The Asian Christianity / Theologies collections gathers sources on the history of Asian Christianity and churches, with a focus on their theologies embedded in the specific socio-political, cultural and religious contexts of the Asian region. It includes articles from major Asian religious journals, such as Asian Journal of Pentecostal Studies, Chinese Theological review, Ching Feng, Indonesian Journal of Theology, International Journal of Sino-Western Studies, Religions and Christianity in Today's China, and others to follow. The collection is supported by the Foundation for Theological Education in South East Asia FTESEA.

Recent Submissions

  • Broken Church for Broken Couples: How the divided church should take care of divorced persons

    Wijaya, Yahya (ATESEA-BTESSC, 2019-04)
    This article challenges the radical anti-divorce attitude embraced by most churches in Asia. Although such an attitude is based on Jesus’ saying, it contradicts what Jesus really meant. Jesus resisted the Jewish tradition of easy divorce for the sake of the victimized, particularly the wife. It is, therefore, suggested that instead of falling into legalism, the church’s approach regarding divorce should start from its own reality as a broken fellowship yet still attempting to be a channel of the Good News
  • Ministerial Challenges in Contemporary World : Towards a Transformative Theological Education

    Equina, Limuel; Longchar, A. Wati,‏ ‎ 1958-‏ (Programme for Theology and Cultures in Asia (PTCA) ; Association for Theological Education in Southeast Asia (ATESEA), 2019)
  • Asian Pentecostal Theology

    Clark, Mathew (Asia Pacific Theological Seminary, 2002)
    "My personal contact with Asian Pentecostalism began when I read the publication edited by Wonsuk Ma and Robert Menzies.2 Impressed by the freshness of the viewpoints expressed (not all from Asians), I contacted Ma and received the response, “Who are you?” From that has risen a happy (if rather long-distance) friendship which I believe will culminate in a long partnership in Pentecostal theological education and research. Since then it has become obvious to me that Asian and African Pentecostal scholars are natural partners, since we face many similar issues. Not least of these is the continual frustration of working with a dominantly North American and European Pentecostal theological establishment which, while it recognizes the essentially “non-western” nature of Pentecostalism, appears to do little to reflect this in much of its work. The final straw for many of us was the Society for Pentecostal Studies conference in 2000 in which the overwhelming majority of presenters were from the United States —and that when the topic was “Pentecostal Mission: Issues Home and Abroad.”
  • Listening to Asia’s Younger Scholars

    Anónimo (Asia Pacific Theological Seminary, 2016)
    "For the first time in our eighteen year history, every article in this edition is written by an Asian. Also, to the best of my knowledge, this is the first edition ever done where all of the authors are currently associated with APTS. First, Herman Dionson, is a junior faculty member. Second, Luan Thang and Anattiphong (K) Phanon, are MTh students. The other Daniel Liu, is in the Master of Divinity program. For more information on these programs, please visit"
  • Is She a Sinful Woman or a Forgiven Woman?

    Phanon, Yuri (Asia Pacific Theological Seminary, 2016)
    "In verses 44-46, Jesus started defending the woman’s action. By hearing the parable of the two debtors, Simon the Pharisee may have gotten Jesus’ main point that the woman’s great love was a product of the great forgiveness, but Jesus gave Simon more details by comparing their actions. Verse 44 starts with the phrase καὶ στραφεὶς pρὸς τὴν γυναῖκα. The word στραφεὶς has the function of bringing the woman back to the center of this narrative. The word “see” in Greek in this verse is bλέpεις. This word is used in the Gospel of Luke many times and is used as a metaphor for perceiving the word of God. In Luke, to see the truth is to perceive the word of God.1 There are two kinds of people in view here, one who receives the word of God and the other who does not receive it. For example, in Luke 2:20, after the shepherds saw baby Jesus, they rejoiced and praised God for all they had heard and seen."
  • Religion and Rationality

    Journal of Dharma (Journal of Dharma, 2015-12)
    Journal of Dharma, The Dharmaram Quarterly Journal of Religions and Philosophies was founded in 1975. This is an earnest attempt on the part of DVK to bring together scholars from all over the world and from across diverse cultures and traditions to seriously deliberate upon issues pertaining to religions and philosophies. Apart from serving as a forum for the exchange of ideas and experiences regarding approaches and methods towards religious and philosophical quests of humanity, this quarterly journal encourages research in interreligious studies and dialogue.
  • Reconsidering public theology

    Kwok, Wai-Luen (Journal of Dharma, 2015-06)
    "In the Occupy Central Movement in Hong Kong, from its very beginning, the influence of Protestant Christianity was obvious. The initiators launched the Movement in a church, and claimed that it is not only a political but also a spiritual quest. The initiators attempted to theologize their actions, and quickly engendered hot debates within the Church and society. More interestingly, even non-Christians have entered these discussions to articulate their versions of public theology. The paper introduces these discourses and analyzes their theological implications. I argue that the case of the Occupy Central Movement shows that public theology in Hong Kong needs to move away from focusing on political mobilisation and counter mobilisation. Rather, pursuing theological reflection on the concepts of justice, peace and welfare of the society can help Hong Kong Protestant Christians regain a sense of public shared values to meet the challenge of coming political crisis."
  • Dharma as a binary identity

    Vagishwari, S. P. (Journal of Dharma, 2015-06)
    "The idea of Dharma has different connotation in History from that of religion as is popularly understood. While it is accepted as righteousness, it transcends the notion that Dharma represents piety, spirituality, belief and nobility. On the contrary, History is replete with instances of how religion, an institutionalized aspect of Dharma, was constantly articulated as representing Authority, Power, Status and Hierarchy. Due to these interpretations Dharma often was projected as a tool for realization of the above by various institutions, be they, political, social, cultural or economic, and Dharma provided legitimacy and justified their identities. The present paper juxtaposes this articulation in the context of Ancient and Medieval India, spanning a period approximately from 3rd century BCE to 10th century CE. It argues that the different trajectories that flowed between Dharma and various other secular institutions constantly witnessed divergence as well as assimilation at various points of time."
  • Sacred symbols and practices across the religious-secular divide

    Vincent, Aparna (Journal of Dharma, 2015-06)
    "There is no unanimity of opinion among scholars on what is considered as sacred. While there are scholars who argue that religion has the exclusive control over the sacred, there are also others who argue that the process of secularization has taken the sacred outside the control of organized religion. This paper is an attempt to challenge the polarity between religious and secular in the context of the discussion of the sacred. By drawing examples from the arena of modern politics I will try to show how the solemn in modern societies is closely associated with or resemble the sacred in religion. The political symbolisms, rituals and practices of modern nation states get their sanctity and solemnity by being associated with or by resembling religious symbols, rituals and practices. I argue that the idea of solemn in modern societies is neither restricted to the obviously religious nor to those cases where religion and politics mix but is also found in outwardly non-religious or secular contexts, thus prompting us to take a relook at the so-called secular."
  • Karnatic music and Christianity: An Ethnomusicological Approach

    Poovathingal, Paul (Journal of Dharma, 2015)
    "Ethnomusicological approach towards Christian music in India has revealed that Christian music in India had a strong interaction with the traditional classical music of South India, i.e., Karnatic music. Protestant Churches in India had tried to adapt native music tradition into their music even before Second Vatican Council whereas Catholic Church in India made serious attempts for inculturation only after the Council. The present paper focuses on the ethnomusicological perspective of the Christian music in India and the multicultural, multireligious interaction of Karnatic music with respect to its adaptability and universality. It also deals with the structural and melodic analysis of the compositions of the leading Christian Karnatic composers of the past and the present, and the analysis of Karnatic musical forms and musical genres available in the Christian musical subcultures of South India."
  • Religion and Arts

    Nandhikkara, Jose (Journal of Dharma, 2015-03)
    "40 years back, on the occasion of the Decennial of the Second Vatican Council, Journal of Dharma was launched by the Centre for the Study of World Religions (established in 1971 at Dharmaram College) as an International Quarterly of Religions and Philosophies “to fill the gap of a felt need in the contemporary society” “to foster intercultural understanding from an inner realization of religions.” Understanding religion as “one of the deepest dimensions of culture” Journal of Dharma was committed to “disseminate the seeds of the Sacred in every bit of our secular existence and to re-integrate the entire material Universe in the Spirit of Truth and Holiness” (Editorial of the first issue). Together with the promotion of inter-religious dialogue, Journal of Dharma also promoted a dialogue between the sacred and secular with the conviction that the ‘sacred’ and ‘secular’ are basic dimensions of reality."
  • Returning to Mother Earth

    Longchar, A. Wati (PTCA/SCEPTRE, 2013)
    Everywhere the marginalized communities have awakened and are demanding their right and justice. The assertion of their rights and identity are all connected to control of their land and its resources, their culture and traditions. They continue to challenge our thoughts and actions as Christians. Globalization has opened the door for many indigenous people to leave their home countries to work as domestic workers, factory workers, entertainers in tourist destinations. There are many stories of violence, and even killing of these migrant workers. This is happening because of unequal distribution of wealth. The global competition to control earth’s resources has led to war and conflict. The greed for capital leads to control and manipulation of strategic economic locations like Iraq, Palestine and so on. The uncontrolled and one-sided exploitative economic development projects have brought with them various ecological crises. The rape of Mother Earth manifests in uncontrolled logging, indiscriminate use of chemicals in agriculture, inconsiderate disposal of non-biodegradable waste, and human beings’ many other ‘ecocidal’ acts due to negligence, ignorance or greed which are destroying the ecosystem. The indigenous communities who depended on earth’s resources are the most affected people. <br /><br /> With the increasing influence and impact of materialism, secularism, and liberalism in the postcolonial era, the indigenous people continue to experience challenges and stagnation in spirituality. These include loss of focus in discipleship and spiritual formation, loss of indigenous wisdom, character and values, and infiltration of western culture and ideology through the neo- Pentecostal and new religious movements’ influences. The information technology that promotes a consumerist life-style also contributes to the fast decline of the indigenous cultures and discrimination against minorities. <br /><br /> All these issues are complex and are interrelated to culture, spirituality, power and proper management of earth resources. Theology has to take a stand for the victims of hegemonic structures of oppression and other dominant powers. The future of contextual theologies such as indigenous people’s theology will also be determined in its ability to create counter movements and theology against hegemonic powers and life threatening forces. All these problems challenge us to search for a new way of doing theology, Christian witness and theological and ministerial formation programme of the churches. This work makes a humble attempt to responding to those issues and concerns.
  • Understanding the Jesus Movement in the Gospel Traditions

    Jamir, Menjiwapong (SCEPTRE, 2013)
    This book explores the Jesus movements in the gospel traditions, using the methodology of source, form, redaction, narrative, rhetorical, reader-response and postcolonial criticism. It explores the genre of the gospel and discusses the literary features, socio-cultural contexts and the Jesus portraits of the synoptic gospels and the fourth gospel and their similarities and differences. Besides analysing extra-biblical sources for understanding the Jesus movement, it discusses its socio-political and religio-cultural locations and provides an insight into the formative factors such as the infancy narrative or the Logos prologue. It deals with the teachings and praxes of Jesus and the movement including the parabolic teachings and prayers. It deals with the relevance of the teachings and praxes of the movement in the Indian contexts, concentrating on issues like poverty, suffering, casteism and religious pluralism.
  • Side by Side

    Longkumer, Limatula; Longkumer, Talijungla (CCA-EGY Unit & Naga Women Theological Forum, 2013)
    This book deals with various issues and themes relevant to Naga women today. The concern is in developing a feminist theology from Naga women’s perspective and so all the articles are centered on this area, though looking at from different angles. This book highlights that the patriarchal cultures and customary laws of the Nagas has kept women in bondage. There is a need to explore decisively the encounter between the gospel and culture in order to develop appropriate counter-cultural elements for empowering Naga women. Using women eye glasses for interpreting the Bible is one of the concerns in this book because Bible has been interpreted from males’ perspective and so the present interpretation of the Bible suppresses women. Therefore, this book calls to re-read and reinterpret the Bible from Naga women perspective. Nagas are also not spared from the forces of globalization and environmental issues which affected and touched upon in all the areas of life. Women are badly victimized by all these forces in our society. Hence, there is a need to critique and educate the people in these areas which impinge our lives. Women in full time Christian ministry is another serious issue that Naga women are facing today. This brings attention to the whole theological education process, its nature and purpose of education. The present issue of partnership in ministry is conditioned by the gender biased theology and theological education. Healing can be brought only by developing gender biased free or inclusive theology and theological education process.
  • Modern Religious and Secular Movements

    Mathew, John V. (SCEPTRE, 2013)
    The book explores the context and factors that led to Indian Renaissance and discusses renascent and revival movements in Hinduism, in Islam and in Sikhism. It deals with the Ambedkar and the Neo-Buddhist Movement in India, the Guru Movements and other selected religio-secular movements. It includes a study of the teachings and activities of three popular religious movements in North India and closes with a chapter on the understanding of communalism and minority rights.
  • Introduction to Christian Theologies in India

    Chacko, Laji (SCEPTRE, 2014)
    Christian Theology is a discipline that seeks to reflect and interpret God’s revelation in Jesus Christ and this interpretation is based on and for the faith community. It tries to determine truth and this message of truth is conveyed through symbols because the adherents’ understanding is based on symbols available in their life situation. In other words theology cannot be detached from the life situation of the community even though it is the reflection of God. Christianity in India is as old as Christianity itself but it was only when the Hindu reformers debated and presented Jesus Christ in their own perspective that Christians started to respond and this evolved in developing Indian Christian Theologies. In India it is not Christian theology but Christian Theologies because theology in India is a complex endeavor involving variety of activities and it represents broad spectrum of traditions, e.g. the multi religious context challenges theology to reflect on the meaning and message of Jesus based on religious thought; the philosophical approaches require theology to articulate itself based on Advaita, bhakti, various margas; the socio-political awareness consider theology as a means to transform theology; the political dimensions of theological articulation challenges theology to act for nation building etc. This book certainly does not attempt to write definitively of Indian Christian Theologies but rather only acknowledges the main concern in these theologies. It tries to acknowledge the efforts of Indian Christians who dialogued with the rich cultural and religious context and offered their reflections and contemplations based on their particular context.
  • History of Christianity in India

    Jayakumar, A. (SCEPTRE, 2013)
    “Having taught “History of Christianity in India” for few years, I consider it my privilege to put it in book form for the benefit of students of Indian Church History. This book does not promise any breakthrough study as it was written keeping in mind to be a concise study material for the graduate level theology course.” (A. Jayakumar) The book consists of twenty chapters, discussing Christian history in India from the St. Thomas tradition until present day matters. It deals with Roman Catholic Christianity in India, Francis Xavier, Robert De Nobili, the relationship between the Portuguese and the Syrian Christians and the Synod of Diamper, the Tranquebar Mission, Christian Friedrich Schwartz and the Serampore Mission. It discusses caste and Christianity, mission and colonialism, Christianity and the National Independence Movement and women in Indian Christianity. Further topics are the medical and educational work of Christianity, the Church Union Movement and India’s contribution to the ecumenical movement, the emergence of Pentecostal and Charismatic Movements, Indian Christian missionary organizations, Christianity in North East India and fundamentalism and conversion.
  • Christology

    George, Samuel (SCEPTRE, 2014)
    The book deals with christologies of different times and contexts. Starting from Christological Debates during the Patristic Period, Samuel George discusses christologies of Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, Origen of Alexandria, Arius, Athanasius of Alexandria, Apollinarius of Laodicea and the Cappadocian Fathers. The Mediaeval and Reformation christologies chapter deals with Thomas Aquinas, Martin Luther and John Calvin. Following these, different Western christologies are presented, as that of Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher, Karl Barth, Albert Schweitzer, Rudolf Karl Bultmann, Paul Johannes Tillich and Wolfhart Pannenberg. After this, christological reflections from India are introduced: Raja Ram Mohan Roy’s, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi’s, Brahmabandhav Upadhyaya’s, Vengal Chakkarai’s, Aiyarudai Jesudasan Appasamy’s, Pandipeddi Chenchiah’s, Paul David Devanandan’s, M. M. Thomas’, Sebastian Kappen’s, Kalagara Subba Rao’s christology, and christology from a Dalit perspective. The last chapter discusses emerging christologies from the margins: Latin American liberation context, christology from the Afro-American/Black context, Womanist/Feminist Theology, Minjung christology and Eco-theology and christology.
  • Doing Theology from Disability Perspective

    Longchar, Wati; Cowans, Gordon (The Association for Theological Education in South-East Asia (ATESEA)ATESEA), 2011)
    It is said that about 10 per cent of the human population has some deformity or other, yet they seldom receive any attention. Abled people try to avoid their company. In many societies persons with disabilities are treated as second-class people, objects of charity or even abandoned. They are subjected to prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory acts by the able-bodied majority. Society keeps them ignorant and dependent by denying education and employment opportunities. The suffering and miseries of many disabled people in Asia are compounded because of poverty and poor medical facilities.<br /> Christian theology is done by abled-bodied people for the abledbodied. Theology from the perspective of persons with disabilities is almost silent in the Christian tradition. We have a rather negative theology towards persons with disabilities as the theology is constructed by abledbodied people. There are Christians who think that disability is related to sin and the work of demons, that it is a curse and punishment from God. Healing, on the other hand, is always understood as a sign of faith. People often think that those who are not healed do not have strong faith and that the lack of faith leads to disability.<br /> Realizing that the churches will remain a disabled community without the inclusion of persons with disabilities, Ecumenical Theological Education of Christian Conference of Asia and World Council of Churches, the Ecumenical Disability Advocacy Network and the Association for Theological Education in Southeast Asia jointly organized a workshop in Manila on 22-27, May 2007 to reconstruct a more inclusive church towards persons with disabilities and to come up with a resource book on the theology of disability for theological students and church leaders with a specific Asian perspective. This work built on a process begun in Limuru, Kenya, in 2004, and followed by similar events in Bangalore, India (2006), and Suva, Fiji (2006).
  • HIV and Inclusive Communities

    Kambodji, Alphinus; Senturias, Erlinda N.; Longchar, Wati (SCEPTRE, 2013)
    "Theological education and institutions play a significant role in the training of pastors and theologians who have the knowledge and understanding about the concern, accompanied with a heart of compassion which springs out of a deep theological reflection and life-supporting spirituality. We are grateful that many theological institutions in Asia have begun to incorporate the concerns on HIV & AIDS in their curriculum. In this light we are facing a new challenge to prepare materials to be used by teachers and students in theological schools and seminaries. This book is a response to such a need. It is a compilation of papers presented at recent theological consultations on HIV & AIDS organized by CCA in collaboration with member churches and councils, and theological institutions as well as articles specially written for this purpose. It is our hope that this book can offer new thoughts and perspectives for the pastors, theologians and lay leaders to build up their inner and outer HIV competencies so that they will be empowered to accompany the churches in responding to this enormous challenge." <br /><br /> CONTENTS:<br /> Part I: HIV & AIDS AND THE BIBLE 1. HIV and AIDS: Need for a New Perspective - Prawate Khid-arn 2. Facing HIV and AIDS: Some Insights from the Hebrew Bible - Monica Jyotsna Melanchthon 3. Biblical Perspective on Disease and Suffering, Healing and Wholeness: Some Insights on Understanding HIV and AIDS from the Gospel Accounts - V.J. John 23 Part II: HIV AND THEOLOGY 4. Theology of Life: Theological Reflection on Church’s Responsibility in the Time of HIV - Sostenes Sumihe 5. Unclean and Compassionate Hand of God - Wati Longchar 6. Theology of Shame - Simplicio B Dang-awan Jr 7. Shame, Stigma, Prejudice, Exclusion and the Quest for Shalom: A Theology of Grace - Jose Andres Sotto 8. HIV and AIDS: Towards an Ethic of ‘Just Care’ - Metropolitan Geevarghese Mor Coorilos 9. HIV and AIDS: The Human Community’s Response - Philip Kuruvilla xiv Part III: HIV AND GENDER 10. Gender and the Vulnerability of Individuals to HIV and AIDS - Gertrudes A R Libang 11. Poverty, AIDS and the Struggle of Women to Live - Rose Wu Part IV: HIV AND HUMAN SEXUALITY 12. AIDS and Homosexuality: A Christian Perspective - Stephen Suleeman 13. Reclaiming Our Past, Constructing our Future: The Struggle for LGBTIQ Rights in Asia and the Pacific - Dédé Oetomo 14. Theological Reflection On Sexuality and Reproductive Health - Hendri Wijayatsih Part V: HIV AND CHURCH 15. HIV and AIDS: Challenges for Creating Innovative Pastoral Care Practices - Joseph George 16. Compassion and Care for People Living with HIV - Ezamo Murry Part VI: BIBLE STUDY 17. Biblical Reflection on Healing and HIV and AIDS - Darlene Marquez-Caramanzana 18. Building HIV and AIDS Competent Churches in the Philippines A Biblico-Theological Reflection - Fr. Rex RB Reyes

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