Social vulnerability: the case of young people not in education, employment, or training (NEETs)
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AbstractIf the traditional dynamics of social exclusion were characterized by consistency and duration, to be analyzed from a micro perspective, the today’s dynamics are inextricably linked to phenomena at the macro level. The aim of this paper is to highlight the relevance of the dynamics related to the characteristics of a specifi c territorial system. Indeed, the paper provides an ecological analysis of the NEET phenomenon, i.e. a specifi c and particularly worrying form of exclusion, which is closely associated with the risk that the effects on youth of a prolonged economic crisis could take root, thereby becoming a structural problem that is more diffi cult to tackle. By means of a survey carried out according to the CATI method on a representative sample of NEETs registered at the Job Center of Massa Carrara, the study compared the characteristics of these NEETs, from both a quantitative and qualitative point of view, with those of the average Italian NEET, highlighting trends and specifi c processes peculiar to a worldwide phenomenon. The obtained results may very well qualify in order to review the setup of certain public programs dedicated to combating this phenomenon that, on the contrary, remain anchored to the micro perspective.
Si la dinámica tradicional de la exclusión social se presenta con carácter de consistencia y duración, y se presta a ser investigada por una perspectiva micro, los procesos de fragilización contemporáneos, con todo el drama que conllevan, muestran una conexión muy estrecha con fenómenos a nivel macro. Con la intención de poner en evidencia la relevancia de las dinámicas más amplias relacionadas con las características del sistema territorial, el artículo propone un análisis ecológico del fenómeno Neet, considerado un específi co proceso de exclusión de especial preocupación; en efecto, está fuertemente asociado con el riesgo de que los efectos económicos de una crisis prolongada en el empleo juvenil se afi ancen, lo que resultaría en problemas estructurales más difíciles de tratar. A través de una encuesta, llevada a cabo con el método CATI sobre una muestra representativa de los jóvenes Neet inscritos en el Centro de Empleo, el estudio compara las características cuantitativas y cualitativas de los Neet en un contexto local confrontado con los de la media italiana, destacando las tendencias y procesos específi cos que caracterizan de manera muy peculiar un fenómeno universal. Los resultados merecerían ser considerados para una revisión programática de algunos programas públicos dedicados a la lucha contra este fenómeno, que, por el contrario, permanecen anclados a una perspectiva micro.
(Revista) ISSN 1575-0817
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Social Protection in Low Income Countries and Fragile Situations : Challenges and Future DirectionsOvadiya, Mirey; Zampaglione, Giuseppe; Das, Maitreyi; Andrews, Colin; Elder, John (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2013-05-28)Demand for social protection is growing in low income countries and fragile situations. In recent years, the success of social protection (SP) interventions in middle income countries (MICs) like Brazil and Mexico, along with the series of food, fuel, and financial crises, has prompted policymakers in low income countries (LICs) and fragile situations (FSs) to examine the possibility of introducing such programs in their own countries. Flagship programs in countries as diverse as Ethiopia, India, Pakistan, and Rwanda have shown the adaptability of social protection interventions to the LIC context. Yet, despite growing levels of support for these initiatives, many challenges remain. In LICs and FSs, governments are confronted with a nexus of mutually reinforcing deficits that increase the need for SP programs and simultaneously reduce their ability to successfully respond. Governments face hard choices about the type, affordability, and sustainability of SP interventions. The paper reviews how these factors affect SP programs in these countries and identifies ways to address the deficits. It supports the establishment of resilient SP systems to address specific needs and vulnerabilities and to respond flexibly to both slow and sudden onset crises. To achieve this, both innovation and pragmatism are required in three strategic areas: (i) building the basic blocks of SP systems (e.g., targeting, payments, and monitoring and evaluation); (ii) ensuring financial sustainability; and (iii) promoting good governance and transparency. These issues suggest the possibility of a different trajectory in the development of social protection in LICs than in MICs. The implications for World Bank support include the need to focus on increasing knowledge and operational effectiveness of SP programs, fostering institutional links between multiple SP programs, and using community capacity and technological innovations to overcome bottlenecks in operations.
Managing Risk, Promoting GrowthWorld Bank (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-02-08)A growing body of evidence demonstrates
that individuals and households experience a range of
positive outcomes from social protection. Social protection
increases productivity and growth. Countries can realize
significant benefits by creating an integrated social
protection system. Social protection is affordable in
low-income countries despite tight budgets. While overall
spending on social protection in Africa remains low by
international standards, experience suggests that social
protection programs can achieve national coverage at the
cost of only 1 to 2 percent of gross domestic product (GDP).
While this is only a portion of the financing required to
operate a social protection system, it draws attention to
what countries can achieve in the short-term. Indeed, one
way in which existing social protection spending can be made
significantly more efficient would be by reallocating
existing financing for inefficient subsidies and ad hoc
emergency food aid to predictable safety nets. At the same
time, pursuing reforms to social security systems will
ensure their fiscal sustainability, while expanding
coverage. Notably, the costs of not protecting poor families
are very high, are borne disproportionately by women and
children, and undermine the productivity of future
generations. The Strategy will be implemented by leveraging
partnerships, knowledge, and the World Bank's financing
instruments. The World Bank will continue to invest in
analytical work to fill knowledge gaps and promote an
evidence-based dialogue for social protection systems in
Africa and further innovation. It will work with governments
to build country-owned national social protection systems
with the aim of reducing fragmentation in the sector. The
Bank also will pay particular attention to institutional
development and capacity building by using its lending to
increase the coverage of successful social protection
interventions. Throughout this work, the Bank will work in
coordination with governments, development partners, the
private sector, academics, civil society, and beneficiaries.