AbstractUrban farming can be viewed in several contexts. The first part of this work brings up the beneficial effects of farming on our physical and mental health, knowledge as well as on social life in cities. The introduction of gardening in schools can contribute to an increased awareness on both agricultural practices and importance as well as ecological processes. It can also be used in teaching of other subjects. Farming can also contribute to improving the household economy, and the economy on a municipal or national level. Farming is used in the health care sector to increase mental health: Farming is a life-giving process, with a force that stimulates both healthy and ill. The physical activities offered can substitute more conventional physical training programmes. The selection of plants is dependent on the purpose of the garden, and the site where it is planned. Edibles can have a great importance for understanding the food production chain, invite to a close contact (to pick, to taste) and the yields, even small, can be of direct economic significance. They also play a role in environment improvement and recreation, just like ornamental plants. The second part of this work deals with the urban environment, how it affects the plants and how the conditions for food production can be improved. The urban temperatures are generally beneficial to gardening. Higher temperature at night and a prolonged growing season can increase growth and make it possible to grow species that normally wouldn't be found in that region. There is a positive effect of weaker wind, but on certain sites the wind gets very strong instead and you might need a wind shield to protect sensitive plants. Trees and bushes act like protective shields, some species more efficiently than others. Low humidity in air increases drought stress in plants. Contaminants are spread through air, from industry, traffic and waste incinerators. Among the substances taken up by plants, later entering the human body through consumption, heavy metals are in focus. Urban environment needs to be a clean and healthy life environment. Air contaminants are toxic whether we eat them or breathe them in. Until then there are different techniques to minimize intake while eating plants from a contaminated area. A great part of the air pollutants are precipitated in the soil. Urban soils are often in a bad condition, except for well managed soils like in allotment gardens. Poor structure and drainage is a common situation, as well as low soil humidity and organic matter content. There is heavy competition for access to the urban land. Different practices aiming to make surfaces available to urban farmers are applied, for instance roof gardening.