Socioeconomic indicators as determinants for water access in rural areas of developing countries: a panel data approach
Author(s)Gómez Dávalos, Mabel
Contributor(s)Sanz Fernández, Àlex,
Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Facultat d'Economia i Empresa
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AbstractMillions of people in developing countries still lack access to a safe drinking water, especially in rural areas. Many advancement has been made on this topic the last few years due to the creation of the Millennium Development Goals and Sustainable Development Goals. However, national characteristics of countries may strengthen or hinder this progress. This paper investigates whether certain socioeconomic indicators are related with access to improved water sources in developing countries. More specifically, total improved, piped on premises and other improved sources of access in rural areas for low income, low-middle income and high-middle income countries are examined. The analysis is based on regression models using panel data estimation techniques controlling for country and time specific effects and for problems of autocorrelation and heteroskedascity. Econometric results suggest that, in general, GNI, female primary completion rate, agriculture, growth of rural population, political stability and control of corruption are variables related to water access, although specific associations depend on the source of water and income group examined. Official development assistance presented no significant relation with water access, expect the case for low income countries, in which presented a positive relation to total and other improved sources. Female education presented a positive relation with water access for all countries and water sources while agriculture presented a negative one. Control for corruption results showed that piped on premises sources are more affected by the lack of control that other improved sources. The understanding of these interrelations could be of great importance for decision makers in the water sector as well as for future investigation on the topic.