An Initial Test of an Intervention Designed to Help Youth Question Negative Ethnic Stereotypes.
Author(s)Souweidane, Violet Saad
Ethnic Aggressive Beliefs
Arab American and Jewish American Stereotyping
Peer Educators and Peer Trainees
Influence of Media on Stereotyping and Prejudice
Influence of Ethnic Identity on Stereotyping and Prejudice
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AbstractThe present study tested a social cognitive-ecological model to gain an understanding of factors that influence negative ethnic stereotypes and aggressive beliefs toward outside groups. The first goal of this study was to explore how differences in cognition (empathy, perspective taking, social identity, critical thinking) relate to ethnic prejudice and out-group aggressive beliefs. The hypotheses for this goal were that empathy for an out group would relate negatively to ethnic prejudice, negative ethnic stereotypes and aggressive beliefs toward outside groups. Also, it was hypothesized that negative ethnic stereotypes and aggressive beliefs would relate positively to strong ethnic identity and to television viewing of ethnic political violence. The second goal of the study was to test the efficacy of an intervention aimed at reducing ethnic stereotypes and increasing empathy for out-groups among high school students. The hypotheses for this goal were that the intervention would increase perspective taking and empathic behavior resulting in a reduction of youths??? negative ethnic stereotypes and aggressive beliefs toward outside groups. Using an immediate and delayed intervention design, a sample of predominately Arab and Jewish youth from two high schools in the Detroit metropolitan area were recruited. There were 192 students in the first phase of the study. In the intervention phase of the study, 153 students participated with 93 receiving the intervention immediately after the baseline pretest and 60 receiving it on a delayed basis after the first post-test. Thirty-one of the 153, served as peer educators, delivering the intervention curriculum to the 122 peer trainees in 4 sessions. Correlational results supported the first set of hypotheses. Mixed results were found in the intervention phase for the second set of hypotheses. Results showed that the intervention significantly impacted peer educators. Their agreement and support of explicit ethnic stereotypes and desire to engage in critical thinking improved from before to after intervention relative to the peer trainees. Scores for all youth on the implicit measure of negative stereotypes decreased. Furthermore, the peer educators??? negative stereotypes about outside groups decreased significantly relative to the waiting list control group???s negative stereotypes.
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From Snow White to Frozen : An evaluation of popular gender representation indicators applied to Disney’s princess filmsNyh, Johan (Karlstads universitet, Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation, 2015)Simple content analysis methods, such as the Bechdel test and measuring percentage of female talk time or characters, have seen a surge of attention from mainstream media and in social media the last couple of years. Underlying assumptions are generally shared with the gender role socialization model and consequently, an importance is stated, due to a high degree to which impressions from media shape in particular young children’s identification processes. For young girls, the Disney Princesses franchise (with Frozen included) stands out as the number one player commercially as well as in customer awareness. The vertical lineup of Disney princesses spans from the passive and domestic working Snow White in 1937 to independent and super-power wielding princess Elsa in 2013, which makes the line of films an optimal test subject in evaluating above-mentioned simple content analysis methods. As a control, a meta-study has been conducted on previous academic studies on the same range of films. The sampled research, within fields spanning from qualitative content analysis and semiotics to coded content analysis, all come to the same conclusions regarding the general changes over time in representations of female characters. The objective of this thesis is to answer whether or not there is a correlation between these changes and those indicated by the simple content analysis methods, i.e. whether or not the simple popular methods are in general coherence with the more intricate academic methods.
Victim-Blaming: A New Term for an Old TrendSchoellkopf, Julia Churchill (DigitalCommons@University of Rhode Island, 2012-05-22)Victim-blaming is a phenomenon that has been happening since at least the beginning of recorded history but has only recently been identified as a dynamic used to empower the criminal and maintain the status quo. Victim-blaming is perpetuated by sexism, the Just World Theory, cognitive biases, and the theories of self-blame. Victim-blaming occurs when the victim of a crime or abuse is held partly or entirely responsible for the actions committed against them. In other words, the victims are held accountable for the maltreatment they have been subjected to. Perpetrators of crimes for which they blame the victim commonly enjoy a privileged social status opposite the victim, and their blame typically involves use of stereotypical negative words.
An exploration of stereotype perceptions amongst support staff within a South African higher education institutionGiven R.B. Moloto; Lizelle Brink; J. Alewyn Nel (AOSIS, 2014-02-01)<p><strong>Orientation:</strong> After the 1994 democratic elections, South African organisations had to replace discriminatory policies with new policies to integrate all people and to embrace diversity. As a consequence stereotypes may be more prevalent in diverse working environments.</p><p><strong>Research purpose:</strong> The objective of this study was to explore the experience of stereotypes amongst the support staff within a higher education institution.</p><p><strong>Motivation for this study: </strong>Changes within South African working environments, and specifically higher education institutions, resulted in more diverse management teams and a more culturally diverse workforce. With this in mind, the experience of stereotypes may become more prevalent within South African working environments. Many researchers have focused on stereotypes; however, studies on stereotypes within South Africa are limited, especially within higher education institutions.</p><p><strong> Research approach, design and method:</strong> The research approach was qualitative and a case study design was employed. A combination of both quota and convenience sampling was used. The sample consisted of (<em>N</em> = 30) support staff within a higher education institution in South Africa. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect data.</p><p><strong>Main findings: </strong>The results indicated that the participants do experience stereotypes within their workplace and also hold stereotypes of other people within their workplace. The most prevalent stereotypes mentioned by participants were age, gender, racial and occupational stereotypes. There is also an indication that stereotypes have cognitive, emotional and behavioural effects on the stereotyped.</p><p><strong style="font-weight: bold;">Practical/managerial implications:</strong> Organisations should do away with stereotyping by embracing and managing diversity and dealing with stereotypes, specifically within higher education institutions. When managers are aware of stereotypes and the effects thereof in the organisation, they can make every effort to eradicate the stereotypes and address the impact thereof.</p><p><strong>Contribution: </strong>In an environment where there is a diverse workforce, stereotyping is more likely to exist. This study will provide useful information about stereotypes within a higher education institution seeing that there are a limited number of studies on this topic within South Africa and within this specific occupation. The results of the study will enlighten the organisation to become more aware of stereotypes and the debilitating impact that they have on the individual and the organisation, thereby providing the organisation with the opportunity to address stereotypes and the impact thereof on employees and the organisation.</p>