AbstractPurpose - Four learning modes, interacting through students as different learning systems, are mapped into a cone-of-learning continuum that allows tertiary institutions to visually re-consider where within their cone-of-learning, they choose to position their learning approaches. Two forms of blended learning are also distinguished. Design/methodology/approach - Undergraduate law, business, IT and creative arts student perceptions are structural equation modelled (SEM) into traditional, blended-enabled, blended-enhanced and flexible learning systems. Findings - Within the SEM derived learning cone-of-learning continuum, a migration from traditional learning systems towards blended and flexible learning systems typically offers higher-net levels of undergraduate student learning experiences and outcomes. Research limitations/implications - We do not capture learning system feedback loops, but our cone-of-learning approaches can position against chosen competitors. We recognise benchmark, positioning, and transferability differences may exist between different tertiary institutions; different learning areas; and different countries of operation. Cone-of-learning studies can expand to capture student perceptions of their value acquisitions, overall satisfaction, plus trust and loyalty considerations. Practical implications - The cone-of-learning shows shifts towards flexibility as generating higher student learning experiences, higher student learning outcomes, and as flexible technologies mature this demands higher student inputs. These interactive experiential systems approaches can readily incorporate new technologies, gamifications, and engagements which are testable for additional student deep learning contributions. Experiential deep-learning systems also have wide industrial applications. Originality/value - Learning system studies remain complex, variable systems, dependent on instructors, students, and their shared experiential engagements environments. This cone-of-learning continuum approach is useful for educators, business, and societal life-long learners who seek to gauge learning and outcomes.
Hamilton, John R., and Tee, Singwhat (2015) The cone-of-learning: a visual comparison of learning systems. The TQM Journal. (In Press)