Kaohsiung-Pingtung areas;curriculum development;curriculum development organization
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Abstract[[abstract]]本研究旨在探究高屏地區全面實施九年一貫後的學校課程發展組織運作現況，並且分析高屏地區國小課程發展組織的運作模式與所遭遇的問題，最後，歸納研究結果，提出國小課程發展組織運作的理想模式與建議，供教育主管機關、學校及相關研究之參考。 本研究所採取的方法，包括：文獻調查法、問卷調查法與訪談法三種方法，其中研究調查以研究者自編之?國民小學課程發展組織運作之研究－以高屏地區學校為例調查問卷?為工具進行研究，研究對象為高雄市、高雄縣、屏東縣國民小學九十三學年度課程發展委員會成員，包括學校行政人員、學年主任、學習領域召集人共720人為樣本數，問卷回收有效樣本合計584份。調查所得資料以SPSS軟體進行次數分配、百分比計分、卡方考驗、單因子多變量分析、單因子變異數分析及薛費法事後比較等統計方法。 綜合文獻探討、問卷調查與訪談結果，得以下研究結論： 壹、高屏地區國小課程發展組織運作現況 一、高屏地區學校以課程發展委員會及各學習領域課程小組為主要成立的課程發 展組織 二、高屏地區國小課程發展委員會已具形式上的組織，組織的成員的組成、產生、 任期、會議次數皆會因縣市、學校地區、學校規模而有所不同 三、高屏地區國小課程發展委員會參與機制代表性不足，未符應學校本位課程發 展之內涵精神 四、課程發展委員會校長為?形式召集人?，實際上卻?不著急? 五、高屏三縣市學校邀請專家學者的頻率影響學校本位課程的發展 六、學校規模愈小、愈偏遠的課程發展組織與行政組織的重疊性就愈高，較無整 合之機制 貳、高屏地區國小課程發展組織運作模式 一、整體而言，高屏地區學校課程發展組織運作獲較正面肯定，且高雄市優於屏 東縣與高雄縣 二、學校課程發展組織運作模式中，高雄市較屬於?團體分享模式?；高雄縣偏向 ?個人決策模式?；屏東縣則顯示有?個人決策模式?與?垃圾桶模式?二者的現 象 三、13-48班規模之中型學校在學校課程發展組織運作模式較屬於?團體分享模式 ? 四、學校課程發展組織運作模式中，城市地區學校較屬於?團體分享模式?；偏遠 地區學校偏向?個人決策模式?；鄉鎮地區學校則介於?個人決策模式?與?垃 圾桶模式?之間 參、高屏地區國小課程發展組織遭遇的問題 一、整體而言，高屏地區學校課程發展組織遭遇的問題，包括?時間與運作?、? 人員與參與?、?功能與職掌?皆普遍存在，尤以高雄縣最為嚴重，其次是屏 東縣，高雄市 二、高雄縣與屏東縣存在?開會時間難覓?、?成員不了解組織的功能與任務?、? 缺乏核心課程領導人物與專家學者指導?、?不重視成員心聲與建議?等問題 較高雄市來得大 三、中大型學校在課程發展組織的問題都比小型學校來得少 四、城市學校在?時間與運作層面?、?人員與參與層面?及?功能與職掌層面?都比 鄉鎮偏遠學校來得小 根據以上結論，提出下列各項建議： 壹、對教育行政機關的建議 一、落實行政部門專門化、專業化，加強課程推動與輔導 二、持續成立?諮詢服務列車?，安排專家學者到小型偏遠學校指導 三、整合訪視評鑑項目，進行學校本位課程評鑑，以期達到有效發展 四、校長遴選要點中，明定規範校長應具有課程領導專業學分培訓 五、短期應用2688專案，讓教師有充分時間參與課程發展，長期則應以提 高國小教師員額編制每班達2.0人 六、城鄉均衡發展與資源分配是當前教育政策的首要目標 貳、對學校與課程發展組織的建議 一、校長以?雁行理論?帶動學校專業社群，發揮人性關懷，形塑優質校園文化 二、建立獎勵制度，提高教師參與課程發展組織意願 三、活絡各學習領域課程小組運作，安排共同時間來討論課程 四、學校應體認教務主任是課程發展的靈魂人物，學年主任及領域召集人則是課 程發展的重要枝幹 五、小型偏遠學校應簡化、整併學校課程發展組織，讓組織效能最大化 六、成立課程發展遴選小組，遴選具有課程專業背景能力教師，參加學校課程發 展發展組織 七、成立學校課程決策諮詢小組，讓決策更公開透明 參、對教師個人的建議 一、鼓勵教師參加課程進修研習，提昇教師行動研究能力 二、教師應調整心態，主動參與課程研究，從?教學演釋者?轉化為?課程發展者? 三、教師彼此應連絡感情，增加對話交流，讓組織團結和諧
[[abstract]]This study aims to explore the current implementation of elementary schools’ curriculum development organizations for Kaohsiung-Pingtung areas after the full implementation of the Nine-Year Integrated Curriculum and analyze the exercising models and encountered problems for the curriculum development organizations of Kaohsiung-Pingtung areas. And finally, it summarizes the results of the study , suggests an ideal exercising model for curriculum development organizations and gives suggestions for the education officers and schools for their future reference. The researcher adopted three methodologies, including literature review, questionnaire and interviews. The 720 samples for the questionnaire were drawn from the members of the 93rd academic year Curriculum Development Committee (CDC) for elementary schools in Kaohsiung-Pingtung areas, including executive members, heads of the school grades and leaders of the learning fields in Kaohsiung City, Kaohsiung County and Pingtung County. There were totally 584 valid samples collected. The data were analyzed through frequency distribution, percentage, chi-square test, one-way ANOVA with covariances, one-way analysis of variance and Post hoc Scheffe using SPSS 10.0. Through literature review, questionnaire and interviews, the conclusions were: 1. The current implementation of curriculum development organizations for elementary schools in Kaohsiung-Pingtung areas (1) The main curriculum development organizations are the CDC and groups of different learning fields. (2) The CDCs in most schools are now in shape. But they do differ in rules such as the composing and electing members and the duration of the members. (3) The participation for different curriculum development organizations is not enough and it doesn’t catch the spirit of the School-Based Curriculum (SBC) development. (4) In most schools, principals are the “so-called” director of the organizations but they “don’t really participate that much.” (5) The frequency of inviting experts to attend the meetings does influence the development of the SBC. (6) The smaller and the more remote the schools are, the higher the level of workload overlapping of the curriculum development organizations and their executive organizations. 2. The exercising model of the curriculum development organizations in elementary schools of Kaohsiung-Pingtung areas (1) Generally speaking, the exercising of the curriculum development organizations gains positive response. Schools in Kaohsiung City exercise much better than those in Kaohsiung County and Pingtung County. (2) Among the exercising models for curriculum development organizations, Kaohsiung City is more of “Group-Sharing Model”, Kaohsiung City is more like “Individual Decision-Making Model” and Pingtung County is between the “Individual Decision-Making Model” and the “Garbage Can Model.” (3) Schools with 13-48 classes tend to work as the “Group-Sharing Model”. (4) Schools in the city areas are exercising more with the “Group-Sharing Model”; those in remote areas are more with the “Individual Decision-Making Model and schools in rural areas are with both the “Individual Decision-Making Model” and the “Garbage Can Model.” 3. The encountered problems for curriculum development organizations in elementary schools of Kaohsiung-Pingtung areas (1) Generally speaking, most schools encounter more or less problems in threes aspects including “time and exercising”, “members and participation” and “function and duty.” Kaohsiung County encounters the most problems. Pingtung County and Kaohsiung City encounters the least problems. (2) In problems such as “uneasy to find common meeting time”, “members don’t understand the function and mission of the organization”, “lack of guidance from the key curriculum leading character and experts” and “with little care about members’ opinions and suggestions”, Kaohsiung and Pingtung County are found with more serious problems than Kaohsiung City is. (3) The middle and bigger-sized schools are found with less curriculum development organizations problems than the small-sized schools are. (4) Schools in city areas encounter less problems in three aspects including “time and exercising”, “members and participation” and “function and duty” than the rural and remote schools do. After the above findings, the researcher offers the following suggestions: 1. for the education executive organizations, we should: (1) put into practice the professionalizing of the executive branches; strengthen the curriculum promotion and counseling. (2) establish the “curriculum counseling service team” to provide small and remote schools with experts and scholars to give guidance and counseling. (3) integrate some items for schools’ evaluation; process the evaluation of the SBC so the curriculum can be developed effectively. (4) among the rules for electing principals, stipulate the rule that future principals must be trained professionally with curriculum developing ability. (5) for the short term, the resource of 2688 should be used to give teachers more time to participate in curriculum development and for the long run, the teacher-student ratio should be raised to 2.0. (6) balance the development and resource share for city and rural schools. 2. for schools and curriculum development organizations: (1) Principals lead the school professional groups with “the flying-geese model”, exert human caring and shape superior campus culture. (2) We should establish rewarding systems to raise the willingness of teachers to participate in the curriculum development organizations. (3) We should make the exercising of different learning fields curriculum groups active, arrange common times to discuss curriculum-related things. (4) Schools should understand that the Director for Academic Affairs is the key character for curriculum development and Heads of School Grades and Leaders of Different Learning Fields are also important elements for curriculum development. (5) To maximize the effect of the organization, the curriculum development organizations for small and remote schools should be simplified and integrated. (6) We should establish the curriculum development team for electing members of curriculum development organizations; elect teachers with professional curriculum background and ability to attend the organizations. (7) We should establish the SBC decision-making counseling team and make the decision-making process open and transparent. 3. for teachers, we should: (1) encourage teachers to attend curriculum-related trainings and seminars to raise their ability on action research. (2) encourage teachers to participate in curriculum research and change their roles from “class-teaching workers” to “curriculum developers”. (3) encourage teachers to keep in touch to talk more professionally and make the organization more harmonious.