Research Ethics Professional is a sub-collection on research ethics focusing on professional ethics, on work ethics in the research profession, namely on the specific responsibilities common among researchers who do the research, including the whole environment and other stakeholders.The main ethical normative aspects of research are presented in a systematic way as building blocks from a unifying principle, a limited set of virtues and a wide range of responsibilities as self-oriented or others-oriented duties. The collection as a systematic whole is highlighting a holistic approach on the ethics of duties in the research profession, from various points of views, constituting a comprehensive totality of all main aspects of this activity, based on The European Code of Conduct for Research Integrity, published recently by All European Academies (ALLEA). This collection borrows from ALLEA's expertise and results, it shows in short how to deal with failures to use good practice, which jeopardize by irresponsible behaviour the important harmony between the aim of increasing knowledge and remaining true to self-knowledge, proper to ethical life.


  • F13RS SGR No. 7 (Code of Honor, Honor Board)

    Rees,; Pinac,; Voss,; Muehleman,; Karam, J; Polander,; Williams,; Triche,; Geymann,; Grotte, (LSU Scholarly Repository, 2013-10-01)
  • Only two out of five articles by New Zealand researchers are free-to-access: A multiple API study of access, citations, cost of Article Processing Charges (APC), and the potential to increase the proportion of open access

    White, RKA; Angelo, A; Fitchett, Deborah; Fraser, M; Hayes, L; Howie, J; Richardson, E; White, B (PeerJ, 2021-06-09)
    We studied journal articles published by researchers at all eight New Zealand universities in 2017 to determine how many were freely accessible on the web. We wrote software code to harvest data from multiple sources, code that we now share to enable others to reproduce our work on their own sample set. In May 2019, we ran our code to determine which of the 2017 articles were open at that time and by what method; where those articles would have incurred an Article Processing Charge (APC) we calculated the cost if those charges had been paid. Where articles were not freely available we determined whether the policies of publishers in each case would have allowed deposit in a non-commercial repository (Green open access). We also examined citation rates for different types of access. We found that, of our 2017 sample set, about two out of every five articles were freely accessible without payment or subscription (41%). Where research was explicitly said to be funded by New Zealand’s major research funding agencies, the proportion was slightly higher at 45%. Where open articles would have incurred an APC we estimated an average cost per article of USD1,682 (for publications where all articles require an APC, that is, Gold open access) and USD2,558 (where APC payment is optional, Hybrid open access) at a total estimated cost of USD1.45m. Of the paid options, Gold is by far more common for New Zealand researchers (82% Gold, 18% Hybrid). In terms of citations, our analysis aligned with previous studies that suggest a correlation between publications being freely accessible and, on balance, slightly higher rates of citation. This is not seen across all types of open access, however, with Diamond OA achieving the lowest rates. Where articles were not freely accessible we found that a very large majority of them (88% or 3089 publications) could have been legally deposited in an institutional repository. Similarly, only in a very small number of cases had a version deposited in the repository of a New Zealand university made the difference between the publication being freely accessible or not (125 publications). Given that most New Zealand researchers support research being open, there is clearly a large gap between belief and practice in New Zealand’s research ecosystem.
  • Ciencia abierta en investigación e innovación responsables

    Bernal, Isabel [0000-0003-2506-9947]; Bernal, Isabel; Oficina Técnica de Digital.CSIC (CSIC - Unidad de Recursos de Información Científica para la Investigación (URICI), 2023-10-31)
    Curso del Gabinete de Formación CSIC, 24-26 octubre 2023, Madrid.
  • Ricerca e sperimentazione scientifica: quali implicazioni etiche

    B. Liberali; L. Del Corona; F. Poggi; F. Poggi (Giappichelli, 2022)
    Il capitolo verte sull'etica della sperimentazione e
 della ricerca scientifica e, in particolare, sul problema di individuare criteri etici che possano individuarne le condizioni di ammissibilità. In particolare, si sostiene che le regole etiche per la ricerca scientifica
 possono essere individuate in base a tre parametri o principi generali, rappresentati dalla scientificità della ricerca (§ 2), dalla utilità sociale (§ 3) e
 dal rispetto dei diritti dei soggetti umani e del benessere degli animali non
 umani eventualmente coinvolti (§ 4). Infine, si tenta di dimostrare che, benché tali principi e le norme da essi derivate possano talvolta confliggere, il conflitto in esame sia molto meno marcato di quanto possa prima facie apparire (§ 5).
  • Online Learning Integrity Approaches: Current Practices and Future Solutions

    Anita Lee-Post; Holly Hapke (Online Learning Consortium, 2017-03-01)
    The primary objective of this paper is to help institutions respond to the stipulation of the Higher Education Opportunity Act of 2008 by adopting cost-effective academic integrity solutions without compromising the convenience and flexibility of online learning. Current user authentication solutions such as user ID and password, security questions, voice recognition, or fingerprint identification are not infallible and may violate students’ rights to privacy or cause undue interruptions to their efforts in performing assessment tasks. Existing authentication solutions will be evaluated for their cost effectiveness in preventing fraud and cheating while ensuring learner identity and honesty. Emerging technologies in the form of biometrics, surveillance systems and predictive analytics will be examined to provide insights into the future of e-authentication for ensuring the academic integrity of online learning.
  • Plagiarism in the Research Reports of Indian Doctoral Students: Causes and a Remedial Action Plan

    Tapan Kumar Pradhan; Ajit Kumar (University of Ljubljana, 2023-09-01)
    Many reputable academic journals have retracted research papers from Indian researchers because of plagiarism. The University Grant Commission, a representative organisation of the Indian government, is diligently endeavouring to ensure academic integrity by applying stringent guidelines. The present study aims to find the potential causes of the plagiarism found in the research reports of Indian doctoral students and to formulate a remedial action plan. A literature review was undertaken to identify incidences of plagiarism at educational institutions. Based on the review’s insights, a survey was conducted to investigate doctoral students’ awareness of plagiarism, including causes and remedial action plans. In addition, 21 interviews were conducted with senior academics and professionals from various academic disciplines to gain an understanding of their viewpoints. An analysis was then undertaken of the responses received through the questionnaires and interviews. The results suggested the widespread incidence of plagiarism and shed light on its causes. A remedial action plan emerged from the study, which included 1) establishing a research ethics committee at all academic or research institutions, 2) fostering a correct understanding of plagiarism and its implications by conducting training, workshops and awareness campaigns at an early stage of doctoral students’ lives, 3) ensuring clarity of research purpose among doctoral students and emphasising the quality of research work, 4) developing academic writing skills, and 5) making anti-plagiarism software available free of charge to all students and faculty members. Indian students perceive the University Grant Commission’s stringent guidelines as a good initiative. However, these guidelines cannot be implemented fruitfully without addressing the underlying causes of plagiarism.
  • Policy and legislation challenges for Open Science: Developments in Australia

    Missingham, Roxanne (JOAL: Journal on open access law, 2023-09-26)
    This paper investigates the current state of Open Science policies in
 Australia, focusing on the governance of research data, specifically addressing the processing of personal data for scientific research purposes. The purpose is to understand what challenges currently remain in order to best develop the governance of scientific research in light of Open Science principles. To do so, the study starts
 from the early phases of the development of Open Science, represented by the Open Access movement to scientific publications, up to the analysis of the Australian Data Availability and Transparency Act of 2022, proposing also a commentary on the proposed reforms regarding (i) privacy legislation; (ii) the issue of retention of research data; offering also (iii) a hint at the issue of copyright in relation to research data. From a methodological perspective, the paper is developed from direct engagement in the implementation of Australian Open Science policies and aims to provide an overview of the current situation.
  • Difficulty Of Studying Racism And Xenophobia In Modern Western European Academia: The Case Of France

    Tulun, Teoman Ertuğrul (16302044) (2023-09-04)
    The French academic landscape has been increasingly confronted with contentious debates surrounding the concept of "Islamo-leftism" and the potential influence of foreign states in higher education and research institutions. This paper intends to provide a snapshot introduction to these issues, focusing on the role of key political figures, implications for the study of race and racism in academia, and potential consequences for academic freedom in France. In addition, a fact-finding mission initiated by the "Rassemblement des democrats, progressistes et independants (RDPI)" (The Rally of Democrats, Progressive, and Independent) group in July 2021, under the chairmanship of Senator Etienne Blance and rapporteur Senator André Gattolin, investigated non-European state influences in the French university and academic world. The report from this mission formulated 26 recommendations grouped into five objectives to prepare France and its institutions for the struggle to preserve and better protect the French scientific heritage, academic freedoms, and research integrity from potential foreign interference.
  • An experimental evaluation of an anti-corruption intervention among Ukrainian university students

    Denisova-Schmidt, Elena; Huber, Martin; Prytula, Yaroslav (2016)
    In this paper, we investigate experimentally the effect of an anti-corruption intervention – an info folder based on materials developed by Transparency International – on Ukrainian university students’ willingness to participate in an anticorruption campaign and their general attitude toward corruption. In a survey of 600 students in the Ukrainian city of Lviv, individuals were randomly exposed to either the anti-corruption folder (treatment group) or a folder with information about Lviv (control group). The results suggest that students who have previous experience with bribing are more open to the campaign, while the effect on the total sample is not statistically significant. Furthermore, the intervention increases the overall perception that corruption is a (long-term) part of society rather than a temporary phenomenon. Finally, students with experience in corrupt practices tend to adopt a more negative view of corruption. For those without such experiences, however, we find some indication that the treatment could bolster the acceptance of corruption by instructing the students about its dissemination. The effects of this intervention are therefore ambivalent and appear to depend on the students’ previous exposure to corruption.
  • Reliability or liability in the contemporary mathematics publishing process? An ethical and technological case study

    Alexander Stoimenov (Taylor & Francis Group, 2023-12-01)
    AbstractIn this article, we examine issues of correctness and ethics in mathematics publishing through recent developments in the publishing landscape. Errors are especially critical in mathematics research, but questions on how proper journal management should maintain correctness have received comparatively little attention. As basis of our analysis, we use experiences by the author and colleagues, as well as published accounts of various incidents. Specifically, we build on the monograph case of the preceding article, and discuss actions by the involved parties through a list of anonymous aliases. The study focuses, qualitatively, on conformance to standards of scientific conduct. Exposing dubious practices of editors, authors, and reviewers, we provide evidence that consistency efforts at various venues for scientific communication are insufficient. The role of the internet and digital reserve is discussed, as well as modern trends like automated journal infrastructure, machine verification, and citation statistics. To address the resulting problems, we suggest that paying reviewers is the only viable neutral (bias-unsupportive) reward scheme, but that it must be coupled with stricter journal-internal inspection/grading. We also propose, describing in detail, a facility that allows authors to (discreetly) evaluate editors, and a setup to address correctness disputes.
  • Three years of quality assurance data assessing the performance of over 4000 grant peer review contributions to the Canadian Institutes of Health Research Project Grant Competition

    Clare L. Ardern; Nadia Martino; Sammy Nag; Robyn Tamblyn; David Moher; Adrian Mota; Karim M. Khan (Canadian Science Publishing, 2023-01-01)
    The Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) commenced a Quality Assurance Program in 2019 to monitor the quality of peer review in its Project Grant Competition Peer Review Committees. Our primary aim was to describe the performance of CIHR grant peer reviewers, based on the assessments made by CIHR peer review leaders during the first 3 years of the Research Quality Assurance Program. All Peer Review Committee Chairs and (or) Scientific Officers who led peer review for CIHR in 2019, 2020, and 2021 completed Reviewer Quality Feedback forms immediately following Peer Review Committee meetings. The form assessed Performance, Future potential, Review quality, Participation, and Responsiveness. We summarised and descriptively synthesised data from assessments conducted after each of the four grant competitions. The performance of peer reviewers on 4438 occasions was rated by Chairs and Scientific Officers. Approximately one in three peer reviewers submitted outstanding reviews or discussed additional applications and one in 10 demonstrated potential as a future Peer Review Committee leader. At most, one in 20 peer reviewers was considered to have not performed adequately with respect to review quality, participation, or responsiveness. There is a need for more research on the processes involved in allocating research grant funding.
  • The Tunnel at the End of the Light? A Critical Analysis of the Development of the Tri-Council Policy Statement

    Onyemelukwe, Cheluchi; Downie, Jocelyn (Schulich Law Scholars, 2011-01-01)
    In 1998, the three major government funding Councils put in place the Tri-Council Policy Statement to regulate all research involving humans in Canada conducted at institutions funded by them. In this paper, we examine the process of developing the TCPS, an historic and very important document in Canada’s research ethics landscape, and the application of the democratic values of legitimacy, transparency, representation, accountability, and community engagement in that process. We argue that efforts were made to ensure basic democratic values in the process, but that these attempts should have been taken farther. This examination is a timely exercise in light of the new draft now being prepared to replace the current version of the Tri-Council Policy Statement. We also consider this ongoing process of establishing a new edition and reflect on lessons to be learned.
  • The Canadian Agency for the Oversight of Research Involving Humans: A Reform Proposal

    Downie, Jocelyn (Schulich Law Scholars, 2006-01-01)
    In this paper, I propose the creation of a Canadian agency for the oversight of research involving humans. I describe first a series of significant problems with Canada's current system of oversight. I then argue for the creation of a national-level agency, covering all research involving humans, with three branches (policy and standards, education, and compliance). Of particular note, the proposed compliance branch consists of a number of independent national and regional Research Ethics Boards (i.e., REBs no longer reside within institutions). There is also an Audit Committee and a Non-compliance Committee (with supporting staff of auditors and compliance officers) to ensure compliance with the policies and standards set by the Policy and Standards Branch. Finally, I answer a series of "frequently asked questions" about the proposed agency design such as "What about 'local context'?" and "Why not have a system of accreditation of institutional REBs instead?" In sum, radical reform is needed and, in this paper, I present a proposal for such reform.
  • Código deontológico de la Asociación de Antropología Biológica Argentina para el estudio de poblaciones humanas actuales

    Luis, María Antonia; Caratini, Alicia Liliana; Torres, María Fernanda (2022-01-03)
    El presente Código Deontológico tiene por objetivo precisar un conjunto mínimo de normas éticas recomendadas para el desarrollo del trabajo antropológico que involucre la participación de poblaciones humanas contemporáneas. Surgió en función del mandato establecido por asamblea de la Asociación de Antropología Biológica Argentina (AABA) del año 2011 y fue elaborado, a partir de la consulta de fuentes idóneas. Este documento fue presentado en la asamblea de las Undécimas Jornadas de la AABA y aprobado el 30 de Noviembre de 2013.
  • Formation et transformations de l’esprit scientifique 1934-2022

    Carvallo, Sarah (IRAFPA - Institut International de Recherche et d’Action sur la Fraude et le Plagiat Académiques, 2023-07-14)
    In the 1940, Bachelard and Merton described the formation of the scientific mind and ethos from, respectively, an epistemological reflection and a sociological analysis. This article compares their results with the portrait of contemporary researchers based on quantitative and qualitative surveys to understand the ethical turning point in research that took place from the 2000s onwards. The need for research ethics and scientific integrity responds to a feeling of moral panic resulting from a profound transformation of scientific practices. Not that science was purer before 1990, but the current organization of research as knowledge economy produces new figures such as the researcher as entrepreneurial scientist. This new paradigm accentuates the dilemmas characteristic of the gray area in ethics. In this context, the major risk lies in making ethics and integrity part of the excellence device by instituting an ‘ethocracy’, a regime under which ethics and integrity become just an additional tool of regulation and control, rather than an intrinsic value in science.
  • ArchEthno - a new tool for sharing research materials and a new method for archiving your own research

    Centre Maurice Halbwachs (CMH) ; École des hautes études en sciences sociales (EHESS)-Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)-Département de Sciences sociales ENS-PSL ; École normale supérieure - Paris (ENS-PSL) ; Université Paris sciences et lettres (PSL)-Université Paris sciences et lettres (PSL)-École normale supérieure - Paris (ENS-PSL) ; Université Paris sciences et lettres (PSL)-Université Paris sciences et lettres (PSL); Laboratoire d'Etude du Rayonnement et de la Matière en Astrophysique et Atmosphères = Laboratory for Studies of Radiation and Matter in Astrophysics and Atmospheres (LERMA) ; École normale supérieure - Paris (ENS-PSL) ; Université Paris sciences et lettres (PSL)-Université Paris sciences et lettres (PSL)-Institut national des sciences de l'Univers (INSU - CNRS)-Observatoire de Paris ; Université Paris sciences et lettres (PSL)-Sorbonne Université (SU)-Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)-CY Cergy Paris Université (CY); Artenum, Paris ; Artenum; École normale supérieure - Paris (ENS-PSL) ; Université Paris sciences et lettres (PSL); Université Paris sciences et lettres (PSL); Weber, Florence; Zwölf, Carlo,; Trouche, Arnaud; Tricoche, Agnès; Sastre, José (HAL CCSD, 2023-06-05)
    The archiving of ethnographic material is generally considered a blind spot in ethnographic working methods which place more importance on actual investigations and analysis than on how archives are constructed. A team of computer scientists and ethnographers has built an initial tool for sharing ethnographic materials, based on an SQL relational data model that suited the first survey processed but proved difficult to transpose to other surveys. The team developed a new tool based on dynamic vocabularies of concepts which breaks down archiving into three stages. Firstly ethnographers can select and contextualise their survey materials; secondly they structure them in a database according to the research question discovered during their survey; finally, they share this data with other researchers subject to the opinion of an ethics committee whose members are competent in ethnography.
  • Adoption and use of plagiarism software by postgraduate students in universities in South-west, Nigeria

    Opesanwo, Olusegun Adebayo; Anwana, Hannah Okon (DigitalCommons@University of Nebraska - Lincoln, 2023-01-01)
    Over the years, there has been an increase awakening on plagiarism and the need to curb it, especially among postgraduate students. Hence, the need for them to have a good knowledge of plagiarism software. This study investigates the adoption and use of plagiarism software among postgraduate students in universities in South-west Nigeria. Employing a survey research design and random sampling, thirty-four postgraduate students from each of the universities were selected. The findings of the study revealed a moderate level of awareness among the respondents regarding the availability of plagiarism software. The frequency of use was also found to be low, indicating a gap between awareness and active engagement. Challenges such as subscription costs, inadequate knowledge of software usage, and issues pertaining to power supply and file restrictions were highlighted by the respondents. Despite these challenges, the study revealed a strong motivation among students to employ plagiarism as a means to avoid academic misconduct, adhere to research ethics, and refine their writing skills. In order to address the identified challenges, this study proposed strategies such as comprehensive training programs, improved access to power supply, and efforts to minimize subscription costs. The study concludes by stating the need for universities and educational institutions to prioritise initiatives that support the effective use of plagiarism software, and to address the identified challenges through initiatives such as enhanced training and improved infrastructure which can help to bolster students' engagement with plagiarism software as well as foster a culture of academic integrity and ethical research practices.
  • Корупційні ризики у вищій освіті: види, прояви та протидія.

    Бондаренко, Ольга Сергіївна; Бондаренко, Ольга Сергеевна; Bondarenko, Olha Serhiivna (Всеукраїнська асоціація кримінального права, 2023-07-17)
    Стаття присвячена важливій та актуальній темі – кримінологічній характеристиці особливостей протидії корупційним ризикам у вищій освіті. Автор аналізує роль корупції у сфері вищої освіти. Зокрема, зазначає, що фінансові наслідки корупції в освітній сфері не такі помітні як, наприклад, корупція в економічній, політичній сфері чи сфері державних закупівель, однак важливим завданням є протидія корупції саме в освітній сфері. Наголошується, що в умовах коли системи освіти корумпована, академічні досягнення стають менш важливими, ніж «зв’язки». Це призводить до несправедливого доступу до освітніх можливостей для здобувачів.
 Вивчаються конкретні корупційні дії, які можуть відбуватися на всіх рівнях освітньої системи. Досліджуються визначення поняття «корупційні ризики», надані органами державної влади та викладені у доктринальних джерелах. Зосереджено увагу на групах корупційних ризиків у сфері вищої освіти, а саме ризики: у освітньому, науковому середовищі, ризики в адміністративному процесі та у сфері партнерства. Запропоновано заходи нівелювання корупційних ризиків у сфері вищої освіти. Робиться висновок, що боротьба з корупцією в освіті є важливою для забезпечення рівного доступу до освіти, підвищення якості освіти, зниження рівня бідності та сприяння соціальній стабільності. Для сприяння більш справедливому та рівноправному суспільству вкрай важливо визначити пріоритети зусиль щодо боротьби з корупцією в системі освіти. Виявлення, оцінка та управління корупційними ризиками є важливим аспектом антикорупційних зусиль. Це може включати розробку політики та процедур для запобігання корупції, створення механізмів нагляду та внутрішнього контролю, сприяння прозорості та підзвітності, а також підвищення обізнаності та навчання зацікавлених сторін щодо ризиків та наслідків корупції.
  • Improving publication processes of the Association for Digital Humanities in the German Speaking Areas (DHd) - The DHd Data Steward and the community-driven Task Force "DHd Abstracts"

    Scholger, Walter; Vogeler, Georg; Tasovac, Toma; Baillot, Anne; Raunig, Elisabeth; Scholger, Martina; Steiner, Elisabeth; Centre for Information Modelling; Helling, Patrick; Debbeler, Anke; et al. (2023-06-30)
    In this paper we will present publication workflows developed by the DHd Data Steward for publishing conference papers of the DHd annual conferences and illustrate how the collaboration with the DHd community is an essential part of the improvement of the publication strategy within the DHd association. More precisely, we will introduce the DHd Task Force "DHd Abstracts", which is working on improving the submission and publication processes community-driven.
  • Ethical Impacts of (Not) Sharing Nanosafety Data

    Malsch, Ineke; Isigonis, Panagiotis; Bouman, Evert; Afantitis, Antreas; Melagraki, Georgia; Dusinska, Maria (2023-06-15)
    In RiskGONE, online tools have been developed to guide users through an ethical impact assessment (EIA), as part of a more encompassing modular risk governance framework. The EIA process is based on the CEN pre-standard on EIA (CEN CWA 17145-2:2017). In this poster, the possible added value of the EIA tools was analysed for addressing ethical impacts in decision making on whether or not, and how to share nanosafety data, based on limited open access information found on the internet, and incorporating responses to comments from ethics and data experts.