The social norms of birth cohorts and adolescent marijuana use in the United States, 1976???2007
Author(s)Keyes, Katherine M.
Schulenberg, John E.
O'Malley, Patrick M.
Johnston, Lloyd D.
Bachman, Jerald G.
Contributor(s)Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA
New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, NY, USA
Department of Anesthesiology, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA
Department of Psychiatry, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA
Full recordShow full item record
AbstractAims??? Studies of the relationship between social norms and marijuana use have generally focused on individual attitudes, leaving the influence of larger societal???level attitudes unknown. The present study investigated societal???level disapproval of marijuana use defined by birth cohort or by time???period. Design??? Combined analysis of nationally representative annual surveys of secondary school students in the United States conducted from 1976 to 2007 as part of the Monitoring the Future study. Setting??? In???school surveys completed by adolescents in the United States. Participants??? A total of 986???003 adolescents in grades 8, 10 and 12. Measurements??? Main predictors included the percentage of students who disapproved of marijuana in each birth cohort and time???period. Multi???level models with individuals clustered in time???periods of observation and birth cohorts were modeled, with past???year marijuana use as the outcome. Findings??? Results indicated a significant and strong effect of birth cohort disapproval of marijuana use in predicting individual risk of marijuana use, after controlling for individual???level disapproval, perceived norms towards marijuana and other characteristics. Compared to birth cohorts in which most (87???90.9%) adolescents disapproved of marijuana use, odds of marijuana use were 3.53 times higher in cohorts where fewer than half (42???46.9%) disapproved (99% confidence interval: 2.75, 4.53). Conclusions??? Individuals in birth cohorts that are more disapproving of marijuana use are less likely to use, independent of their personal attitudes towards marijuana use. Social norms and attitudes regarding marijuana use cluster in birth cohorts, and this clustering has a direct effect on marijuana use even after controlling for individual attitudes and perceptions of norms.
Keyes, Katherine M.; Schulenberg, John E.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Li, Guohua; Hasin, Deborah (2011). "The social norms of birth cohorts and adolescent marijuana use in the United States, 1976???2007." Addiction 106(10). <http://hdl.handle.net/2027.42/86928>
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) ( 2005 ) Results from the 2004 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings. Office of Applied Studies, N. S. H.???.DHHS Publication No. SMA 05???4062 (Ed.). Rockville, MD: SAMHSA. Available at http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/nsduh/2k4nsduh/2k4results/2k4results.htm (archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/5z7QGt8zZ ).
Johnston L. D., O'Malley P. M., Bachman J. G., Schulenberg J. E. Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975???2006: vol. I, Secondary School Students. Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse; 2007. Available at: http://monitoringthefuture.org/ (accessed 30 May 2011; archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/5z7Q2h5Vf ).
Hibell B., Guttormsson U., Ahlstrom S., Balakireva O., Bjarnason T., Kokkevi A. et???al. The 2007 ESPAD report???substance use among students in 35 European countries. The Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs (CAN), 2009. Available at: http://www.espad.org/espad???reports (accessed 30 May 2011; archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/5z7Q7yJxI ).
Johnston L. D., O'Malley P. M., Bachman J. G., Schulenberg J. E. Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975???2009. Vol. II: College Students and Adults Ages 19???50. NIH Publication no. 10???7585. Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse; 2010.
King K. M., Chassin L. A prospective study of the effects of age of initiation of alcohol and drug use on young adult substance dependence. J Stud Alcohol Drugs 2007; 68: 256 ??? 65.
Kandel D. B., Yamaguchi K., Chen K. Stages of progression in drug involvement from adolescence to adulthood: further evidence for the gateway theory. J Stud Alcohol 1992; 53: 447 ??? 57.
Grant B. F. Age at smoking onset and its association with alcohol consumption and DSM???IV alcohol abuse and dependence: results from the National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey. J Subst Abuse 1998; 10: 59 ??? 73.
Chen C. Y., Storr C. L., Anthony J. C. Early???onset drug use and risk for drug dependence problems. Addict Behav 2009; 34: 319 ??? 22.
Lynskey M., Hall W. The effects of adolescent cannabis use on educational attainment: a review. Addiction 2000; 95: 1621 ??? 30.
Chatterji P. Illicit drug use and educational attainment. Health Econ 2006; 15: 489 ??? 511.
Lemstra M., Bennett N. R., Neudorf C., Kunst A., Nannapaneni U., Warren L. M. et???al. A meta???analysis of marijuana and alcohol use by socio???economic status in adolescents aged 10???15 years. Can J Public Health 2008; 99: 172 ??? 7.
Merline A. C., O'Malley P. M., Schulenberg J. E., Bachman J. G., Johnston L. D. Substance use among adults 35 years of age: prevalence, adulthood predictors, and impact of adolescent substance use. Am J Public Health 2004; 94: 96 ??? 102.
Fergusson D. M., Woodward L. J., Horwood L. J. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and psychiatric adjustment in late adolescence. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1998; 55: 721 ??? 7.
Biglan A., Duncan T. E., Ary D. V., Smolkowski K. Peer and parental influences on adolescent tobacco use. J Behav Med 1995; 18: 315 ??? 30.
Hill K. G., Hawkins J. D., Catalano R. F., Abbott R. D., Guo J. Family influences on the risk of daily smoking initiation. J Adolesc Health 2005; 37: 202 ??? 10.
Pilgrim C. C., Schulenberg J. E., O'Malley P. M., Bachman J. G., Johnston L. D. Mediators and moderators of parental involvement on substance use: a national study of adolescents. Prev Sci 2006; 7: 75 ??? 89.
Fergusson D. M., Horwood L. J., Lynskey M. T. Parental separation, adolescent psychopathology, and problem behaviors. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1994; 33: 1122 ??? 31.
Burt S. A., Barnes A. R., McGue M., Iacono W. G. Parental divorce and adolescent delinquency: ruling out the impact of common genes. Dev Psychol 2008; 44: 1668 ??? 77.
Kandel D. B. On process of peer influences in adolescent drug use: a developmental perspective. In: Brook D. W., Lettieri D. J., editors. Alcohol and Substance Abuse in Adolescence. Binghampton, NY: Hayworth Press; 1985, p. 139 ??? 64.
Wang, J., Simons???Morton, B. G., Farhat, T., Luk, J. W. Socio???demographic variability in adolescent substance use: mediation by parents and peers. Prev Sci 2009; 10: 387 ??? 96.
Bachman J. G., O'Malley P. M., Schulenberg J. E., Johnston L. D., Freedman???Doan P., Messersmith E. E. The Education???Drug Use Connection: How Successes and Failures in School Relate to Adolescent Smoking, Drinking, Drug Use, and Delinquency. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associations/Taylor & Francis; 2008.
Bryant A. L., Schulenberg J. E., O'Malley P. M., Bachman J. G., Johnston L. D. How academic achievement, attitudes, and behaviors relate to the course of substance use during adolescence: a six???year multi???wave national longitudinal study. J Res Adolesc 2003; 13: 361 ??? 97.
Krueger R. F., Hicks B. M., Patrick C. J., Carlson S. R., Iacono W. G., McGue, M. Etiologic connections among substance dependence, antisocial behavior, and personality: modeling the externalizing spectrum. J Abnorm Psychol 2002; 111: 411 ??? 24.
Iacono W. G., Carlson S. R., Taylor J., Elkins I. J., McGue M. Behavioral disinhibition and the development of substance???use disorders: findings from the Minnesota Twin Family Study. Dev Psychopathol 1999; 11: 869 ??? 900.
Iacono W. G., Malone S. M., McGue M. Behavioral disinhibition and the development of early???onset addiction: common and specific influences. Annu Rev Clin Psychol 2008; 4: 325 ??? 48.
Keyes M. A., Iacono W. G., McGue M. Early onset problem behavior, young adult psychopathology, and contextual risk. Twin Res Hum Genet 2007; 10: 45 ??? 53.
Donohew R. L., Hoyle R. H., Clayton R. R., Skinner W. F., Colon S. E., Rice R. E. Sensation seeking and drug use by adolescents and their friends: models for marijuana and alcohol. J Stud Alcohol 1999; 60: 622 ??? 31.
Galea S., Hall C., Kaplan G. A. Social epidemiology and complex system dynamic modelling as applied to health behaviour and drug use research. Int J Drug Policy 2009; 20: 209 ??? 16.
Gilmore I. Action needed to tackle a global drinking problem. Lancet 2009; 373: 2174 ??? 6.
Wells J. E., Degenhardt L., Bohnert K. M., Anthony J. C., Scott K. M., New Zealand Mental Health Survey Research Team. Geographical clustering of cannabis use: results from the New Zealand Mental Health Survey 2003???2004. Drug Alcohol Depend 2009; 99: 309 ??? 16.
Bachman J. G., Johnson L. D., O'Malley P. M. Explaining recent increases in students' marijuana use: impacts of perceived risks and disapproval, 1976 through 1996. Am J Public Health 1998; 88: 887 ??? 92.
Bachman J. G., Johnston L. D., O'Malley P. M., Humphrey R. H. Explaining the recent decline in marijuana use: differentiating the effects of perceived risks, disapproval, and general lifestyle factors. J Health Soc Behav 1988; 29: 92 ??? 112.
Nelson T. F., Xuan Z., Lee H., Weitzman E. R., Wechsler H. Persistence of heavy drinking and ensuing consequences at heavy drinking colleges. J Stud Alcohol Drugs 2009; 70: 726 ??? 34.
Fishbein M., Ajzen I. Beliefs, Attitude, Intention, and Behavior. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley; 1975.
Jessor R. Problem???behavior theory, psychosocial development, and adolescent problem drinking. Br J Addict 1987; 82: 331 ??? 42.
Baranowski T., Perry C. L., Parcel G. S. How individuals, environments, and health behaviors interact: social cognitive theory. In: Glanz K., Lewis F. M., Rimer B. K., editors. Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice. San Francisco: Jossey???Bass, Inc.; 1997, p. 165 ??? 84.
Strecher V. J., Rosenstock I. M. The health belief model. In: Glanz K., Lewis F. M., Rimer B. K., editors. Health Behavior and Health Eduction: Theory, Research and Practice. San Francisco: Jossey???Bass, Inc.; 1997, p. 45 ??? 66.
Dembo R., Blount W. R., Schmeidler J., Burgos W. Perceived environmental drug use risk and the correlates of early drug use or nonuse among inner???city youths: the motivated actor. Int J Addict 1986; 21: 977 ??? 1000.
Blount W. R., Dembo R. The effect of perceived neighborhood setting on self???reported tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use among inner???city minority junior high school youth. Int J Addict 1984; 19: 175 ??? 98.
Nurco D. N., Kinlock T., O'Grady K., Lerner M., Hanlon T. E. Perceptions of social pathology in the neighborhood and the etiology of narcotic addiction. A retrospective study. J Nerv Ment Dis 1996; 184: 35 ??? 42.
Yarnold B. M., Patterson V. Marijuana use among Miami's adolescents, 1992. J Health Soc Policy 1998; 10: 65 ??? 79.
Perkins H. W., Haines M. P., Rice R. Misperceiving the college drinking norm and related problems: a nationwide study of exposure to prevention information, perceived norms and student alcohol misuse. J Stud Alcohol 2005; 66: 470 ??? 8.
Ahern J., Galea S., Hubbard A., Midanik L., Syme S. L. ???Culture of drinking??? and individual problems with alcohol use. Am J Epidemiol 2008; 167: 1041 ??? 9.
Barrientos???Gutierrez T., Gimeno D., Mangione T. W., Harrist R. B., Amick B. C. Drinking social norms and drinking behaviours: a multilevel analysis of 137 workgroups in 16 worksites. Occup Environ Med 2007; 64: 602 ??? 8.
O'Malley P. M., Bachman J. G., Johnston L. D. Period, age, and cohort effects on substance use among American youth, 1976???1982. Am J Public Health 1984; 74: 682 ??? 8.
O'Malley P. M., Bachman J. G., Johnston L. D. Period, age, and cohort effects on substance use among young Americans: a decade of change, 1976???1986. Am J Public Health 1988; 78: 1315 ??? 21.
Johnson R. A., Gerstein D. R. Age, period, and cohort effects in marijuana and alcohol incidence: United States females and males, 1961???1990. Subst Use Misuse 2000; 35: 925 ??? 48.
Kerr W. C., Greenfield T. K., Bond J., Ye Y., Rehm J. Age???period???cohort influences on trends in past year marijuana use in the US from the 1984, 1990, 1995 and 2000 National Alcohol Surveys. Drug Alcohol Depend 2007; 86: 132 ??? 8.
Mehmedic Z., Chandra S., Slade D., Denham H., Foster S., Patel A. S. et???al. Potency trends of Delta9???THC and other cannabinoids in confiscated cannabis preparations from 1993 to 2008. J Forensic Sci 2010; 55: 1209 ??? 17.
Diez Roux A. V. Neighborhoods and health: where are we and were do we go from here? Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique 2007; 55: 13 ??? 21.
Raudenbush S. W., Sampson R. Ecometrics: toward a science of assessing ecological settings, with application to the systematic social observations of neighborhoods. Sociol Methodol 1999; 29: 1 ??? 41.
Duncan G. J., Raudenbush S. W. Assessing the effects of context in studies of child and youth development. Educ Psychol 1999; 34: 29 ??? 41.
Ostroff C., Kinicki A. J., Clark M. A. Substantive and operational issues of response bias across levels of analysis: an example of climate???satisfaction relationships. J Appl Psychol 2002; 87: 355 ??? 68.
Reither E. N., Hauser R. M., Yang Y. Do birth cohorts matter? Age???period???cohort analyses of the obesity epidemic in the United States. Soc Sci Med 2009; 69: 1439 ??? 48.
Yang Y., Land K. C. A mixed models approach to age???period???cohort analysis of repeated cross???section surveys: trends in verbal test scores. In: Stolzenberg R. M., editor. Sociological Methodology. Boston: Blackwell Publishing; 2006, p. 75 ??? 97.
Yang Y., Land K. C. Age???period???cohort analysis of repeated cross???section surveys: fixed or random effects? Am Sociol Rev 2008; 36: 297 ??? 326.
Muthen L. K., Muthen B. O. Mplus User's Guide, 5th edn. Los Angeles, CA; 2009.
Brown T. N., Schulenberg J. E., Bachman J. G., O'Malley P. M., Johnston L. D. Are risk and protective factors for substance use consistent across historical time? National data from twenty???two consecutive cohorts of high school seniors. Prev Sci 2001; 2: 29 ??? 43.
Patrick M. E., Schulenberg J. E., O'Malley P. M., Maggs J., Kloska D. D., Johnston L. D. et???al. Age???related changes in reasons for using alcohol and marijuana from ages 18 to 30 in a national sample. Psychol Addict Behav 2011; 25: 330 ??? 9.
Schulenberg J. E., Patrick M. E. Historical and developmental patterns of alcohol and drug use among college students: framing the problem. In: White H. R., Rabiner D., editors. College Student Drinking and Drug Use: Multiple Perspectives on A Complex Problem. New York: Guildford Press; 2011, in press.
Bachman J. G., Johnston L., O'Malley P. M. How changes in drug use are linked to perceived risks and disapproval: evidence from national studies that youth and young adults respond to information about the consequences of drug use. In: Donohew H., Sypher H., Bukowski W., editors. Persuasive Communication and Drug Abuse Prevention. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 1991, p. 133 ??? 56.
Juvonen J., Martino S. C., Ellickson P. L., Longshore D. ???But others do it!??? do misperceptions of schoolmate alcohol and marijuana use predict subsequent drug use among young adolescents? J Appl Soc Psychol 2007; 37: 740 ??? 58.
Durkheim E. The Rules of Sociological Method. New York: The Free Press; 1938.
Cullen F. T. Rethinking Crime and Deviance Theory: The Emergence of a Structuring Tradition. Totowa, NJ: Roman & Allenheld; 1983.
Asch S. E. Social Psychology. Upper Sadle River, NJ: Prentice Hall; 1952.
Sampson J. R., Raudenbush S. W., Earls F. Neighborhoods and violent crime: a multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science 1997; 277: 918 ??? 24.
Kawachi I., Berkman L. Social cohesion, social capital, and health. In: Berkman L., Kawachi I., editors. Social Epidemiology. New York: Oxford University Press; 2000, p. 174 ??? 90.
Ryder N. B. The cohort as a concept in the study of social change. Am Sociol Rev 1965; 30: 843 ??? 61.
Alwin D. F., McCammon R. J. Rethinking generations. Res Hum Dev 2007; 4: 219 ??? 37.
Winship C., Harding D. J. A mechanism???based approach to the identification of age???period???cohort models. Am Sociol Rev 2008; 36: 362 ??? 401.
Bandura A., Ross D., Ross S. A. Transmission of aggressions through imitation of aggressive models. J Abnorm Soc Psychol 1961; 63: 575 ??? 82.
Bandura A. Social Learning Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall; 1977.
Bandura A. Social cognitive theory: an agentic perspective. Annu Rev Clin Psychol 2001; 52: 1 ??? 26.
Akers R. L., Lee G. A longitudinal test of social learning theory: adolescent smoking. J Drug Issues 1996; 26: 317 ??? 43.
Werch C. E., Pappas D. M., Carlson J. M., DiClemente C. C., Chally P. S., Sinder, J. A. Results of a social norm intervention to prevent binge drinking among first???year residential college students. J Am Coll Health 2000; 49: 85 ??? 92.
Werch C. E., DiClemente C. C. A multi???component stage model for matching drug prevention strategies and messages to youth stage of use. Health Educ Res 1994; 9: 37 ??? 46.
Botvin G. J., Schinke S. P., Epstein J. A., Diaz T., Botvin E. M. Effectiveness of culturally???focused and generic skills training approaches to alcohol and drug abuse prevention among minority adolescents: two???year follow???up results. Psychol Addict Behav 1995; 9: 183 ??? 94.
Akers R. L., Krohn M. D., Lanza???Kaduce L., Radosevich M. Social learning and deviant behavior: a specific test of a general theory. Am Sociol Rev 1979; 44: 636 ??? 55.
Johnston L. D. Toward a theory of drug epidemics. In: Donohew L., Sypher H. E., Bukoski W. J., editors. Persuasive Communication and Drug Abuse Prevention. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum; 1991, p. 93 ??? 131.
Chaix B., Billaudeau N., Thomas F., Havard S., Evans D., Kestens Y. et???al. Neighborhood effects on health: correcting bias from neighborhood effects on participation. Epidemiology 2011; 22: 18 ??? 26.
Kuntsche E., Jordan M. D. Adolescent alcohol and cannabis use in relation to peer and school factors. Results of multilevel analyses. Drug Alcohol Depend 2006; 84: 167 ??? 74.
Kumar R., O'Malley P. M., Johnston L. D., Schulenberg J. E., Bachman J. G. Effects of school???level norms on student substance use. Prev Sci 2002; 3: 105 ??? 24.
Musick K., Seltzer J. A., Schwartz C. R. Neighborhood norms and substance use among teens. Soc Sci Res 2008; 37: 138 ??? 55.