service learning;students with special needs;community service skills
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Abstract[[abstract]]本研究採行動研究，主用觀察、輔以訪談與蒐集非干擾測量資料，探討以服務學習方案培養國中特殊需求學生社區服務技能，探討方案發展歷程與內容、實施與成效，亦了解國中特殊需求學生、其家長與協同研究者對本方案的觀感。茲配合研究目的，闡述本研究結論如下。 在方案發展歷程與內容方面，方案發展歷程如下：了解環教站與相關庇護工場之資源回收運作、分析研究參與者缺乏社區服務技能的成因、編製社區服務技能評量表、依據服務學習五步驟（計畫和準備、行動、反省、評量、慶祝）擬訂初步方案，以及實施計畫和準備。接著，依據實施情況，探討行為問題起因與學生需求，形成內容：社區服務技能課程與資源回收技能評量相關事宜 在實施階段，研究參與者學習交通技能的問題較少，但在評量社交技巧及資源回收技能產生行為問題，泛自閉症學生的行為問題透過其反省，以及我及家長教導而妥善因應；因應輕度智障學生的成效有限，因此，調整因應策略，先滿足其需求，待其適應環境，再教導其在缺乏需求的情境中評量。 國中特殊需求學生參與服務學習方案後，不僅提升社區服務技能，也類化社區服務技能，並發展出非本研究強調的社交技巧與資源回收技能。國中特殊需求學生表示喜歡到社區中進行服務學習場所資源回收，家長及協同研究者由接觸工作、學習社交技巧及環保理念，與引導國中特殊需求學生成長而認同此方案，亦提出強化學習成效與在特殊教育推廣服務學習的相關建議。
[[abstract]]The purpose of this action research was to explore how the community service skills of two students with special needs were developed through a service learning program designed by the researcher. The service learning program required the students to participate in community service, where they were engaged in developing community service skills. The community service skills were employed in categorizing PET bottles in the community site, Environmental Education Centre (EEC). The community service skills in question included social skills, categorizing PET bottle skills, and travel skills from school to EEC. To help the two students develop optimal community service skills, the researcher intended to understand The developmental processes and effects of the service learning program as well as the opinions of the stakeholders (including the students thenseves, their parents and co-researchers) on the program. The conclusions of this research were as following: a.The processes of developing this service learning program included the following steps: (a) understanding categorization of PET bottles in EEC and in a shelter factory; (b) designing community service skills checklists; (c) finding out the reasons why the students lacked the community service skills; (d) planing the preliminary service learning program according to its five steps (planning and preparation, action, reflection, assessment and celebration) and putting the first step into practice ; (f) developing the curriculum for the community service skills and assessment methods on the students’ bottle categorization skills according to the situation of implementation b. The processes of implementing this service learning program included: action, reflection, assessment and celebration. Both students had fewer problems in learning travel skills. However, they had more problems in assessing social skills, PET bottle classification skills. In response to one of the two students’ problems, the researcher assisted the student in developing relfection skills to cope with his problems. The limitation was the effect of copying problems of the other student; hence, I adjusted the four steps to help the student to deal with his problems by conducting learner-tailored assessment first followed by regular assessment c.Through the service learning program, both students improved not only in learning and generation of the community service skills but also in some other social skills which were not discussed in this research. d. The two students reported that they liked to do recycling resources in EEC. Besides, their parents and co-researchers approved of this program because of the students’ growing knowledge about working and environmental protection and acquisition of social skills; moreover, they also gave suggestions of advancing the learning effects and promotng service learning in the field of special education.