Research Ethics Professional is a sub-collection on research ethics focusing on professional ethics, on work ethics in the research profession, namely on the specific responsibilities common among researchers who do the research, including the whole environment and other stakeholders.The main ethical normative aspects of research are presented in a systematic way as building blocks from a unifying principle, a limited set of virtues and a wide range of responsibilities as self-oriented or others-oriented duties. The collection as a systematic whole is highlighting a holistic approach on the ethics of duties in the research profession, from various points of views, constituting a comprehensive totality of all main aspects of this activity, based on The European Code of Conduct for Research Integrity, published recently by All European Academies (ALLEA). This collection borrows from ALLEA's expertise and results, it shows in short how to deal with failures to use good practice, which jeopardize by irresponsible behaviour the important harmony between the aim of increasing knowledge and remaining true to self-knowledge, proper to ethical life.

Recent Submissions

  • Citation Ethics: Journal Editor Attitudes and Practices

    Hosseini, Mohammad; Wright, Jennifer; Bruton, Samuel V. (2022-06-01)
    Increasing evidence suggests that unethical citation practices (e.g., inaccurate quotations, excessive self-citations, coercive citations, selective/biased citations, citation cartels, citation padding) negatively affect research integrity and mar the scholarly literature. This poster presents our methods to conduct of a survey of journal editors about a wide range of citation practices, some ethically dubious and some laudable. In a previous phase, we surveyed 257 US-based researchers in receipt of federal funding ( Since surveyed researchers are likely authors of peer-reviewed manuscripts, they are inevitably affected by editorial decisions pre-/post-publication of manuscripts. However, scant research exists on editors’ attitudes about and responses to various citation practices they encounter. Therefore, in this follow-up survey, we will query journal editors about: - The extent to which various citation practices are perceived as unethical - The way editors manage citation practices perceived as unethical - How editor attitudes and practices regarding citations vary with journal characteristics (e.g., discipline, size, impact factor, peer review model) and editorial experience. Our research instrument consists of multiple choice and fictional scenarios inspired by existing literature from various disciplines on citation norms, our own interactions with journal editors and also Cambridge University Press’ experiences with citation ethics. Consistent with our previous methodology, we are soliciting feedback from selected editors in our network and will then pilot the survey with a small group of editors before scaling up recruitment and participation. The results of this study will help inform journal, publisher, and researcher guidance on citation practices.
  • Does empirical research make bioethics more relevant? "The embedded researcher" as a methodological approach.

    Reiter-Theil S (2004)
    What is the status of empirical contributions to bioethics, especially to clinical bioethics? Where is the empirical approach discussed in bioethics related to the ongoing debate about principlism versus casuistry? Can we consider an integrative model of research in medical ethics and which empirical methodology could then be valuable, the quantitative or the qualitative? These issues will be addressed in the first, theoretical part of the paper. The concept of the "embedded researcher" presented in this article was stimulated by the two questions, (1) how can we safeguard that our research will yield valid and meaningful results to practice? and (2), how can we convince clinical colleagues that medical ethics offers relevant contributions to the analysis and solution of problems? One tentative answer has been our effort to elaborate a coherent methodological research approach in the field of end-of-life issues integrating qualitative and quantitative as well as casuistic methodologies. This development is characterized in the second part describing the ECOPE Study (short title) "Ethical Conditions Of Passive Euthanasia." The achievements and limitations of the suggested approach of the "embedded researcher" are discussed referring to 3 examples of our joint studies about ethical issues concerning (1) critical decision-making in neonatology (2) limitation of treatment in intensive care (3) problems with doctor-patient conversation at the end-of life in oncology. Conclusions from our studies are put to discussion in the final part of the paper about how to further develop research in the field of end-of-life care and, maybe, clinical bioethics as a whole.
  • Quelle éthique pour le chercheur dans une posture entre une conceptualisation-théorisation et une démarche praxéologique ?

    Dainêche, Bélina (ADMEE-Canada - Université LavalÉrudit, 2002)
    Cet article s’inscrit dans le cadre d’une recherche en cours de réalisation et soulève la problématique de la conduite des entretiens de recrutement dans le contexte de la formation. Dans les situations de soutenance, ou de recrutement, une rencontre entre un impétrant et les membres du jury se fait notamment sur le plan d’interactions langagières qui ne sont pas gratuites, et sont porteuses de modifications des référentiels du jury. L’incidence de ces interactions fait que les membres du jury ne peuvent pas rester neutres par rapport au candidat. L’objet de notre recherche est de voir ce qui est de l’ordre du questionnement éthique, et ce qui se joue lors du passage du référentiel singulier (ou critères implicites) à un référentiel consensuel discuté, négocié, qui est alors de l’ordre du collectif et des critères institutionnels. La construction d’une méthode de recherche n’a pas été sans soulever différentes questions de l’ordre de la posture, de la position épistémologique du chercheur, et des relations établies avec les acteurs du terrain, qui d’un point de vue de l’éthique supposent une perspective praxiste c’est-à-dire « la visée d’une autonomie qui reconnaît l’autre comme l’agent de son autonomie » (Imbert, 1992, p. 13). Le chercheur se retrouve ainsi au milieu d’une dialectique, entre son propre projet de production de connaissances et celui des acteurs du terrain qui nourrit le projet du chercheur dans une espèce de recherche par alternance, car somme toute, « le chercheur apprend, il s’apprend comme chercheur » (Vial, 1998, p. 14), ou peut-être encore dans « une récursivité terrain-chercheur, l’un générant l’autre » (Vial, 1998, p. 21). L’éthique de la recherche ne serait-elle pas de réfléchir à la justesse de notre entrée sur le terrain et au positionnement éthique à tenir vis-à-vis des personnes qui nous offrent leur terrain ?
  • Identification of ethics committees based on authors' disclosures: cross-sectional study of articles published in the European Journal of Anaesthesiology and a survey of ethics committees.

    Zoccatelli D; Tramèr MR; Elia N (2018)
    BACKGROUND Since 2010, the European Journal of Anaesthesiology has required the reporting of five items concerning ethical approval in articles describing human research: ethics committee's name and address, chairperson's name, study's protocol number and approval date. We aimed to assess whether this requirement has helped to identify and to contact the referenced ethics committees. METHODS In this cross-sectional study, we analysed articles requiring ethical approval, according to the Swiss federal law for human research and published in the European Journal of Anaesthesiology in 2011. Ethics committees were searched through our institutional Internet access based on information provided in the articles. The last search was performed in November 2015. Numbers (%) of items reported, of ethics committees identified, and of those that confirmed having provided ethical approval are reported. RESULTS Of 76 articles requiring ethical approval, 74 (97%) declared it. Ethics committees' names and addresses were mentioned in 63/74 (85%), protocol numbers in 51/74 (69%), approval dates in 48/74 (65%), and chairpersons' names in 45/74 (61%). We could identify 44/74 (59%) committees; 36/74 (49%) answered our inquiry and 24/74 (32%) confirmed their role. Thirty-four of 74 articles (46%) reported all five items; in 25/34 (74%), we were able to identify an ethics committee, 18/34 (53%) answered our inquiry, and 15/34 (44%) confirmed their role. Forty of 74 articles (54%) reported ≤4 items; in 19/40 (48%), we were able to identify an ethics committee, 18/40 (45%) answered our inquiry, and 9/40 (23%) confirmed their role. Reporting five items significantly increased identification of ethics committees (p = 0.023) and their confirmation of ethical approval (p = 0.048). Twelve of 74 ethics committees (16%) were unable to confirm their role in approving the study. CONCLUSIONS Even when details concerning ethical approval were reported in these studies of human research, we were unable to identify almost half of the ethics committees concerned. The reporting of five items, compared with reporting ≤4, was associated with facilitated identification of ethics committees, and increased the likelihood that they would be able to confirm the study's approval. Future research should identify which information facilitates identification of, and contact with, ethics committees.

    KATARZYNA WEINPER; ŁUKASZ TOMCZAK (Gdańsk University of Technology, 2021-12-01)
    The policy of open access to scientific publications at the Lublin University of Technology gave rise to the issue of sharing research data, which emerged to be a challenge for both research workers and librarians. Promoting awareness in the academic community of how the value and significance of their data increases and when others can make use of it is a novel and challenging task. The objective of this article is to present the activities undertaken for this purpose by the librarians of the Lublin University of Technology. These activities include introducing the Open Access Policy, creating a research data management strategy, and appointing two teams: one with the aim of supporting the University’s Project Office, and the second to create an institutional repository of research data. These actions contribute to the understanding of the value of sharing research results and how to be FAIR when doing so.
  • Profile in Public Integrity: Amie Ely

    Center for the Advancement of Public Integrity, (Scholarship Archive, 2017-01-01)
    Amie Ely is director of the National Attorneys General Training and Research Institute’s (NAGTRI) Center for Ethics and Public Integrity as well as NAGTRI program counsel. She is staff liaison for the National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) Law Enforcement and Prosecutorial Relations Working Group.

    MARTA E. WACHOWICZ; MARIA M. PAWŁOWSKA (Gdańsk University of Technology, 2022-03-01)
    The paper describes the genesis and the teaching process of the Data Steward School, Edition 2020, the first Polish school for data stewards. The initiative was implemented by Visnea sp. z o.o. (“Visnea”) in cooperation with GO-FAIR in the period from September 2020 to April 2021. The participants of the Training Programme, future data stewards, gained knowledge of the role of correct data management in achieving institutional objectives. The need to protect the legal and financial interests arising from the possession and archiving of data and data management plan design guidelines, along with the methodology for data collection, metadata, the existence of data repositories, data security and the means of data sharing and storage were also presented. The paper presents the evaluation of the Training Programme and discusses proposals related to the role and importance of the new profession, i.e. the data steward in a scientific institution.
  • O Desenvolvimento de Atividades Investigativas com Recurso à Web 2.0 no Âmbito da Investigação e Inovação Responsáveis

    Carla Pacifico Dias; Pedro Reis (Universidade de Lisboa, 2017-10-01)
    Resumo Uma educação científica que se restrinja à transmissão do conhecimento científico torna-se insuficiente para capacitar os alunos como cidadãos ativos capazes de planear e realizar ações democráticas visando a resolução responsável de problemas sociais. O objetivo deste estudo, seguindo uma Metodologia Design Based Research, desenvolvido no contexto do Projeto IRRESISTIBLE financiado pela UE, foi desenvolver conhecimento sobre o impacto das atividades IBSE - integrando ferramentas da Web 2.0 - no desenvolvimento de conhecimentos e competências necessárias para uma cidadania ativa em investigação e inovação responsáveis sobre questões sociocientíficas (QSC). O estudo permitiu obter diferentes estratégias didáticas para a educação científica no ensino básico e novos conhecimentos sobre o desenvolvimento dessas estratégias no contexto escolar. Abstract A science education restricted to the transmission of scientific knowledge becomes insufficient to empower students as active citizens capable of planning and undertaking democratic actions aiming the responsible resolution of social problems. The purpose of this study, following a Design-Based Research Methodology and developed in the context of the EU-funded IRRESISTIBLE Project, was to build knowledge about the impact of IBSE activities – integrating Web 2.0 tools – in the development of knowledge and skills necessary for an active citizenship regarding responsible research and innovation on socio-scientific issues. The study allowed to obtain different didactic strategies for science education in secondary school and new knowledge regarding the development of these strategies in school context.
  • Becoming a Science Activist: A Case Study of Students' Engagement in a Socioscientific Project

    Eran Zafrani; Anat Yarden (Universidade de Lisboa, 2017-10-01)
    Abstract Complications arising from socioscientific issues (SSI) call for immediate and responsible action and warrant students' activism on science-related issues. These issues therefore provide a solid learning context for the advancement of responsible research and innovation (RRI) in science education. This study investigates the development of students' identities as activists as they participate in a high-school project aimed at resolving the problem of global hunger. Drawing from practice-linked identity theory, we present the narratives of two students to examine how they came to embrace the identity of activist. Findings indicate that the students' identities as activists were supported through participation in highly contextual and emotionally charged experiences and through the ability to fill roles that were perceived as integral and authentic to the students. We discuss the potential of a well-structured activity to assist students in deeply engaging with responsible actions. resumo As complicações que advêm das questões sociocientíficas requerem ações imediatas e responsáveis e uma garantia de ativismo estudantil em questões relacionadas com a ciência. Estas questões fornecem, assim, um contexto de aprendizagem sólido para o avanço de uma Investigação e Inovação Responsáveis (IIR) em educação em ciências. Este estudo investiga o desenvolvimento da identidade dos estudantes como ativistas ao participarem num projeto da escola secundária destinado a resolver o problema da fome global. Com base numa teoria da identidade, ligada à prática, apresentamos as narrativas de dois estudantes, para analisar a forma como eles adotaram a identidade do ativista. Os resultados indicam que a identidade dos estudantes como ativistas fundamenta-se na participação em experiências altamente contextuais e carregadas de emoção e na capacidade para desempenhar papéis que foram percebidos como autênticos e íntegros pelos estudantes. Discutimos o potencial de uma atividade bem estruturada para ajudar os alunos a envolverem-se profundamente em ações responsáveis.
  • Using Grounded Theory to Avoid Research Misconduct in Management Science

    Isabelle Walsh (Sociology Press, 2014-06-01)
    In this article, I show that several of the most common forms of research misconduct in quantitative research in management science could be avoided if researchers made open, comprehensive use of the well-established Grounded Theory paradigm when using quantitative data. Investigating various mainstream management research outlets, I found that this is scarcely ever the case. I propose some viable alternatives for the design of quantitative and mixed studies in management science. If these alternatives are used, researchers could follow the main basic assumptions that lie at the roots of Grounded Theory, and make sure these assumptions are clearly stated in order to avoid being pushed toward episodes of misconduct that have become common in the field of management science.
 Keywords: research misconduct; quantitative and mixed studies; GT paradigm
  • The Archives of the "Institut für Grenzgebiete der Psychologie und Psychohygiene e.V.": Premises, Problems and Perspectives

    Uwe Schellinger (FQS, 2000-12-01)
    In 1950, the German psychologist and physician Prof. Dr. Dr. Hans BENDER (1907-1991) founded the "Institut für Grenzgebiete der Psychologie und Psychohygiene e.V." (abbreviated IGPP) in Freiburg/Br. From the very beginning the Institute was anxious to keep records of its own scientific work and to secure them for the long term. However, only when the institute moved to a new location in 1996 it was possible for the archives to be installed according to established archival standards. Due to its very specific fields of research the IGPP holds a unique position in the European scientific landscape. In the same way the archives, at present under construction, are of particular importance. The preserved record groups originate predominantly from the 20th century. For the most part the documents are the result of the research conducted in the Institute during the last five decades and concern all forms of unusual human experiences. For a long time, the research into the various types of phenomena and experiences that were ordinary understood as beyond science was called "scientific occultism". Later, the term "Parapsychology" was established. The IGPP is traditionally concerned with two research fields in "anomalies research" as it has recently been named: First, "Extra-Sensory Perception" (ESP)—this includes topics like telepathy, clairvoyance and precognition; secondly, "Psychokinesis" (PK), i.e. the purely mental influence of physical or biological systems. Accordingly, the archival processing focussed on the same topics. On the one hand the collected records consist of rather conventional record groups like, for instance, personal papers of scholars, correspondence or photographic records. On the other hand it comprises very interesting material of a unique qualitative character that comes under the extensive record group "Research and Documentation". The most important aspect to be mentioned in this field is the documentation of numerous alleged cases of apparition (RSPK) investigated by the Institute in Germany and abroad and also the rich collections of so-called spontaneous phenomena. Further the collection contains a large record group of dream-reports and extends—to refer to a very special category—up to descriptions of alleged abductions by UFOs. The archives partly consist of written documents partly of verbal reports (interrogations, interviews) from individuals who claim to have had unusual experiences. In future these records could not only become important for (para-) psychological research, but also for an intensified analyses from historical, culture-scientific or different sociological points of view. In establishing its own scientific archives, however, the IGPP has to solve some problems that originate partly from its own specific history. The issues include e.g. data security, recording and anonymising records and whether to limit public access. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0003160
  • Are We Wasting a Good Crisis? The Availability of Psychological Research Data after the Storm

    Wolf Vanpaemel; Maarten Vermorgen; Leen Deriemaecker; Gert Storms (University of California Press, 2015-10-01)
    To study the availability of psychological research data, we requested data from 394 papers, published in all issues of four APA journals in 2012. We found that 38% of the researchers sent their data immediately or after reminders. These findings are in line with estimates of the willingness to share data in psychology from the recent or remote past. Although the recent crisis of confidence that shook psychology has highlighted the importance of open research practices, and technical developments have greatly facilitated data sharing, our findings make clear that psychology is nowhere close to being an open science.
  • The 5I formula for successful staffing of scientific and research organizations

    William Bradley Zehner II; Jacquelyn Anne Zehner (Sciendo, 2018-12-01)
    Scientists and engineers create the scientific and technological knowledge to generate societal and individual wealth and related economic growth. The article explores wealth creation, worldwide research and development (R&D) expenditures, US R&D expenditures by business, government, and academic organizations and economic sectors, and profiles the US science and technology workforce including recruiting and compensation costs. The process of recruiting scientists and engineers is profiled. Many technology based companies are currently using artificial intelligence algorithms to assess applicants’ technology knowledge and select the optimal job candidate. Are there non-technical personality traits which are equally important in recruiting scientists’ and engineers performance? What non-technical personality traits should a research and scientific organization assess to decide among position candidates? Five non-technical character traits to evaluate candidates in hiring decisions are intelligence, imagination, initiative, interpersonal skills, and integrity are explored. Specific questions to ask candidates are suggested to investigate each trait.
  • A Framework for the Assessment of Research and Its Impacts

    Daraio Cinzia (Sciendo, 2017-12-01)
    This paper proposes a holistic framework for the development of models for the assessment of research activities and their impacts. It distinguishes three dimensions, including in an original way, data as a main dimension, together with theory and methodology. Each dimension of the framework is further characterized by three main building blocks: education, research, and innovation (theory); efficiency, effectiveness, and impact (methodology); and availability, interoperability, and “unit-free” property (data). The different dimensions and their nine constituent building blocks are attributes of an overarching concept, denoted as “quality.” Three additional quality attributes are identified as implementation factors (tailorability, transparency, and openness) and three “enabling” conditions (convergence, mixed methods, and knowledge infrastructures) complete the framework. A framework is required to develop models of metrics. Models of metrics are necessary to assess the meaning, validity, and robustness of metrics. The proposed framework can be a useful reference for the development of the ethics of research evaluation. It can act as a common denominator for different analytical levels and relevant aspects and is able to embrace many different and heterogeneous streams of literature. Directions for future research are provided.
  • PhD Training on Open Science in French Universities

    Groupe d'Études et de Recherche Interdisciplinaire en Information et COmmunication - ULR 4073 [GERIICO ]; Schopfel, Joachim; Prost, Hélène; Jacquemin, Bernard; Kergosien, Eric (2022-04-05)
    The development of open science requires a cultural change in academic institutions, including the acquisition of new knowledge and skills in fields like open access publishing, research data sharing and citizen science. The paper presents results from a survey on PhD training programs related to open science in ten highly ranked and research-intensive French universities. Based on the discussion of the empirical survey results (content, format, discipline, etc.), the paper establishes a list of some recommendations that may be helpful for the assessment of existing programs and for the development and implementation of new programs.
  • Passportization: Russia's "humanitarian" tool for foreign policy, extra-territorial governance, and military intervention

    Bescotti, Elia; Burkhardt, Fabian; Rabinovych, Maryna; Wittke, Cindy (DEU, 2022-04-05)
  • Towards an operational measurement of socio-ecological performance

    Pesendorfer, Konrad; van den Bergh, Jeroen; Sekulova, Filka; Pirgmaier, Elke; Kettner, Claudia; Stagl, Sigrid; Köppl, Angela (WWWforEurope, 2014-02-12)
    WWWforEurope Working Paper No. 52, 50 pages Questioning GDP as dominant indicator for economic performance has become commonplace. For economists economic policy always aims for a broader array of goals (like income, employment, price stability, trade balance) alongside income, with income being the priority objective. The Stiglitz-Sen- Fitoussi Commission argued for extending and adapting key variables of macroeconomic analysis. International organisations such as the EC, OECD, Eurostat and UN have proposed extended arrays of macroeconomic indicators (see ‘Beyond GDP’, ‘Compendium of wellbeing indicators’, ‘GDP and Beyond’, 'Green Economy', 'Green Growth', 'Measuring Progress of Societies'). Despite these high profile efforts, few wellbeing and environmental variables are in use in macroeconomic models. The reasons for the low uptake of socio-ecological indicators in macroeconomic models range from path dependencies in modelling, technical limitations, indicator lists being long and unworkable, choices of indicators appearing ad hoc and poor data availability. In this paper we review key approaches and identify a limited list of candidate variables and – as much as possible – offer data sources.
  • Blockchain for the IoT: Privacy-Preserving Protection of Sensor Data

    Chanson, Mathieu; Bogner, Andreas; Bilgeri, Dominik; Fleisch, Elgar; Wortmann, Felix
    A constantly growing pool of smart, connected Internet of Things (IoT) devices poses completely new challenges for business regarding security and privacy. In fact, the widespread adoption of smart products might depend on the ability of organizations to offer systems that ensure adequate sensor data integrity while guaranteeing sufficient user privacy. In light of these challenges, previous research indicates that blockchain technology may be a promising means to mitigate issues of data security arising in the IoT. Building upon the existing body of knowledge, we propose a design theory, including requirements, design principles, and features, for a blockchain-based sensor data protection system (SDPS) that leverages data certification. We then design and develop an instantiation of an SDPS (CertifiCar) in three iterative cycles that prevents the fraudulent manipulation of car mileage data. Furthermore, we provide an ex-post evaluation of our design theory considering CertifiCar and two additional use cases in the realm of pharmaceutical supply chains and energy microgrids. The evaluation results suggest that the proposed design ensures the tamper-resistant gathering, processing, and exchange of IoT sensor data in a privacy-preserving, scalable, and efficient manner.
  • Responsible conduct of research: Global trends, local opportunities

    Theresa M. Rossouw; Christa van Zyl; Anne Pope (Academy of Science of South Africa, 2014-02-01)
    Instances of research misconduct reported in the lay and scientific literature as well as international efforts
 to encourage research integrity and the responsible conduct of research are currently receiving considerable
 attention. In South Africa, however, the topic has not featured prominently in public debate and clear evidence
 of a national, coordinated effort to address the problem of research misconduct seems to be lacking.
 Given increasing globalisation of research efforts, the need exists to promote standardised approaches to
 interpretation and implementation of the principles and values that underlie responsible conduct of research
 as well as to create guidelines and structures to promote integrity in research in the country. We explore
 the notions of research misconduct and research integrity, focusing on initiatives that promote responsible
 conduct of research, and propose a framework for the South African context.

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