Research Ethics Professional is a sub-collection on research ethics focusing on professional ethics, on work ethics in the research profession, namely on the specific responsibilities common among researchers who do the research, including the whole environment and other stakeholders.The main ethical normative aspects of research are presented in a systematic way as building blocks from a unifying principle, a limited set of virtues and a wide range of responsibilities as self-oriented or others-oriented duties. The collection as a systematic whole is highlighting a holistic approach on the ethics of duties in the research profession, from various points of views, constituting a comprehensive totality of all main aspects of this activity, based on The European Code of Conduct for Research Integrity, published recently by All European Academies (ALLEA). This collection borrows from ALLEA's expertise and results, it shows in short how to deal with failures to use good practice, which jeopardize by irresponsible behaviour the important harmony between the aim of increasing knowledge and remaining true to self-knowledge, proper to ethical life.

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  • TORCH D11.3 - Annual Open Forum 3 Report

    Marfany, Gemma; Burillo, Blanca; TORCH Consortium (CHARM-EU, 2023-12)
    <p>The third TORCH Annual Forum 'Science with and for Society in European Universities Alliances: Cross-Alliances Forum 2023' is a collaborative and insightful hybrid event hosted by Université libre de Bruxelles (CIVIS). This hybrid forum is address to representatives from European Universities Alliances, researchers, innovators, policymakers, European Commission representatives and other stakeholders from the European Research Area. The focus is the results, achievements and challenges from the European Universities Alliances’ SwafS projects and the exploration of best practices and insights related to the transformational modules. The topics include the development of a common R&I agenda, resource sharing, joint structures, human capital enhancement, and collaboration with the non-academic sector. The forum also emphasises Open Science practices and the engagement of citizens and society in Alliance activities.</p> <p>The forum was led by an Organising Committee including 11 Alliances that were led by TORCH. The dissemination efforts of this forum were coordinated by a dedicated communication group with 5 representatives from 5 Alliances who ensured effective outreach and impact. The European Research Executive Agency also played a crucial role in maximising the outreach of this event by extending invitations, creating an event page, and featuring the forum in its newsletter.</p> <p>This report, TORCH's deliverable D11.3, provides the meeting agenda, session debriefs, and key conclusions.</p> <p>The meeting programme includes plenary sessions, roundtables, workshops, and poster presentations. The first morning is focused on policy and strategic aspects of the European Universities Alliances’ research area, featuring presentations on the European Commission’s strategy, joint R&I activities, and assessments of Alliances’ impact. During the afternoon, the sessions showcase the Alliances’ outcomes through different workshops and an interactive poster session. The second day, the sessions are centred on inspiring the future of R&I in Europe with roundtables exploring topics such as research ethics and integrity, inter- and transdisciplinarity and responsible R&I. The concluding session synthesises the discussions from workshops and roundtables, providing the insights into transformative impacts, funding landscapes, and future trajectories for research within European University Alliances.</p> <p>The forum fostered dialogue, knowledge exchange, and collaboration among Alliances with external stakeholders, policymakers and other external stakeholders. The 'Science with and for Society in European Universities Alliances: Cross-Alliances Forum 2023 is a testament of the commitment of European Universities Alliances to drive excellence, foster collaboration and shape the future of the European Research Area.</p>
  • Barriers to knowledge mobilisation: implications for responsible and inclusive research in higher education

    Ruiz-Bernardo, Paola; Sales, Dora; Sanahuja Ribés, Aida; Moliner Garcia, Odet (Taylor and Francis GroupRoutledge, 2023-10-13)
    From an understanding of knowledge mobilisation as a set of strategies that favour responsible and inclusive research, the aim of this paper is to identify the obstacles or barriers to carrying out such research in higher education institutions, as perceived by researchers. In this descriptive study, content analysis is used to examine semi-structured interviews carried out with eighty research groups from five European countries (Austria, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia and Spain) that participated in the research. Results reveal the main barriers researchers perceived are associated with social commitment, relational aspects, encouragement to participate (attitudinal, organisational and institutional barriers) and knowledge mobilisation practices (derived from the research process and research evaluation policies). Ethical and policy implications for more responsible and inclusive research are drawn in the conclusions.
  • Seminar on Research Skills Enhancement

    Institute of Legal and Policy Research (17713458) (2024-01-13)
    The pursuit of excellence in research requires a multifaceted skill set that extends beyond mere data collection. The "Research Skills Enhancement" seminar delves into key aspects crucial for elevating research capabilities. The discussion encompasses the exploration of both free and paid research repositories, equipping participants with the knowledge to navigate these valuable resources effectively. Furthermore, the session will unravel the intricacies of crafting compelling research articles, focusing on the nuances that distinguish outstanding contributions. Participants will also gain insights into the art of proposal writing, tailored for Master's Degree and Ph.D. endeavors, providing a roadmap for successful research projects. The seminar will not only emphasize the importance of proper citation and reference management but also elucidate strategies for maintaining academic integrity. Participants will be introduced to the critical evaluation of journal and university rankings, enabling them to make informed decisions and contribute to reputable academic discourse. In essence, this seminar aims to empower researchers with the tools necessary for navigating the dynamic landscape of academic inquiry, fostering a community of scholars equipped to produce impactful and high-quality research.
  • ArchEthno - a new tool for sharing research materials and a new method for archiving your own research

    Centre Maurice Halbwachs (CMH) ; École des hautes études en sciences sociales (EHESS)-Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)-Département de Sciences sociales ENS-PSL ; École normale supérieure - Paris (ENS-PSL) ; Université Paris sciences et lettres (PSL)-Université Paris sciences et lettres (PSL)-École normale supérieure - Paris (ENS-PSL) ; Université Paris sciences et lettres (PSL)-Université Paris sciences et lettres (PSL); Laboratoire d'Etude du Rayonnement et de la Matière en Astrophysique et Atmosphères = Laboratory for Studies of Radiation and Matter in Astrophysics and Atmospheres (LERMA) ; École normale supérieure - Paris (ENS-PSL) ; Université Paris sciences et lettres (PSL)-Université Paris sciences et lettres (PSL)-Institut national des sciences de l'Univers (INSU - CNRS)-Observatoire de Paris ; Université Paris sciences et lettres (PSL)-Sorbonne Université (SU)-Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)-CY Cergy Paris Université (CY); Artenum, Paris ; Artenum; École normale supérieure - Paris (ENS-PSL) ; Université Paris sciences et lettres (PSL); Université Paris sciences et lettres (PSL); Weber, Florence; Zwölf, Carlo, Maria; Trouche, Arnaud; Tricoche, Agnès; Sastre, José (HAL CCSD, 2023-06-05)
    The archiving of ethnographic material is generally considered a blind spot in ethnographic working methods which place more importance on actual investigations and analysis than on how archives are constructed. A team of computer scientists and ethnographers has built an initial tool for sharing ethnographic materials, based on an SQL relational data model that suited the first survey processed but proved difficult to transpose to other surveys. The team developed a new tool based on dynamic vocabularies of concepts which breaks down archiving into three stages. Firstly ethnographers can select and contextualise their survey materials; secondly they structure them in a database according to the research question discovered during their survey; finally, they share this data with other researchers subject to the opinion of an ethics committee whose members are competent in ethnography.
  • Ethical Issues in Engineering Models:Personal Reflections

    Kleijnen, Jack P.C. (Operations research, 2010)
    I start this contribution with an overview of my personal involvement—as an Operations Research consultant—in several engineering case-studies that may raise ethical questions; these case studies employ simulation models. Next, I present an overview of the recent literature on ethical issues in modeling, focusing on the validation of the model’s assumptions; the decisive role of these assumptions leads to the quest for robust models. Actually, models are meant to solve practical problems; these problems may have ethical implications for the various stakeholders; namely, modelers, clients, and the public at large. Finally, I briefly discuss whistle blowing.
  • Ethical Issues in Engineering Models:Personal Reflections

    Kleijnen, Jack P.C. (Operations research, 2010)
    I start this contribution with an overview of my personal involvement—as an Operations Research consultant—in several engineering case-studies that may raise ethical questions; these case studies employ simulation models. Next, I present an overview of the recent literature on ethical issues in modeling, focusing on the validation of the model’s assumptions; the decisive role of these assumptions leads to the quest for robust models. Actually, models are meant to solve practical problems; these problems may have ethical implications for the various stakeholders; namely, modelers, clients, and the public at large. Finally, I briefly discuss whistle blowing.
  • Towards a research agenda for promoting responsible research practices

    Tijdink, Joeri; Horbach, Serge P. J. M.; Nuijten, Michèle B.; O'Neill, Gareth (2021)
    This opinion piece aims to inform future research funding programs on responsible research practices (RRP) based on three specific objectives: (1) to give a sketch of the current international discussion on responsible research practices (RRPs); (2) to give an overview of current initiatives and already obtained results regarding RRP; and (3) to give an overview of potential future needs for research on RRP. In this opinion piece, we have used seven iterative methodological steps (including literature review, ranking, and sorting exercises) to create the proposed research agenda. We identified six main themes that we believe need attention in future research: (1) responsible evaluation of research and researchers, (2) the influence of open science and transparency on RRP, (3) research on responsible mentoring, supervision, and role modeling, (4) the effect of education and training on RRP, (5) checking for reproducibility, and (6) responsible and fair peer review. These themes have in common that they address aspects of research that are mostly on the level of the scientific system, more than on the level of the individual researcher. Some current initiatives are already gathering substantial empirical evidence to start filling these gaps. We believe that with sufficient support from all relevant stakeholders, more progress can be made.
  • Towards a research agenda for promoting responsible research practices

    Tijdink, Joeri; Horbach, Serge P. J. M.; Nuijten, Michèle B.; O'Neill, Gareth (2021)
    This opinion piece aims to inform future research funding programs on responsible research practices (RRP) based on three specific objectives: (1) to give a sketch of the current international discussion on responsible research practices (RRPs); (2) to give an overview of current initiatives and already obtained results regarding RRP; and (3) to give an overview of potential future needs for research on RRP. In this opinion piece, we have used seven iterative methodological steps (including literature review, ranking, and sorting exercises) to create the proposed research agenda. We identified six main themes that we believe need attention in future research: (1) responsible evaluation of research and researchers, (2) the influence of open science and transparency on RRP, (3) research on responsible mentoring, supervision, and role modeling, (4) the effect of education and training on RRP, (5) checking for reproducibility, and (6) responsible and fair peer review. These themes have in common that they address aspects of research that are mostly on the level of the scientific system, more than on the level of the individual researcher. Some current initiatives are already gathering substantial empirical evidence to start filling these gaps. We believe that with sufficient support from all relevant stakeholders, more progress can be made.
  • Responsible Open Science in Europe (ROSiE): D7.1. Didactic framework

    Neiders, Ivars; Kalēja, Jekaterina; Mileiko, Ilze; Mežinska, Signe (Zenodo, 2021-11-30)
    <p>The didactic framework serves as a base for developing ROSiE training materials with and for students, researchers, and citizen scientists for acquiring skills required for practicing responsible Open Science. The didactic framework identifies: (1) the skills and attitudes trainees are expected to acquire, (2) specific learning outcomes and indicators for their achievement, (3) topics to be included in training materials, (3) teaching and learning strategies.</p>
  • Doing a PhD in the age of generative artificial intelligence (AI)

    Clermont Recherche Management (CleRMa); École Supérieure de Commerce (ESC) - Clermont-Ferrand (ESC Clermont-Ferrand)-Université Clermont Auvergne (UCA); Blangeois, Morgan (HAL CCSD, 2023-11-21)
    This scientific communication examines the opportunities and challenges of generative AI in the context of doctoral research. As generative AI tools like ChatGPT become widely available, questions emerge regarding maintaining academic integrity. This presentation aims to provide working definitions of artificial intelligence, foundation models and generative AI based on key literature (Bommasani et al., 2022). Risks are described, including "hallucinations", that is information generated by language models that seems plausible but is factually false. Also noted are the risks of plagiarism, reproduction of biases and discrimination (Navigli et al., 2023), as well as overreliance on AI tools over personal effort and critical thinking (Eke, 2023). A "trainee method" is proposed to contextualize the need for human supervision of AI. Use cases demonstrate how tools like ChatGPT might assist understanding of academic papers or annotation of qualitative data (Gilardi et al., 2023). However, academic integrity stakeholders must establish codes of best practices for the ethical use of these emerging technologies (Russell Group, 2023), and researchers as well as students need adequate training.
  • F13RS SGR No. 7 (Code of Honor, Honor Board)

    Rees,; Pinac,; Voss,; Muehleman,; Karam, J; Polander,; Williams,; Triche,; Geymann,; Grotte, (LSU Scholarly Repository, 2013-10-01)
  • Only two out of five articles by New Zealand researchers are free-to-access: A multiple API study of access, citations, cost of Article Processing Charges (APC), and the potential to increase the proportion of open access

    White, RKA; Angelo, A; Fitchett, Deborah; Fraser, M; Hayes, L; Howie, J; Richardson, E; White, B (PeerJ, 2021-06-09)
    We studied journal articles published by researchers at all eight New Zealand universities in 2017 to determine how many were freely accessible on the web. We wrote software code to harvest data from multiple sources, code that we now share to enable others to reproduce our work on their own sample set. In May 2019, we ran our code to determine which of the 2017 articles were open at that time and by what method; where those articles would have incurred an Article Processing Charge (APC) we calculated the cost if those charges had been paid. Where articles were not freely available we determined whether the policies of publishers in each case would have allowed deposit in a non-commercial repository (Green open access). We also examined citation rates for different types of access. We found that, of our 2017 sample set, about two out of every five articles were freely accessible without payment or subscription (41%). Where research was explicitly said to be funded by New Zealand’s major research funding agencies, the proportion was slightly higher at 45%. Where open articles would have incurred an APC we estimated an average cost per article of USD1,682 (for publications where all articles require an APC, that is, Gold open access) and USD2,558 (where APC payment is optional, Hybrid open access) at a total estimated cost of USD1.45m. Of the paid options, Gold is by far more common for New Zealand researchers (82% Gold, 18% Hybrid). In terms of citations, our analysis aligned with previous studies that suggest a correlation between publications being freely accessible and, on balance, slightly higher rates of citation. This is not seen across all types of open access, however, with Diamond OA achieving the lowest rates. Where articles were not freely accessible we found that a very large majority of them (88% or 3089 publications) could have been legally deposited in an institutional repository. Similarly, only in a very small number of cases had a version deposited in the repository of a New Zealand university made the difference between the publication being freely accessible or not (125 publications). Given that most New Zealand researchers support research being open, there is clearly a large gap between belief and practice in New Zealand’s research ecosystem.
  • Ciencia abierta en investigación e innovación responsables

    Bernal, Isabel [0000-0003-2506-9947]; Bernal, Isabel; Oficina Técnica de Digital.CSIC (CSIC - Unidad de Recursos de Información Científica para la Investigación (URICI), 2023-10-31)
    Curso del Gabinete de Formación CSIC, 24-26 octubre 2023, Madrid.
  • Ricerca e sperimentazione scientifica: quali implicazioni etiche

    B. Liberali; L. Del Corona; F. Poggi; F. Poggi (Giappichelli, 2022)
    Il capitolo verte sull'etica della sperimentazione e
 della ricerca scientifica e, in particolare, sul problema di individuare criteri etici che possano individuarne le condizioni di ammissibilità. In particolare, si sostiene che le regole etiche per la ricerca scientifica
 possono essere individuate in base a tre parametri o principi generali, rappresentati dalla scientificità della ricerca (§ 2), dalla utilità sociale (§ 3) e
 dal rispetto dei diritti dei soggetti umani e del benessere degli animali non
 umani eventualmente coinvolti (§ 4). Infine, si tenta di dimostrare che, benché tali principi e le norme da essi derivate possano talvolta confliggere, il conflitto in esame sia molto meno marcato di quanto possa prima facie apparire (§ 5).
  • Online Learning Integrity Approaches: Current Practices and Future Solutions

    Anita Lee-Post; Holly Hapke (Online Learning Consortium, 2017-03-01)
    The primary objective of this paper is to help institutions respond to the stipulation of the Higher Education Opportunity Act of 2008 by adopting cost-effective academic integrity solutions without compromising the convenience and flexibility of online learning. Current user authentication solutions such as user ID and password, security questions, voice recognition, or fingerprint identification are not infallible and may violate students’ rights to privacy or cause undue interruptions to their efforts in performing assessment tasks. Existing authentication solutions will be evaluated for their cost effectiveness in preventing fraud and cheating while ensuring learner identity and honesty. Emerging technologies in the form of biometrics, surveillance systems and predictive analytics will be examined to provide insights into the future of e-authentication for ensuring the academic integrity of online learning.
  • Plagiarism in the Research Reports of Indian Doctoral Students: Causes and a Remedial Action Plan

    Tapan Kumar Pradhan; Ajit Kumar (University of Ljubljana, 2023-09-01)
    Many reputable academic journals have retracted research papers from Indian researchers because of plagiarism. The University Grant Commission, a representative organisation of the Indian government, is diligently endeavouring to ensure academic integrity by applying stringent guidelines. The present study aims to find the potential causes of the plagiarism found in the research reports of Indian doctoral students and to formulate a remedial action plan. A literature review was undertaken to identify incidences of plagiarism at educational institutions. Based on the review’s insights, a survey was conducted to investigate doctoral students’ awareness of plagiarism, including causes and remedial action plans. In addition, 21 interviews were conducted with senior academics and professionals from various academic disciplines to gain an understanding of their viewpoints. An analysis was then undertaken of the responses received through the questionnaires and interviews. The results suggested the widespread incidence of plagiarism and shed light on its causes. A remedial action plan emerged from the study, which included 1) establishing a research ethics committee at all academic or research institutions, 2) fostering a correct understanding of plagiarism and its implications by conducting training, workshops and awareness campaigns at an early stage of doctoral students’ lives, 3) ensuring clarity of research purpose among doctoral students and emphasising the quality of research work, 4) developing academic writing skills, and 5) making anti-plagiarism software available free of charge to all students and faculty members. Indian students perceive the University Grant Commission’s stringent guidelines as a good initiative. However, these guidelines cannot be implemented fruitfully without addressing the underlying causes of plagiarism.
  • Policy and legislation challenges for Open Science: Developments in Australia

    Missingham, Roxanne (JOAL: Journal on open access law, 2023-09-26)
    This paper investigates the current state of Open Science policies in
 Australia, focusing on the governance of research data, specifically addressing the processing of personal data for scientific research purposes. The purpose is to understand what challenges currently remain in order to best develop the governance of scientific research in light of Open Science principles. To do so, the study starts
 from the early phases of the development of Open Science, represented by the Open Access movement to scientific publications, up to the analysis of the Australian Data Availability and Transparency Act of 2022, proposing also a commentary on the proposed reforms regarding (i) privacy legislation; (ii) the issue of retention of research data; offering also (iii) a hint at the issue of copyright in relation to research data. From a methodological perspective, the paper is developed from direct engagement in the implementation of Australian Open Science policies and aims to provide an overview of the current situation.
  • Difficulty Of Studying Racism And Xenophobia In Modern Western European Academia: The Case Of France

    Tulun, Teoman Ertuğrul (16302044) (2023-09-04)
    The French academic landscape has been increasingly confronted with contentious debates surrounding the concept of "Islamo-leftism" and the potential influence of foreign states in higher education and research institutions. This paper intends to provide a snapshot introduction to these issues, focusing on the role of key political figures, implications for the study of race and racism in academia, and potential consequences for academic freedom in France. In addition, a fact-finding mission initiated by the "Rassemblement des democrats, progressistes et independants (RDPI)" (The Rally of Democrats, Progressive, and Independent) group in July 2021, under the chairmanship of Senator Etienne Blance and rapporteur Senator André Gattolin, investigated non-European state influences in the French university and academic world. The report from this mission formulated 26 recommendations grouped into five objectives to prepare France and its institutions for the struggle to preserve and better protect the French scientific heritage, academic freedoms, and research integrity from potential foreign interference.
  • An experimental evaluation of an anti-corruption intervention among Ukrainian university students

    Denisova-Schmidt, Elena; Huber, Martin; Prytula, Yaroslav (2016)
    In this paper, we investigate experimentally the effect of an anti-corruption intervention – an info folder based on materials developed by Transparency International – on Ukrainian university students’ willingness to participate in an anticorruption campaign and their general attitude toward corruption. In a survey of 600 students in the Ukrainian city of Lviv, individuals were randomly exposed to either the anti-corruption folder (treatment group) or a folder with information about Lviv (control group). The results suggest that students who have previous experience with bribing are more open to the campaign, while the effect on the total sample is not statistically significant. Furthermore, the intervention increases the overall perception that corruption is a (long-term) part of society rather than a temporary phenomenon. Finally, students with experience in corrupt practices tend to adopt a more negative view of corruption. For those without such experiences, however, we find some indication that the treatment could bolster the acceptance of corruption by instructing the students about its dissemination. The effects of this intervention are therefore ambivalent and appear to depend on the students’ previous exposure to corruption.

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