中小企業導入數位學習之比較; Comparing the small and medium enterprise leaded-in e-learning
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Abstract[[abstract]]中小型企業占國內企業超過97%，而現今經濟環境迅速變遷，使中小型企業面臨極大挑戰。許多學者指出企業導入數位學習能夠降低訓練成本，且員工個人的經驗與技能可以數位化的保存，並透過數位學習平台快速傳遞與散播，即時且有效地更新員工的知識，以便應對外在環境的變化，因此，如何協助中小企業導入數位學習為一重要課題。 本研究採取質量混合方式進行研究，一方面透過問卷調查方式了解500人以下中小企業導入數位學習之現況，另一方面，運用「自然主義調查法」對已導入數位學習之八家大型企業與八家中小型企業進行深入訪談，並比較分析與探討研究導入數位學習之阻礙與困難。 根據量化研究結果發現，(一) 目前中小企業仍以傳統面對面教學方式為多。(二)中小企業導入數位學習之阻礙因素排名前三分別為「公司e化程度有限」、「員工接受度不高」、「無法估算訓練的績效」，與2006年導入數位學習阻礙因素前三名相似，其中「無法估算訓練的績效」於這五年來皆排名在前三名之阻礙因素，表示訓練績效至今仍然無法清楚估算。(三)中小企業相較於大企業，在經費與資源上相當缺乏。 在質性研究結果方面，分別針對高階主管對推廣數位學習之支持度、公司內部e化程度、員工接受度、課程內容製作與教學平台、經費方面、系統整合與資訊落差七部份進行探討與分析。 本研究建議：(1) 增加於中南部舉辦的數位學習相關活動，以降低資訊落差之問題。(2) 將導入數位學習的企業與數位學習供應廠商之相關資訊作一整理與整合，且定期追蹤與 更新，並提供中小企業企業的個案經驗交流或數位學習供應廠商的相關資訊。(3) 於補助申請程序方面，建議精簡文件與程序上的繁瑣程度。(4) 研擬數位學習相關稅負減免與補助兩者間之幾種最佳配套適措施。(5) 提供中小企業相關課程製作方面的專家或廠商做策略合作，或者與學術界做產學合作，以協助中小企業自行製作課程，並降低其製作成本。(6) 研擬中小企業平台自行維護相關問題的參考解決方案。(7)針對中小企業導入數位學習後的一些協助與建議。 The percentage of small and medium enterprises (SME) was over 97% in Tiwain. Due to the economic environment changed very fast, small and medium enterprises had to face a very difficult challenge. Many scholars pointed out the enterprise which used e-learning could reduse the training cost and employees’s experience and skill could be keeped with digital form. Besides, enterprises could spread in a very short time and refresh employees’s knowledge immediately in order to face the change of the enviorment. Therefore, it was an important leason to know that how to help small and medium enterprises using e-learnng. This study used mixed model methodology. First, this study found out the situation of the small and medium enterprise using e-learning through the questionnaire. Second, this study had a depth interview with eight big enterprises and eight small and medium enterprises which had already used e-learning, then compared and anlysised the difficults in the process of lead-in e-learning. According to the result of the questionnaire, (1) Most small and medium enterprises still used tranditional way to train employees. (2) The first three placings of diffidcults to lead in e-learning for the small and medium enterprise were 「the limit of the computerized degree」、「the acceptance of employees is not high」、「can not calculate the training performance」, and the result was similiar with the difficult to lead in e-learning in 2006. (3) Compared with the big enterprise, the small and medium enterprise was short of money and resource. According to the result of the depth interview, this study separated seven parts from the support of the executive manager, the limit of the computerized degree, the acceptance of employees, making the lesson content and the online teaching platform, the budget, system intergration and the drop of the information to discuss and analysis. Suggestions for the study were as follow, (1) Increase the activities of the e-learning in the middle and southern of Tiwain to reduce the drop of the information. (2) Cast, intergrate and refresh the data of the e-learning suppliers and offered relative information to the small and medium enterprise. (3) Simplify the paper work and the procedure of the funding application. (4) Make a proper collocation between the funding and the reducing duty. (5) Helpe small and medium enterprises alliance with experts and suppliers of making the lesson content or helpe them cooperate with the university in order to reduce the cost of making the lesson content. (6) The government should offer some solutions to help the mid-sizd enterprise maintain the online teaching platform by theirselfe.﹙7﹚Offered some aidances and suggestions for the small and medium enterprise that had already lead-in e-learning.