This collection contains case studies in professional ethics including many professional areas, economic sectors and countries realized in cooperation with Fondation pour le progrès de l'homme (Fph). Originally this project contributed to Fph's project "Casothèque de la responsabilité sociale des cadres" (case study collection of the social responsibility of managers). Case studies are a useful and broadly used method and instrument to strengthen professional ethical behaviour especially in decisions with an ethical dilemma. A collection of case studies is a tool for training and education. An analytical report of the cases is included in the collection: "Casothèque éthique: Collection of Case Studies on Professional Ethics", Report to Fph by Prof. Dr Christoph Stückelberger and Natalie Emch. Since 2018, this collection has been further enlarged to include other case studies related to responsible management worldwide.

Recent Submissions

  • The Impact of a cement company's CSR programmes on the lifestyles of a rural community: a case study in the Ring 1 area in Tuban, East Java, Indonesia

    Rustinsyah (Taylor & Francis Group, 2016-06-25)
    The studies about patterns and impacts of a company’s corporate social responsibility (CSR) programmes on the local communities have been conducted in a number of developed countries. The similar studies, however, were still rarely conducted in developing countries, particularly in Indonesia. This study aims at discussing the impact of the CSR programmes of a cement company on the lifestyles of a rural community in six villages in Tuban district of East Java Province in Indonesia. The study was conducted from January to September 2015, using qualitative data collection and analysis. This study found that the presence of the cement company has made both positive and negative impacts to the rural community. For the positive impacts, we can see the development of infrastructure that makes the villages become more representative; the emergence of new business opportunities, such as food stalls and boarding houses; and the improvement of the quality of human resources through free health care, education, and religious activities. The supports from the cement company, however, have not been distributed equally among the villagers. In addition, we can also see the following negative impacts: the increase of social tense among the villagers due to the tight competition to obtain work in the cement company; the uneasy relation between the local people and the immigrants who work in the cement company; the decrease in the number of people working in agricultural sectors, as most of them have moved or wish to move to the cement company.
  • 'Pro-tobacco propaganda: a case study of tobacco industry-sponsored elementary schools in China

    Fang, Jennifer; Yang, Gonghuan; Wan, Xia (BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, 2020-07-01)
    <sec><st>Background</st> China is the largest producer and consumer of tobacco products worldwide. While direct marketing and advertisement of tobacco products is restricted, indirect marketing still exists under the guise of sponsorship and corporate social responsibility (CSR). This case study is focused on tobacco industry-sponsored elementary schools in Chinese rural areas. </sec> <sec><st>Methods</st> Field visits were conducted in Yunnan province to interview students, teachers, school principals and parents to understand their perceptions of the tobacco industry and its sponsorship of schools. Interviews with tobacco control activists were conducted in Beijing to discuss national tobacco control efforts targeting tobacco industry sponsorship. Interview data were transcribed and coded, with key themes developed using thematic analysis. </sec> <sec><st>Results</st> While health consequences of smoking are generally known, attitudes towards the tobacco industry and its CSR activities remain positive among the general public. Educators and parents do not perceive any impacts on schoolchildren from exposure to ‘pro-tobacco propaganda’ created by the industry’s CSR activities. Attitudes among tobacco control activists were drastically different, with consensus that CSR activities constitute indirect marketing attempts that should be banned. </sec> <sec><st>Conclusion</st> National tobacco control legislation banning all forms of indirect marketing including CSR is needed in order to protect the health of future generations. </sec>
  • A methodology to measure the quality of tax avoidance case studies: Findings from the Netherlands

    Gunn, A.F. (Anna F.); Koch, D.-J. (Dirk-Jan); Weyzig, F. (Francis) (2020-06-01)
    In recent years, there have been substantial efforts to combat corporate tax avoidance. These efforts have been propelled in part by mediatized case studies, conducted by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and other groups, on the tax avoidance practices of multinational enterprises. These case studies have been criticized because they allegedly lack quality, but this criticism has not been assessed academically. This research seeks to address that gap. It proposes a new methodology to analyze the quality of these case studies systematically. We construct ten indicators related to alleged weaknesses and use these to assess 14 case studies involving Dutch corporate entities. We find that the quality of these case studies is affected negatively by a lack of adequate data. Thus, if companies and governments enhance transparency, this could increase the quality of case studies by NGOs and other groups. In addition to this, we find that the NGOs and other groups themselves can sometimes increase the quality of their case studies by investing in technical expertise and adopting practices that foster objectivity. The methodology developed for this study could also be of use for other topical debates, such as disclosure requirements and corporate social responsibility reporting. Whereas we were able to address challenges related to internal validity, the external validity of the findings could still be improved by extending the selection of case studies.
  • The link between Corporate Social Responsibility and Competitive Advantage: A Case Study of Carlsberg

    Kacanski, Slobodan; Jensen, Magnus Gustav da Silva Georg; Olsen, Caroline (Roskilde Universitet, 2020)
    The use of corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives has become increasingly more popular for businesses in efforts to convey consumers. This paper will engage with a single case study of how the danish brewing company Carlsberg, has enabled corporate social responsibility. The research will take departure from a survey concerning consumer behaviour, while cross examining the results with secondary literature. We will investigate if we can observe corporate social responsibility creating a competitive advantage for Carlsberg, and detail how they correlate to strategic CSR specifically in relation to the theory provided by Michael E. Porter and Mark R. Kramer. Our findings showcase that Carlsberg has been able to generate a compelling impetus to create a competitive advantage. Mainly through the inter connected use of inside-out and outside-in elements of strategic CSR.
  • Emerging 'Standard Complex' and Corporate Social Responsibility of Agro-food Businesses: A Case Study of Dole Food Company

    Innovation et Développement dans l'Agriculture et l'Alimentation ; Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement (Cirad)-Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA)-Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier (Montpellier SupAgro); Japan Society for the Promotion of Science; Graduate School of Economics ; Kyoto University [Kyoto]; Sekine, Kae; Boutonnet, Jean-Pierre; Hisano, Shuji (HAL CCSD, 2008)
    SAD CT3 Kae Sekine est doctorante en Economie
  • Mainstreaming fair trade: a discussion through the Lipton tea case

    Alimentation et sciences sociales (ALISS) ; Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA); Patriçia Crifo (Editeur); Jean-Pierre Ponssard (Editeur); Poret, Sylvaine, (HAL CCSDEditions de l'Ecole Polytechnique, 2010)
    Fair trade has undergone a relative exceptional growth for two decades, thanks to the creation and expansion of Fair trade certified food products in large-scale distribution. Fair trade development with a mainstreaming-as-product certification provokes a big debate within the fair trade movement. The aim of this chapter is to explain this controversy with a case study, a partnership between Unilever and the Rainforest Alliance on Lipton tea in order to implement a Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) strategy in a supply chain context. In this case, a mainstream approach is also pointed out.
  • Factors Affecting Ethical Attitude toward Business (Case study: Female Students of Shahid Beheshti University)

    Amirhossein Tayebi Abolhasani; Mohammad Khodabakhshi; Zahra Azizian khalkhooran (University of Isfahan, 2019-12-01)
    <strong>Introduction</strong> Nowadays, compilation of ethical standards for different professions is an inevitable necessity throughout the world, and it is entirely accepted that, without these standards, there is no hope for proper functioning of professional and occupation rules in various disciplines and professions. Such a need has been felt over the years and has become one of the major concerns in the world's academic and commercial fields, and even international institutions. Therefore some of the major universities in the world began to offer some courses in the field of business ethics and some major companies have also proceeded in compilation of codes of conduct, in order to carry out their business activities within the frameworks of these codes of conduct, and international institutions have prepared alliances to integrate business companies into these frameworks. In Iran, some studies have been conducted on various aspects of business ethics in recent years. But there is no comprehensive research on ethical attitudes of female students who can be future businesses managers or authorities. The present research will undoubtedly create an important contribution to the understanding and recognition of attitudes of future Iranian business managers. This recognition can be used to make appropriate policies in education and decision-making. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the factors affecting students' ethical attitudes toward business using subject literatures and also field study.   <strong><br clear="all" /> </strong> <strong>Material & Methods</strong> The method of this study is descriptive-survey, and in terms of purpose, it is an applied-development research. The statistical population of this study is 210 female students living in the dormitory of Shahid Beheshti University and random sampling was used to select 134 people according to Morgan table. The main tool for collecting information is the questionnaire. In this research, to test the hypotheses and models of structural equations based on variance using partial least squares method, SPSS and PLS software are used. The formal and logical validity of the questionnaire's content was also reviewed by experts including 5 specialist professors in this regard. After studying the measurement tool of the research, the general approach to the model and the examination of the hypotheses are discussed. After reviewing the literature and research background of the study, in order to investigate factors affecting the ethical attitude toward business by the moderating role of age, marriage, education, field of study and work experience, the research hypotheses were formulated in the form of six hypotheses as follows: Ethical factors have a significant effect on the ethical attitude toward business. Age as a moderator variable, moderates the effect of ethical factors on ethical attitudes toward business. Marriage as a moderator variable, moderates the effect of ethical factors on ethical attitudes toward business. Degree of education as a moderator variable, moderates the effect of ethical factors on the ethical attitude toward the business. The field of study as a moderator variable moderates the effect of ethical factors on the ethical attitude toward the business. Work experience as a moderator variable, moderates the effect of ethical factors on the ethical attitude toward the business.   <strong>Discussion of Results & Conclusions</strong> The results of studying six hypotheses showed that four hypotheses were confirmed and two hypotheses were rejected, which are briefly discussed below. In hypothesis 1, this issue was discussed that the ethical factors have a significant effect on the ethical attitude toward the business. Undoubtedly, some individual conditions, regardless of intrapersonal factors, have an effect on ethics. Some parameters such as the growth of greed, discontent, or profiteering, individual selfishness are related to personal ethics. Some other parameters such as lack of awareness of professional ethics, lack of interest and knowledge of the profession, lack of conscience, lack of social responsibility, modeling of inappropriate people are in the field of professional ethics and among all, diminished religiosity and adherence to the principles of business are of these items. Age as a moderator variable does not moderate the effect of ethical factors on ethical attitudes toward business. This outcome may be related to the age of the research sample, which is between the ages of 15 and 40. Marriage as a moderator variable, modifies the effect of ethical factors on the ethical attitude toward the business, so that married women tend to have a better ethical attitude toward business than single women. This conclusion shows that married women are likely to have a higher ethical attitude than single women, because they have more positive attitude towards life and accept responsibility for their marriage life. Their marriage makes the effect of ethical factors stronger on ethical attitudes toward business. Education degree as a moderator variable, moderates the effect of ethical factors on ethical attitudes toward business. In other words, according to the results, this means that ethical factors are lower in undergraduate students. Postgraduate students who have higher academic level strengthen this relationship. It means that more academic literacy has a more powerful positive moderator effect. In addition, the status of academic majors as a moderating variable, moderates the effect of ethical factors on the ethical attitude toward business. According to the results, ethical factors are less common in social science students, and this relationship is weakened by social science students and strengthened by the students of engineering and basic sciences. The warning of this result is that unfortunately, students of social sciences, which have a higher chance of gaining responsibility and management, have a weaker ethical attitude. The results of work experience also indicate that the ethical attitude among different majors is almost the same, and work experience as a moderating variable does not moderate the effect of ethical factors on the ethical attitude toward the business.
  • Are Administrators Disconnected? A Comparison Case Study of Important Teacher Dispositions in Elementary Science

    Stewart, Bethany; Eick, Charles (FHSU Scholars Repository, 2010-01-01)
    The identification of dispositions as a gauge for teacher effectiveness has become a part of many school systems and teacher education programs. Accrediting agencies, such as the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) and the Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (INTASC), have been instrumental in emphasizing teacher dispositions’ presence in higher education institutions and local schools. NCATE defines dispositions as: “Values, commitments, and professional ethics that influence behaviors toward students, families, colleagues, and communities and affect student learning, motivation, and development as well as the educator’s own professional growth” (2006, p. 53). NCATE and INTASC strongly suggest that teachers have certain dispositions to allow for teacher effectiveness (Smith, Knopp, Skarbek, & Rushton, 2005; Thornton, 2006; Koeppen & Davison-Jenkins, 2007). Administrators’ view of teacher dispositions is valuable as well. They will need to assess teachers’ dispositions to determine the effectiveness of instruction and their attitude towards the teaching profession.
  • ORIGINAL ARTICLE Corresponding Author The effect of corporate social performance on financial performance in the listed companies in Tehran Stock Exchange (Case study: service firms)

    The Pennsylvania State University CiteSeerX Archives; Sara Touri; Sara Touri; Hamed Abbaspour; Sara Touri (2020-05-20)
    ABSTRACT With globalization pressures and increasing burdens on governments to provide comprehensive social services, there is now a need to better understand how firms play their part in sharing these burdens. In this study, the influence of social performance on financial performance in the listed companies at Tehran Stock Exchange ( T. S. E) is evaluated. The relationship between corporate social performance and corporate financial performance has been studied intensively with mixed results. Although the relationship between corporate social responsibility and financial performance has become a hot topic of the Western management community after several decades of arguments, there is still no empirical literature about the relationship between Iranians companies' CSR and financial performance. According to these the purpose of the paper is to examine the relationship between corporate social performance and financial performance in Iranian context. In this study, based on the rating of a specialized rating agency; Vigeo, the CSR variable include four dimensions: Work conditions, Environment, Business behavior and society and local community. There are two control variables: Size of firm that has been measured by" number of personnel" and risk of firm that has been measured by" debt/asset". In our study, firm financial performance measured by ROA, ROE, Tobin's Q and EVA. For gathering information about CSR and it's dimensions, we have used a questionnaire and also about financial performance, we have used financial documents of firms and "Rah Avarde Novin " software (one Iranian software) and formal website of Tehran stock exchange. For analyzing data, our statistical technique is multivariate regression. Population of this study is all the accepted firms at the TSE. The results showed that in the short term, social performance has negative and significant impact on accounting measures of financial performance. Also social performance in the long term, affect financial performance and its components positively.
  • Tyco International Ltd. Case Study: The Implications of Unethical Behavior

    Thanos, Lori M. (FHSU Scholars Repository, 2018-02-26)
    The following analysis of the Tyco International Ltd. (Tyco) case will discuss an historical summary of Tyco, including a backdrop on its former CEO, Dennis Kozlowski and Tyco’s culture at the time. The case will also define the role of ethical leadership’s contribution to the organizational success and the unethical and illegal conduct of Tyco’s leaders including the costs to its internal and external stakeholders, such as gross misappropriation of company funds on personal expenditures and duplicitous stock sales. Additionally, the case study will describe the importance of corporate social responsibility (CSR) to the organization, specifically, how Tyco failed to meet its CSR obligations. It also depicts the consequences to stakeholders with regard to cultural, environmental, and legal implications of CSR failures. Further, an examination is made of the outcome and punishment of events including the fairness of those punishments. Finally, the study will propose recommendations for ethical behavior with regard to corporate actions and organizational sustainability.
  • The Role of Corporate Social Responsibility on Sustainable Development: A Case Study of the Gold Mining Community of Wadi Halfa Municipality-Northern State Sudan

    Rai, Sudhanshu; Eisa Osman, Emad Abdullah (Copenhagen Business School, 2018)
    The thesis explores and explains Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and its impact on the sustainable development of people living in a gold mining community, Wadi Halfa Town of Sudan. Through observations, document analysis and conduction of interviews of the local citizens, it seeks to assess the impact of gold mining operations on various aspects of the lives of the local people. Sudan is known as a country of a lot of political problems and long-lasting civil wars with poor economic indicators. Wadi Halfa mine is over 15 years old, and the practice of mining is said to be new for the area, taking this into consideration, the lack of mining experience has led to exercises of mal practices which consequently drew the whole area into environmental problems, security instability and civil conflicts. Various theorists and institutions, including international institutions such as the IFC, and DFID have defined sustainable development in their own context but in this thesis, the definition of sustainable development is drawn from the Rio conference; Our Common Future which defines sustainable development as “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (Brundtland, 1987: 43). In another way, it could be defined as development that conserves and protects our resources. An interesting way of testing this definition is the case study of a natural resource rich (specifically gold) community. The virtue of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as the voluntary incorporation of social and environmental concerns into business conduct has established itself as an international norm. Businesses, intellectuals, local and international development agencies like the USAID have embraced this concept with the hope that it could bring about sustainable development to developing countries. Although Dosa Multi Activities Company (DMAC) - seems to uphold the concept of social responsibility, their willingness and zeal to ensure the reality of such policies are almost non-existent. CSR is best practiced when done in partnership with the local community, but in the case of DMAC, the formulation and implementation of the policies are done by the company with very little consultation with the people. Nonetheless, it expects the community to accept their stretched hand of philanthropy as a favor from them and not complain about the economic, cultural, social and environmental hazards that they have to endure as a result of the operations of the mine. Being a signatory to the Global Compact agreement and the ISO 14001, the company has tried to consistently improve their social commitment but they still have a very long way to go, if we want to see sustainable development in Wadi Halfa Town as defined by the Rio conference.

    Simek, Patrick; Kauppakorkeakoulu; School of Business; Mikkelin kampus; Aalto University; Aalto-yliopisto; Nousiainen, Onni (2020-05-10)
    Objectives The main objective of this study was to study to the effects of a multinational corporation to its host country via a case study of the diamond industry company De Beers. This study seeks to identify the strategies and practices through which De Beers operates and furthermore, this study contributes to the larger discussion of the practices of multinational corporations in global business environment. Summary De Beers has operated in diamond industry from the late 19th century, with first operations in South Africa and later expanding to Namibia, Botswana and Canada. Through aggressive growth strategies and highly effective marketing campaigns, De Beers achieved a practical monopoly position in global diamond markets which continued until the start of the 21st century. Due to its growth and success, De Beers has had a notable effect on its host country’s economy. These effects range from the relationship with the government (such as taxation, corruption and environmental standards) to other effects (such as effects to GDP, HDI and Corporate Social Responsibility practices) Conclusions De Beers adjusts its practices according to its host country and adheres to the local practices instead of maintain a set of global standards. This means that in less developed countries with a lower level of legal framework, De Beers operates with less control and as such engages in unethical or illegal practices sch as transfer pricing or tax evasion. Furthermore, De Beers appears to support the status quo of the countries with higher levels of corruption as it can positively impact its business. This indicates that De Beers is a highly profit-seeking company, with its practices geared towards simple profit maximization. However, De Beers has maintained high quality environmental standards throughout its different operations, indicating a clear interest in developing its business in an environmentally responsible manner.
  • CSR Partnership Model for Sustainable MSMEs Development: A Case Study of the Partnership Program at PT Jasa Marga (Persero) Tbk

    Yani Hendrayani; Siti maryam; Uljanatunnisa Uljanatunnisa (Laboratorium Rekayasa Sosial, Jurusan Sosiologi, FISIP Universitas Bangka Belitung, 2020-04-01)
    This research aims to examine Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Partnership Program to find an optimal and sustainable partnership model between State-owned Enterprises (SOEs) and Micro Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) to advance the people's economic sector. This research was qualitative research with a case study approach. Data collection techniques used in this research were in-depth interviews, observation, and literature studies. In-depth interviews were conducted with 3 informants chosen as representatives of PT Jasa Marga (Persero) Tbk and 6 informants were taken as participants in Focus Group Discussions representing MSMEs fostered partners in the Jagorawi - Cikampek Toll network area. Informants were selected using a purposive sampling technique. The results showed that the CSR partnership model between SOEs and MSMEs is based on mutual respect, transparency, good communication and trust, mutual benefit to those involved, and has a consistent commitment from both parties.
  • Added value and constraints of transdiciplinary case studies in environmental science curricula

    Bootsma, M C; Vermeulen, W J V; van Dijk, J; Schot, P P (2014)
    Sustainable development issues are characterised by their multidisciplinary character, and the fact they are not merely an academic exercise but pertain to real-world problems. Academic sustainable development curricula should therefore not only focus on developing the analytical and research skills and theoretical and professional knowledge of their students; they should also include real-world learning opportunities in the curriculum. This paper evaluates the added value and constraints associated with a speci fic type of real-world learning called transdisciplinary learning, based on the experiences with three courses fromthe undergraduate and graduate Environmental Sciences curriculum of Utrecht University, the Netherlands. In these courses, students carry out a small multidisciplinary research project or a consultancy project for a real-life client. It is concluded that transdisciplinary courses have clear added value for students, involved stakeholders, and the university alike, making them an essential part of the sustainable development curricula. The main constraint is the balance between academic quality (grading) vs stakeholder satisfaction. Although time investments for adequate problem definition with clientsmay constitute a constraint for university supervisors, it has the potential added value of sparking research cooperation with societal stakeholders, and internships and employment opportunities for graduates.
  • How are companies addressing sustainability?: the pedagogical case study of Sociedade Central de Cervejas e Bebidas

    Simaens, Ana; Sobral, Sara Nunes (2020-01-16)
    Companies are being called to action by their consumers and even by governments. Both
 “Sustainability” and “Corporate Social Responsibility”, however, are still very broad
 concepts, which makes it harder for organizations to successfully implement a business
 strategy that takes into account and compensates for the impact of their operations in
 society. This pedagogical case study is focused on Sociedade Central de Cervejas e
 Bebidas, one of the two leading Portuguese brewers and which is part of the Heineken
 Group, and how it has developed its own sustainability strategy – more, how has
 Heineken, as an international group, contributed to this process? Taking this into account,
 the case study explores strategic management tools for organizations to understand their
 environment and capabilities and to recognize potential barriers when setting the strategic
 path. Additionally, it identifies not only why are companies tackling sustainability, but
 also which challenges do they face when so doing. As such, this case study represents a
 useful tool to realize the magnitude of strategic management on a real company and
 provides outlines for consideration when seeking to implement a sustainability strategy.
  • Corporate social responsibility practices: a case study of Automotive Company X in Pietermaritzburg.

    Beharry-Ramraj, Andrisha.; Malinga, Sibusisiwe Anele. (2020-04-03)
    Masters Degree. University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban.
  • Integrating Consumer Values in the CSR Communication of Jewellery Companies: The Case Study of PANDORA

    Tollin, Karin; Marekova, Veronika; Noikov, Stanislav (Copenhagen Business School, 2018)
    The purpose of the research is to explore the values which come into play when young consumers buy jewellery produced in a sustainable way. Studying these values and the overall understanding of young buyers about the topic of sustainability is necessary for companies in order to conceptualize and implement the right strategies when it comes to communicating corporate social responsibility (CSR) efforts to their target audiences. A single-case study of the jewellery brand PANDORA has been used in order to gain insights about jewellery companies’ CSR communication towards their stakeholders. In order to make proposals how CSR communication can be improved, young consumers’ values, drivers and understanding of sustainability in the context of jewellery has been researched.
  • Impacts of corporate social responsibility toward employees on employee motivation in enterprises: A case study in Vietnam

    Nguyen Thi Minh Phuong; Nguyen Van Song; Tran Quang Bach; Pham Thi Huyen Sang (Growing Science, 2020-04-01)
    The research aims to test the impact of corporate social responsibility toward employees on employee motivation in Vietnamese businesses. Based on 804 samples, results show that, be-sides the factors of opportunistic behavior, all factors of trust and social responsibility had positive impacts on employee motivation. In particular, the trust has the largest level of influence. The study also pointed out the opposite effect of the trust and social responsibility factors of enterprises toward employees on opportunistic behavior in enterprises. The authors propose a number of recommendations to increase employee motivation in businesses in emerging economies, including Vietnam.
  • Big Data Partnerships for Sustainable Development: The Role of Multinational IT Corporations: A Case Study of SAP’s Engagement in the Global Partnership for Sustainable Development Data

    Henningsson, Stefan; Chinnow, Mirjam Sophie; Boeckmann, Jonas (Copenhagen Business School, 2018)
    The emergence of big data has long exerted its influence in the business sector. Inter-organizational information sharing (IOIS) has become an increasing trend. As a result, an increasing body of research literature exists on IOIS in private sector alliances and in public-private partnerships. Yet, a new trend has not been in the spotlight of research so far: the emergence of complex multi-stakeholder networks bringing together actors from all three sectors (social, public, private) to leverage IT and data sharing for sustainable development. This study takes a first step in exploring these multi-stakeholder networks through the lens of collective action theory, by focusing on the role of multinational IT corporations within these networks and their reasons for participation. Through a case study analysis, it is revealed that these corporations are strategic members of high relevance, because they bring in unique resources complementary to those of other members and have the potential to catalyze collective action. Yet, their diverging interests pose a challenge for the governance of the collective action. Within the network, the role of multinational IT corporations is still evolving and continues to be formed externally and internally through an interplay of the collective action organizers, the other actors within the collective action, the companies themselves and the involved individual employees. The individual employees are primarily motivated by philanthropic, normative reasons while on a company level these new networks are understood as an opportunity to create shared business and social value.

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