Gamification in Trainings: Creating a Framework for Instructional Design
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AbstractThis thesis is about combining the field of gamification with the field of education. Specifically, it is being researched what effects various game elements can have on learn- ing. Additionally, a method to systematically design gamified trainings is created, in order to be able to incorporate the effects of the elements into a training. In order to find the effect of the game elements, a literature study has been conducted. First, a list of game elements is created, which is later being used in a specific literature search to find the effects of those elements on learning. The results are collected and listed in a database, called the Educational Game Element Database (EGEDB). Both positive effects of game elements and negative ones are listed in the EGEDB. To systematically design a gamified training, a method that is based on the traditional instructional design model ADDIE (Analyse, Design, Develop, Implement, Evaluate) is presented. This method uses the aforementioned EGEDB, so the instructional designer is able to properly select the game elements that can be used to achieve the requirements of the training. The proposed method is tested during a case study at the Nederlandse Spoorwegen (NS), the company where the research for this thesis was performed. The resulting training design is evaluated by experts from NS.