A Comparative Study Of Teacher Education Programme In Japan And Germany And Its Feasibility For Teacher Education In Pakistan
AbstractThe study was scientifically designed, using stratification approach, three representative categories (i.e. strata) were selected which included One Officials and Educationists two Teachers Trainers and third category was comprised of Teacher Trainees.Out of all three categories random sample i.e.50; 25; and 100 respectively were drawn using close-ended questionnaire.Prior to launch full scale field data collocation, the questionnaire was pretested so that non sampling error could be minimized.The parameters were qualitative and quantitative in nature such as the perceptions opinions policies type training programs gender divisions and number of training offered in a Calendar year. The inferential statistics such as correlations and t and p values with confidence intervals were used. Also, data has been presented using statistical tools such as means, standard deviation, percentages and likert scale.In the context of Pakistan, the study identifies some pertinent issues such as the of lack of accountability, lack of incentives, little hope of a career track, and motivation confront with education system especially the teachers.Moreover, these issues appear to be widespread resulting from the failure of the system itself (led by government institutions).Although, some attempts have been made to improve of institutions, these include ADB program in the mid 1990’s that supported the establishment of the Provincial Institutes of Teacher Education (PITEs) and other outposts of training. The outcome of those programs is debated as much of these programs contributed for improving infrastructure instead of quality education through reformation processes. In fact, a majority of projects and programs implemented over the years have unfortunately directed their This research study critically assesses the impact of Teacher Education Reforms (TERs) in Germany and Japan.The reforms include range of training programs initiated for teachers to enhance their capability and capabilities in imparting higher education especially at classroom levels, these training were offered at certificate levels such as, PTC, CT, B.Ed, M.Ed. The results show encouraging outcome, for example, teaching standards in both Germany and Japan are compatible with countries like USA and France.The study also intends to relate experiences of both countries i.e., Germany and Japan with Pakistan.The purpose was to suggest the standards and mechanisms for Pakistan, especially, those that were designed while initiating teacher training programs in both countries.Energies at addressing the symptoms of the problems rather than correcting the root causes.The study reveals that the system of teacher training and follow-up in the field by assessment adopted in Germany and Japan could applied in Pakistan. Also, in order to improve education system like in Japan and Germany, the appointment of teachers be made through an independent body (i.e. like HEC). The teacher recruitment must be ensured on 100 merit basis not on compromises on quality or else on political influence.As such practices have been proved to be counterproductive in terms of ensuring quality education. Further, the minimum qualification for candidates applying for Primary School Teacher should not be less than Graduation; the test standard must be maintained considering future national needs in relation to primary education.The posting of teachers must not be done in their home district and a handsome salary package may be designed for teachers.The summer and winter bonuses should be announced, family allowance, for those who have dependents, remote area allowance, for those who serve in isolated areas, special service allowance, for those who engage in activities or special services.The cold and hot place allowance for those posted at more than normal hot/cold areas, short-term benefits provide medical insurance and cover employees' and their dependents' medical expenses for illness, injury, childbirth, etc. Long-term benefits include retirement plans and other annuities that are paid upon retirement and thereafter (usually monthly), or when employees become disabled or die.The findings of this study may be helpful for policy makers, administrators and teacher educators to improve the teacher-training programs.It may also be helpful for the prospective teachers as well as working teachers in developing positive attitude toward teaching profession. All the categories of respondents exhibit no significance difference in their perceptions on quality of teachers and teacher training approaches at various levels.Teacher training programs need reevaluation and reorganization to remove the drawbacks.The teaching staff of teacher training institutions needs to reevaluate their own attitudes towards teaching profession as well as their overt behavior towards the prospective teachers.
Muhammad , Shafi Messo (2010) A Comparative Study Of Teacher Education Programme In Japan And Germany And Its Feasibility For Teacher Education In Pakistan. PhD thesis, University of Sindh, Jamshoro.