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AbstractIn this work, we present a new framework for large scale online kernel classification, making kernel methods efficient and scalable for large-scale online learning tasks. Unlike the regular budget kernel online learning scheme that usually uses different strategies to bound the number of support vectors, our framework explores a functional approximation approach to approximating a kernel function/matrix in order to make the subsequent online learning task efficient and scalable. Specifically, we present two different online kernel machine learning algorithms: (i) the Fourier Online Gradient Descent (FOGD) algorithm that applies the random Fourier features for approximating kernel functions; and (ii) the Nyström Online Gradient Descent (NOGD) algorithm that applies the Nyström method to approximate large kernel matrices. We offer theoretical analysis of the proposed algorithms, and conduct experiments for large-scale online classification tasks with some data set of over 1 million instances. Our encouraging results validate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed algorithms, making them potentially more practical than the family of existing budget kernel online learning approaches.