Phylogeographic patterns of Merodon hoverflies in the Eastern Mediterranean region: revealing connections and barriers
Pérez Bañón, Celeste
Rojo Velasco, Santos
Contributor(s)Bionomía, Sistemática e Investigación Aplicada de Insectos Dípteros e Himenópteros
Universidad de Alicante. Departamento de Ciencias Ambientales y Recursos Naturales
Universidad de Alicante. Centro Iberoamericano de la Biodiversidad
Full recordShow full item record
AbstractWe investigated the phylogeographic patterns of Merodon species (Diptera, Syrphidae) in the Eastern Mediterranean. Ten species were sampled on five different islands and mainland sites as a minimum. All samples were screened for their mtDNA COI barcode haplotype diversity, and for some samples, we additionally generated genomic fingerprints. The recently established zoogeographic distribution categories classify these species as having (1) Balkan distribution; (2) Anatolian distribution; (3) continental areas and large islands distribution; and (4) with wide distribution. The ancestral haplotypes and their geographical localities were estimated with statistical parsimony (TCS). TCS networks identified as the ancestral haplotype samples that originated from localities situated within the distributional category of the species in question. Strong geographical haplotype structuring was detected for many Merodon species. We were particularly interested to test the relative importance of current (Aegean Sea) and past Mid-Aegean Trench) barriers to dispersal for Merodon flies in the Aegean. We employed phylogenetic β-diversity (Pβtotal) and its partition in replacement (Pβrepl) and richness difference (Pβrich) to test the importance of each explanatory variable (interisland distance, MAT, and island area) in interisland differences using partial Mantel tests and hierarchical partitioning of variation. β-Analyses confirmed the importance of both current and past barriers to dispersal on the evolution of group. Current interisland distance was particularly important to explain the replacement of haplotypes, while the MAT was driving differences in richness of haplotypes, revealing the MAT as a strong past barrier whose effects are still visible today in the phylogenetic history of the clade in the Aegean. These results support the hypothesis of a highly restricted dispersal and gene flow among Merodon populations between islands since late Pleistocene. Additionally, patterns of phylogeographic structure deduced from haplotype connections and ISSR genome fingerprinting data revealed a few putative cases of human-mediated transfers of Merodon spp.
This research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund – ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program “Education and Lifelong Learning” of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) – Research Funding Program: THALES. Investing in knowledge society through the European Social Fund,” and Carl Cedercreutz Foundation, Helsinki, Finland.
Ecology and Evolution. 2016, 6(7): 2226-2245. doi:10.1002/ece3.2021