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AbstractIt is widely held opinion that the current development of the manufacturing industry in Penang is unsustainable. This is also the starting point of this report. The overall aim of the report is to specify the unsustainable element in the industrial development of Penang and to point towards ways, that a regulation of the industry can support a less unsustainable industrial development. Our main focus is on environmental problems. However by using the term sustainable development we address both environment problems as well as economic problems of the industrial development. This is done according to our understanding that environmental problems can not be separated from economic problems. Penang, a small state in Malaysia, has the past 20 years underwent a tremendous economic growth and a rise in welfare, mainly based on an immense development within the manufacturing industry. The growth of the industry has caused an environmental deterioration to a degree where it have put serious constrains on the development of other economic sectors in Penang, especially agriculture, fishing and tourism. Together with a one-sided focus on attracting foreign investment, thus neglecting the interests of the local industry, an one-sided environmental regulation, mainly focusing on command and control and end-of-line solution, we assess that there is an urgent need for a regulation of the industry addressing both environmental as well as economic problems. In the analyse of the industry and the regulatory bodies we have an institutional approach and like that attach importance to factors such as the historical development of the industry and the regulatory bodies in Penang and Malaysia as well as the specific cultural conditions. With a network approach we analyse the extern relations of the manufacturing companies and the importance of these extern relations in order to find ways to influence on the industry. Our conclusions involve the following: It is a generally held opinion in the federal and state administrations as well as in parts of the industry, that economic growth and a healthy environment is contradicting each other. This opinion is one of the prime reason that the environmental consideration is receiving a very low rank in today regulation of the industry. In order to secure a healthy environment it is an urgent need that this opinion is changes and that the general environmental awareness in Malaysia is raised. The need to strengthen the environmental administrational set-up, including more resources to the environmental regulatory body. The need to establish more knowledge-centres and educational centres catering the needs of the industry. And finally the need to strengthen the networks of the companies and use these to promote R&D and cleaner production.