• "I Am Because We Are"

      Costley, Emily K., '14 (The Cupola: Scholarship at Gettysburg College, 2014-05-03)
      This presentation focuses on the impact of the black church on the Civil Rights Movement. The black church provided an integral support system to African American communities. The importance of the role of the black church cannot be overstated—it not only provided the necessary infrastructure to effectively organize, but also created a “cultural blueprint for civic life.” This is to say, the black church fostered strength within African American communities that was translated into political action toward racial equality. I assert that the Brown v. Board of Education ruling in 1954 and the Montgomery Bus Boycott in 1955 were the two major catalysts of the Civil Rights Movement. While the growth that took place during the Civil Rights Movement is something to be celebrated, progress has since plateaued. This plateau has occurred in concurrence with a decline in church culture and involvement. Race relations in the United States are still a major issue and need to be actively confronted. Using two southern, multiracial churches in Decatur, Georgia as examples—Oakhurst Presbyterian Church and Oakhurst Baptist Church—I posit that church communities can still effectively confront racial equality and should take the initiative to do so.
    • I AM WHO I AM: The Book of Exodus and African American Individuality

      Kirkenir, Joseph L., '14 (The Cupola: Scholarship at Gettysburg College, 2014-04-01)
      Scholars often attempt to construct collective ideologies in order to generalize the beliefs and views of entire populations, with one target population frequently being the African American community during the latter half of the nineteenth century. Unfortunately, doing so fails to recognize the individuality of the population’s members and, especially in the case of the country’s oppressed Blacks, establishes a system where assumed notions and ignorant ideas abound. One might argue that the popularity of the book of Exodus in the time’s African American expressive outlets indicates that there did exist a collective ideology based upon the biblical narrative. However, when one examines the black community’s varied implementations of the book of Exodus in the spirituals sung during the Civil War and the poetry published in the years following it, it becomes apparent that not every member of the time’s African American community adhered to a collective ideology. Rather, they formulated their beliefs based on their own unique circumstances that did not necessarily adhere to the Bible’s text, demonstrating their individuality and refuting any theory that suggests there was a universal black consciousness.
    • I found God in myself and loved her fiercely : Black women's literary analysis as a source for constructive womanist ethics

      Floyd-Thomas, Stacey M., 1969- (Vanderbilt University, 2009-08-18)
      Includes descriptive metadata provided by producer in MP3 file: "Religion - Podcasts - Stacey Floyd-Thomas and students at community breakfast." By Vanderbilt University.
    • I found God in myself and loved her fiercely : Black women's literary analysis as a source for constructive womanist ethics

      Floyd-Thomas, Stacey M., 1969- (Vanderbilt University, 2009-03-16)
      Includes descriptive metadata provided by producer in MP3 file: "Religion - Podcasts - Stacey Floyd-Thomas and students at community breakfast." By Vanderbilt University.
    • I Married A Missionary

      Lawyer, Zelma Wood (Digital Commons @ ACU, 1943-01-01)
      http://digitalcommons.acu.edu/crs_books/1346/thumbnail.jpg
    • IBPP Research Associates: Ghana

      Anonymous - Online Independent (Ghana) (Scholarly Commons, 2000-09-15)
      This article was originally a letter to the editor from the Online Independent, Ghana, and was published in IBPP on September 15, 2000 for volume 9, issue 9. It could not be posted for download because copyright permissions are unavailable. The letter discusses hypocrisy and religion in Ghana.
    • Iconolatry and Pentecostal Christianity: The Nigerian Experience

      Obineche, John Okwudiri (AFRREV IJAH: An International Journal of Arts and Humanities, 2019-11-27)
      This work “iconolatry and the African Christianity: the Nigerian experience”, examines the resurgence of the veneration and otherwise the worship of icons and symbols that shook the foundation of the early church history now in Nigerian Christianity. It could be recalled that iconolatry as the worship of images or icons, was one of the major issues in Christian history that led to the iconoclastic controversy in the 8th century of Christianity (c725 to 787). More so, iconolatry was one of the burning issues in the 16th century protestant reformation that vehemently criticized the Roman Catholic Church for idolatry. From the historical perspective of the contemporary trend in African Christianity, especially in Nigeria, this work observed that image worship or veneration has taken a center stage in the beliefs and practices of the entire spectrum of faith in Nigerian Christianity, especially the new Christian religious movements here represented by the Pentecostals. This paper is therefore poised to lead the Nigerian church (Christianity) to cast a retrospective look at Christian history to guide against the obvious resurgent of iconolatry for which the church suffered a great deal in history.Key Words: Iconolatry, African Christianity, Pentecostal, Pentecostalism, Catholicism, Idolatry, Nigeria, Iconography
    • Identiteitsanalise van die Ned. Geref. Kerk Nieuwoudtville

      Stellenbosch University. Faculty of . Dept. of .; Mocke, C. J.(Christiaan Johannes),1959- (Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2012-08-27)
      Proefskrif (M. Th.) -- Universiteit van Stellenbosch, 1994.
    • Identité africaine et catholicisme : problématique de la rencontre de deux notions à travers l'itinéraire d'Alioune Diop, 1956-1995

      Université Charles de Gaulle - Lille III; Jacqueline Lalouette; Institut de Recherches Historiques du Septentrion (IRHiS) ; Université Charles-de-Gaulle Lille 3 - Sciences humaines et sociales - CNRS; Lock, Etienne (HAL CCSD, 2014-04-11)
      Le XIXe siècle en Afrique noire était non seulement marqué par la l'initiative de la colonisation occidentale, mais aussi par la mission de christianisation. A partir de ce moment jusqu'à la fin de la Seconde Guerre Mondiale, l'identité africaine signifiée par un mode de vie particulier était définie en opposition aux valeurs chrétiennes. Il était donc impossible d'être chrétien et Africain en même temps. C'est ainsi que beaucoup d'Africains chrétiens s'occidentalisèrent et rejetèrent leurs coutumes considérées comme les œuvres du mal. Dans le contexte colonial, ceci était considéré comme normal.Après la Deuxième Guerre Mondiale, les intellectuels africains initièrent beaucoup de mouvements pour affirmer l'identité africaine: ce fut le commencement de l'émancipation culturelle et politique. Un de ces mouvements fut la Société Africaine de Culture, un mouvement intellectuel fondé par Alioune Diop et se situant dans le prolongement de Présence Africaine qui avait déjà rassemblé des intellectuels africains, antillais et européens. Alioune Diop devint alors le leader de l'émancipation culturelle de l'Afrique.En se consacrant à la figure d'Alioune Diop, la thèse souligne l'importance de la biographie intellectuelle, comme méthode de réflexion en histoire africaine. Elle y est présentée comme une approche qui permet de saisir des aspects qui peuvent échapper à l'intérêt accordé aux événements. Une autre caractéristique de cette réflexion est la place accordée à des archives non organisées et aux interviews dans un travail scientifique. La thèse soutient donc qu'il y a une dimension de l'engagement d'Alioune Diop qui, bien que moins connue, constitue une clé de compréhension de sa vie et de son œuvre. Cet intellectuel africain était en effet attentif à la religion et tout particulièrement au christianisme. Il considérait cette religion comme une réalité qui en Afrique pouvait soutenir le changement de nombreuses situations, pour permettre à ses peuples de trouver leur place dans le monde moderne. Ainsi, dans tous les événements qu'il organisa, la religion chrétienne eut une place particulière. Comme le combat d'Alioune Diop consistait à restaurer la dignité africaine au moyen de la culture, le catholicisme, en tant qu'une expression du christianisme alors portée par la culture occidentale essentiellement, avait une place importante dans ses réflexions. La thèse soutient que l'émancipation de l'identité africaine était aussi une émancipation du christianisme en contexte africain, et donc du catholicisme. Elle démontre que le catholicisme dans sa situation actuelle, comme religion africaine, est largement tributaire de l'engagement d'Alioune Diop et des intellectuels qu'il était parvenu à rassembler autour de lui. Cependant, dans le but de comprendre ceci, certaines questions apparaissent importantes: quel est l'exacte contribution d'Alioune Diop dans la correction des dérives de la rencontre entre identité africaine et catholicisme? Comment s'exprime cette rencontre dans un contexte postcolonial? Quels éléments donnent une signification à l'africanisation du catholicisme au XXe siècle? Toutes ces questions structurent l'orientation de ce travail et ouvrent à de nombreux aspects de l'identité africaine à travers d'importants événements comme les deux congrès des écrivains et artistes noirs (Paris et Rome), les deux festivals mondiaux des arts nègres (Dakar et Lagos), les colloques organisés par Alioune Diop avec d'autres intellectuels africains. Il y a aussi une mise en exergue de certaines questions en rapport avec la religion chrétienne: parmi elles, les plus importantes sont: l'œcuménisme, le dialogue entre les religions de l'Afrique en rapport avec la personnalité africaine et l'héritage colonial et postcolonial.
    • Identité africaine et catholicisme : problématique de la rencontre de deux notions à travers l'itinéraire d'Alioune Diop, 1956-1995

      Institut de Recherches Historiques du Septentrion (IRHiS) ; Université Charles-de-Gaulle Lille 3 - Sciences humaines et sociales - CNRS; Université Charles de Gaulle - Lille III; Jacqueline Lalouette; Lock, Etienne (HAL CCSD, info:eu-re)
      The 19th century in Sub-Saharan Africa was not only marked by the setting up of the European colonialism, but also by the Christian gospel preached in all the colonized territories. From this time until after the World War II, African identity which means the expression of the way of life of the Africans had been considered as an opposite to the Christian values. Clearly, it appeared impossible to be Christian and African at the same time. So, many African Christians had become Occidentalized and rejected their customs as the work of the devil. In a colonial context, this was considered as normal.After the World War II, African intellectuals initiated a lot of movements, in order to restore the African identity in all the issues concerning African peoples: this was the beginning of the emancipation, culturally and politically. One of the most important of those movements was African Society of Culture, an intellectual movement funded by Alioune Diop and situated onward of the movement “Présence Africaine” which had already gathered African, West Indian and European intellectuals. Alioune Diop became practically the leader of the African emancipation in the 20th century. The PhD dissertation, by focusing on the African intellectual Alioune Diop, emphasizes the importance of the biography, put in French “biographie intellectuelle”, as a method in African history. It is presented as a manner to study the African past in order to get to know this past in a way which appears different but very important to discover some details not covered through methods based on events. Another feature of this reflection is the capacity it gives to consider non organized archives and interviews in a scientific work.
    • “Identity & Identicality”

      Wadholm, Robert (Digital Showcase, 2016-01-01)
    • Igrejas Independentes Africanas redefinindo interculturação? [African Independent Churches redefining interculturalition?]

      Nel, Reggie (Núcleo de Estudos e Pesquisa do Protestantismo da Escola Superior de Teologia, 2012)
      "Proponentes * da teologia negra sul-africana frequentemente fizeram o apontamento crítico de que as verdadeiras raízes da corrente da teologia pós-colonial são a primeira geração do povo africano que “dançou” para fora das igrejas europeias brancas, formando as Igrejas Independentes Africanas" ["South African black theology often made critical pointing that the real roots of the current postcolonial theology are the first generation of African people that "danced" out of white European churches, forming the African Independent Churches"]
    • Impact of the Western conceptualization of the Christian Gospel on its communication in a non Western environment with particular reference to the AmaXhosa

      Higgs, Michael John (University of Fort Hare, 2012-01-19)
      Thesis (Ph.D) (Theology)--University of Fort Hare,2010
    • Imperialism and its effects on the African Traditional Religion: Towards the liberty of African Spirituality

      Joel Mokhoathi (Africajournals, 2017-01-01)
      This paper argues that the juxtaposition of the African Traditional Religion (ATR) with Ibramic faiths tends to deprive the African Traditional Religion its true status as an independent religion, and thus, the process appears to be a product of imperialism, which imposed racial bigotries and effected theories that conveyed socio-cultural and religious inequalities in Africa. Besides in this paradigm, even though imperialism has ended, its effects are still evident in the representation of the African Traditional Religion by nonpractitioners, as they work to undermine the religion. It is undoubtedly desirable that religion and spirituality be used to generate greater understanding and harmony between peoples, rather than be used as a tool to divide people as was sadly the case in the past. Thus it becomes critical to allow ATR to recover its rightful place amongst the faiths on the continent.