Determinants of Modern Contraceptive Utilization among Women of the Reproductive Age Group in Dawuro Zone, SNNPR, Southern Ethiopia
AbstractBackground: Globally, modern contraceptive service utilization has been increasing through not evenly by different regions of the world. It is well practiced by developed countries. However, low utilization of contraception is evident in most developing countries especially sub-Saharan Africa countries recording the lowest level of contraceptive prevalence rate in the world. Ethiopia is one of the most populous countries in Africa. The total fertility rate in the country is 4.1 and the population growth rate is 2.6%, which is still very high (1, 2). Only 42% of women in the reproductive age group are currently using modern contraceptives, which is low to affect fertility. One of the strategies to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality is to avert high risk pregnancies through the use of effective and appropriate family planning methods. It has been suggested that about 35 percent of maternal deaths could be eliminated if all women and men had access to contraceptives to prevent unwanted pregnancies (2). Objective: The aim of this study was to assess factors influencing the utilization of modern contraceptives among women in the reproductive age group in Loma and Mareka district of Dawuro Zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia. Methods: Institution based un-matched case-control study was employed from March1-30, 2016; in which six health facilities were selected from the existing nine health facilities in the district using the random sampling method. The target population was women in the reproductive age group (15-49 years). Two hundred and eighty five registered modern contraceptive users (cases) from the selected six health facilities and the same number of women not using modern contraceptives (controls), visiting the same health facilities for reasons other than family planning service were included in the study by simple random sampling technique. Data analysis was done by using statistical package for social science (SPSS) software version 20.0. The study was approved by the institutional research and ethics committee of Wolaita Sodo University, Ethiopia. Results: Five hundred seventy women were involved in the study making the response rate 100%. Utilization of modern contraceptives among women in the reproductive age group was 32% among cases and 28% among controls in the study area. Among the variables analyzed, respondents’ educational status, number of living children in the household, desire for more children and discussion with husband on importance of contraceptive use were the socio-demographic variables that showed significant difference between the two study groups (p&lt;0.05). Conclusions: It is concluded from this study that modern contraceptive utilization is associated with socio-economic factors like educational status, number of living children, desire for more children and discussion about family planning with their husbands. Recommendations: Based on the findings of the study, it is recommended to enhance planned IEC using mass media and health institutions. Keywords: modern contraceptive utilization, women in the reproductive age group (15-49), case control study, Dawuro zone, Ethiopia.