozialen Aktivitäten, die sich "Evaluation" nennen, erfordern sozialwissenschaftliche und wissenschaftsphilosophische Perspektiven. Evaluation ist kein wertneutrales Unternehmen, sondern ist eng mit Macht, Herrschaft, Ressourcenverteilung verbunden.
  • Beware of Numbers (and Unsupported Claims of Judicial Bias)

    Edwards, Harry T.; Elliott, Linda (Washington University Open Scholarship, 2002-01-01)
    In a recent set of articles, Professor Kevin Clermont and Professor Theodore Eisenberg advance the claim that federal appellate judges harbor an unprincipled bias against plaintiff/appellants. The line of reasoning that the authors follow to reach this conclusion is, in our view, quite extraordinary. They first point to data that they claim show that defendants are more likely than plaintiffs to secure reversals in appeals from judgments and verdicts in federal civil cases. They next assert that appellate judges perceive trial courts, especially juries, to be biased in favor of plaintiffs. And, finally, they speculate that, in an effort to overcome the perceived pro-plaintiff bias in the trial courts, appellate judges routinely favor defendants on appeal. The authors dub their conclusion the “anti-plaintiff effect” in federal appellate civil litigation. This thesis is specious, because it is founded on flawed reasoning and deficient empirical research.
  • Tables for Beware of Numbers (and Unsupported Claims of Judicial Bias)

    Edwards, Harry T.; Elliott, Linda (Washington University Open Scholarship, 2002-01-01)
  • Leitfaden zum Datenschutz in medizinischen Forschungsprojekten : Generische Lösungen der TMF 2.0

    Klaus Pommerening; Johannes Drepper; Krister Helbing; Thomas Ganslandt (MWV Medizinisch Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgeschellschaft, 2014)
    The trust of patients and test subjects is an indispensable prerequisite for the success of medical research projects that cannot be carried out without the collection, long-term storage and analysis of clinical data and samples. Medical research today mainly works in networks in increasingly larger research networks. Accordingly, the importance of data protection and data security continues to increase. The TMF published generic data protection concepts for medical research associations in 2003 for the first time. On this basis, numerous research projects were able to develop and coordinate their data protection concepts more quickly. The experience gained has been incorporated into the fundamental revision of the generic concepts. The new concept of the complexity of medical research processes takes account of this with a modular structure and was also embedded in a comprehensive guideline.
  • An Ethical Framework for Maritime Surveillance Technology Projects

    Sarlio-Siintolaa Sari; Tammilehto Tuomas; Siintola Saara (2019-10-10)
    The ethics of Maritime Surveillance is a topic of increasing importance in both academia and other forums. This development owes partially to new legal obligations, such as those set out in EUs new data protection legislation. Also the funders of innovation programs are increasingly expecting projects to pay attention to and address various ethical issues. The ethical challenges involved in the development and piloting of technology-based maritime surveillance solutions are multifaceted from both the research and development perspective, and from the viewpoint of the final solution to be created. The purpose of this paper is to present a framework for a) the identification of ethical, legal and societal aspects in technology innovation projects, and b) the operationalisation of these aspects as concrete requirements. Furthermore, in order to concretise the proposed framework, we discuss the outcomes of ethical analyses of two Horizon2020 maritime surveillance projects, MARISA and RANGER.
  • Open access, predatory publishing and peer-review

    Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando (2015-04-14)

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