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AbstractTracing the ways in which social presence is defined and operationalized in online learning literature, this article analyzes the similarities along with the contradictions within the literature of social presence. The review of literature divides the research into three “eras” through which the history and evaluation of the social presence theory can be summarized. As well, the review reveals four fundamental concepts that are consistently emphasized in the research on social presence.
Oztok, M. & Brett, C. (2011). Social presence and online learning: A review of the research. The Journal of Distance Education, 25(3), 1-10