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AbstractBackground: Beginning in 2012, the Government of Rwanda implemented the Human Resources for Health (HRH) program to enhance capacity building in the Rwandan health education sector. Through this program, surgical training at University of Rwanda (UR) has expanded. The aim of this presentation is to describe the scaling up of the UR surgical residency programMethods: We performed a descriptive analysis of the UR surgical residency program after initiation of the Rwanda HRH Program.Results: Through the HRH Program, faculty from US institutions supplements the existing Rwandan educational infrastructure to increase the teaching capacity in Rwanda. Intake of surgical trainees more than doubled within the first year of the program. Service-based surgical training has changed to competency-based training through curriculum development, dedicated academic days and surgical education within firms. Lectures remain a dominant feature of the educational program, but more focus is placed on bedside teaching and peer-education. Shortage of operative space and a tremendous number of emergency patients overwhelm public teaching hospitals posing a challenge towards providing residents with a broad spectrum of operative experiences, especially elective surgical cases.Conclusion: Through this program, the ursurgical residency program has greatly expanded. Over time, the quantity and quality of surgical residents is expected to increase.