This Globethics.net collection gathers contributions, resources and perspectives on eco-theology, climate justice, and food security from Christian, Churches, and/or other religious traditions. It also contains the Global Survey on Ecotheology, Climate Justice and Food Security in Theological Education and Christian Leadership Development, the presentations and report of the follow up consultation on the same subject held at the Academy of Volos, Demetriades Diocese of Church of Greece, 10-13 March, 2016.

Recent Submissions

  • The Contribution of Non-Physical Resources and Strategic Household Decision-making to Environmental and Policy Risks

    Mariam, Yohannes; Galaty, John; Coffin, Garth (1993-12-12)
    Physical resources such as land, labour and livestock, and nonphysical resources such as indigenous knowledge and institutions of producers in the grain surplus and deficit regions of the Central Highlands of Ethiopia are examined under situation of environmental and policy risks. Frequency distribution and comparative statistical analysis of the grain-surplus regions suggest that in situations where all producers are subjected to a common source of risk (e.g. rainfall): I) institutional resources become less effective, and ii) combination of land, labour, knowledge and other complementary resources form the basis for adjustment mechanisms and sequential or strategic decisions. On the other hand, when essential resources such as land are government owned and household decisions are shared by the state, local institutions or social networks become an effective means to maintain reproduction of the farm and producers through providing access to or sharing of resources. In the extreme case of environmental degradation (e.g., drought), farmers follow sequential decision-making. This sequence of decision-making begins with minimization of expenditure, selling of resources that are intended to stabilize farm income, selling of resources essential to farming and depletion of household items, and finally evacuation. The ability of such farming system to regenerate, however, greatly depends not only on the availability of physical resources but most importantly by the potential of knowledge and institutions of producers to adjust to environmental changes, and support from governmental or non-governmental sources.
  • The Role of Nature in John Muir's Conception of the Good Life

    Larsen, Randy R. (Antioch University / OhioLINK, 2011-09-30)
  • Papers of Ella Cabot Lyman, 1855-1934

    Cabot, Ella Lyman. (Schlesinger, 1855-1934)
    Correspondence, journals, account books, manuscripts, drafts and notes for lectures, articles, photos, and books comprise the collection. Material on Cabot's family reflects daily life of the Boston elite. Her public activities are documented by her lectures and books on philosophy, ethics, education, psychology, and religion. Included are notes from her studies under Josiah Royce and a manuscript in Royce's hand. Also included is correspondence of her father, Arthur Theodore Lyman, written while he was traveling in Europe.
  • BIOETHICS IN INDIA

    Azariah, Jayapaul; Azariah, Hilda; Macer, Darryl R. J. (Darryl Raymund Johnson), 1962- (2011-07-12)
    Bioethics for enhanced sustainability -- Editorial preface -- Chennai statement on bioethics -- Biotechnology and the genome -- Ch. 1. The ethical implications of the Human Genome Project and Human Genome Diversity Project / Darryl R.J. Macer -- Ch. 2. Identifying and defining levels and limits of biological life, and evolution / R.N. Sharma -- Ch. 3. Human Genome Project and human rights: a conflict between scientific and ethical responsibilities / E.R. Martin, A.G. Bansode, and P.A. John -- Ch. 4. International ethical and legal regime over human genome diversity research: the search for an alternate source of beliefs / T.R. Sivaramjani -- Ch. 5. Ethical issues in molecular detection of presymptomatic genetic disease, prenatal diagnosis and genetic manipulation / T. Satesh and Y.R. Ahuja -- Ch. 6. Ethical issues in human genetics: anthropological approach / S.A. Abdul Latheef and K.N. Reddy -- Philosophy of Life and Death -- Ch. 7. Reverence for life / D.S. Sheriff -- Ch. 8. Status of human life in/and foetus in Hindu, Christian and Islamic Scriptures / Jayapaul Azariah -- Ch. 9. The fifth kingdom / S. Natarajan and C. Arunachalam -- Ch. 10. Life: a brief philosophical review / George Joseph -- Ch. 11. Scientific and spiritual concepts of death / V.R. Selvarajan -- Ch. 12. Life and human identity: an anthropological approach / K.N. Reddy and S.A. Abdul Latheef -- Ch. 13. Theories of Karma yoga and Bhakti yoga as a part of the philosophy of life / M.V. Subba Rao and T.P. Virajitha -- Biodiversity, religion and human values -- Ch. 14. How do we observe bioethics in biodiversity / H.S. Rose and Charan Joshi -- Ch. 15. Sustenance of biodiversity: an action line through Bhagavad Gita / Dua Kamal Kumar -- Ch. 16. Bhagavad Gita - role of genes and environment in diversity of behaviour / Dua Kamal Kumar -- Ch. 17. Humankind and religion / K.K. Verma and Rashmi Saxena -- Ch. 18. Need for the development of social and spiritual ethics / V.R. Selvarajan Ch. 19. Religion - identity - human values - Indian context / V. Balambal -- Ch. 20. Points of contact between Maimonides Jewish philosophy and Buddhism and implications for bioethics / Frank J. Leavitt -- Ch. 21. Biodiversity and environment - Indian Context / SA. Abdul Latheef and K.N. Reddy -- Medical ethics -- Ch. 22. Persons at the beginning and end of life / John P. Lizza -- Ch. 23. Euthanasia: the final autonomy / T.R. Sivaramjani -- Ch. 24. Societal reaction towards a woman cancer patient / Vanaja S. Kumar and R.P. Surendra Kumar -- Ch. 25. Behavioural malignancy: alcoholism a bleakfuture? / Vanaja S. Kumar -- Ch. 26. Prevalence of HIV in women in Chennai attending antenatal clinics / D. Sudarsanam and S.A. Christian Shirley -- Ch. 27. Embryo research - relevance in the changing context of social medicine / D.S. Sheriff, T. Manopriya and K. Asokan -- Ch. 28. Christian perspectives in medical ethics / M. Gnanapragasam -- Ch. 29. A critique of bioethics with reference to abortion, suicide, euthanasia and Christian response to the right to life / J.S. Santharaj -- Ch. 30. Ethics in the progress of medical science / A.K. Tharien -- Ch. 31. Ethical and social issues in xenotransplantation / Darryl Macer -- Ch. 32. Ethics in allocation of organs for transplantation in humans / D.S. Sheriff -- Ch. 33. S.T.D. / AIDS: social and ethical aspects / R.V. Ramana Rao -- Ch. 34. Philosophy of sex - Sexoscopy and ethics / D.S. Sheriff -- Ch. 35. Philosophy of medicine - dialogics and medicine / D.S. Sheriff -- Ch. 36. Family physician and the patient / D.S. Sheriff -- Ch. 37. Medical humanism / B.M. Hegde -- Ch. 38. Nursing ethics and dialogues between philosophical and religious ethics / Frank J. Leavitt -- Ch. 39. Behind all that glitters / S. Vatsala -- Ch. 40. The iodized salt : myth and reality / S. Vatsala -- Ch. 41. Psychoteratogens: right to retard? / T.S. Vijayakumar and Jayapaui Azariah - Scientific ethics and animal rights -- Ch. 42. Some avoidable issues in bioethics in relation to laboratory animals / Radhakrishna Pillai -- Ch. 43. Ethics of resource management: place of altruism as a human value / T. Ramakrishna -- Ch. 44. Aspects of altruistic behaviour in parent pigeons / K.B. Shenoy and S.N. Hegde -- Ch. 45. Animal liberation philosophy in social context of basic biological research / D.S. Sheriff and T. Manopriya -- Ch. 46. 4R concept and ethical consideration / D. Pandey, A. Dere, S. Shalkh, K. Jha, R. Kulkarnl, S. Tagade, R. Chaure and A. Hajare -- Ch. 47. Ethical considerations on the use of animals in drug research / Selvaraj Laxshmi, Mona Merchant, and Supraja Narsimhan -- Ch. 48. Ethics: a guide or constraint to toxicologists / T.S. Vijaya Kumar and H. Devaraj -- Ch. 49. Assay of toxins using cell cultures: an ethical alternative to animal experimentation / T.S. Rao -- Ch. 50. Bias in ethics? / K. Shanker and R. Ramanibai -- Ch. 51. A scientific approach to life - anthropological approach / S.A. Abdui Latheef, K.N. Reddy and Subramanyam -- Ch. 52. Humankind in predicament / S.A. Abdul Latheef, K.N. Reddy and Subramanyam -- Ch. 53. Ethics behind the sufferings of aquatic animals on pollution stress / B. Sivaramakrishna and K. Radhakrishnaiah -- Ch. 54. Bioethical management of working bullocks in Anantapur district of Andhra Pradesh / K. Prudhvi Reddy and K. Radhakrishnaiah -- Environmental ethics of large-scale systems oceans -- Ch. 55. Sustainable mariculture for development - Management Issues and Environment Interaction in India / P. Nammalwar -- Ch. 56. Conservation and management of marine biodiversity / S.L. Sasikala -- Ch. 57. Mangrove, bioethics, and the environment / C. Govindasamy, A.G. Viji Roy, C. Prabhahar, S. Valarmathi and J. Azariah -- Ch. 58. Environmental implications of disease treatments in aquaculture / M. Vijayakumaran -- Ch. 59. Present status of sea turtles and their conservation in india / M. Rajagopalan -- Ch. 80. Bromination as an alternative control measure in nuclear power plants / J. Gunasingh Masilamoni, A.G. Viji Roy, Awl Vasu, K.V.K. Nair and J. Azariah -- Ch. 61. Bioethical interactions in relation with power plant design to avoid biofouling and biocorrosion / K.S. Jesudoss, J.G. Masilamoni, Nandakumar, K.V.K. Nair and J. Azariah -- Ch. 62. Temperature tolerance and impact of power plant heated effluents on megabalanus tintinnabulum / K. Samuel Jesudoss, Nandakumar, A.G. Viji Roy, J. Azariah and K.V.K. Nair -- Ch. 63. Bioethics of health and environment / S. Palanichamy -- Ch. 64. Economization vs ecolization / J.P. Arokiam -- Philosophy and environmental science -- Ch. 65. The rights of rocks / Frank J. Leavitt -- Ch. 66. A philosophical critique of reductionism and a plea for a holistic ethic / K. Joshua -- Ch. 67. The Moral and spiritual perception of the beautiful in nature in the poems of Gerard Manley Hopkins / P. Titus -- Ch. 68. Stereotypical analytical concept of life and nature / R.D. Francis, E.R. Martin and A.G. Bansode -- Ch. 69. "Dwelling in the fourfold" Heidegger on science and technology / James Kurien -- Ethical costs and benefits of environmental ethics -- Ch. 70. Environmentally compatible biopesticide for pest management in red gram / V. Padmaja, Gurvinder Kaur and K. Ramesh -- Ch. 71. Chromosomal aberrations in fish inhabiting polluted ecosystem / D. Sudarsanam and A. Ouseph -- Ch. 72. Environmental conflicts with economic values / N. Rajalakshmi -- Ch. 73. Effect of industrial pollution at Chembur on the chlorophyll content of some deciduous trees / S.A. Salgare and Mohd. Anis -- Ch. 74. Perception of environmental ethics of buffalo rearing on the banks of the river Cooum in Chennai, Tamil Nadu / Pamela Sahayadas and Jayapaui Azariah -- Ch. 75. Health care reforms in radiation workers:. a cytogenetic approach / N. Gajendiran, Mary N. Mohankumar and R.K. Jeevanram -- Ch. 76. Pollution load and health of the Cooum river system / Pamela Sahayadas and Jayapaul Azariah -- Ch. 77. Energy and environment / P. Manithamuthu -- Land ethics and ecoethical management -- Ch. 78. Land health: the bioethical approach of the foragers / Nirmal Selvamony and A. Rukmani -- Ch. 79. Health ethics in school environment: towards improved accountability of human life / S. Gopinath, H. Azariah, N.S. Kavitha and K. Latha -- Ch. 80. Prospects for bioethics management of mosquito menace and mosquito born diseases / P. Venkatesan -- Ch. 81. Ethical implication of industrial pollution on the ground water quality / Thomson Jacob, Jayapaul Azariah, Paul Appasamy and Gunar Jacks -- Ch. 82. Bioethical management of ecological resources with reference to Tirupur / N. Vasudevan -- Ch. 83. Ecoethical technology using extracellular enzymes of chrysosporium / N.S. Kavitha, A. Hilda, S. Gopinath and K. Latha -- Ch. 84. Hydrolysis of oils and marine environmental ethics / N.S. Kavitha, A. Hilda, S.Gopinath and K. Latha -- Ch. 85. Environmental risk caused by colorants / K. Latha, A. Hilda, S. Gopinath and N.S. Kavitha -- Ch. 86. Ecological dynamics in the east coast and the alternative approach / Sunny Jose and Gilbert Rodrigo -- Ch. 87. Environmental and human imperatives of pollution recognition and remedies / R.N. Sharma -- Ch. 88. Biologically active plant extracts against euproctis fraterna / M.S. Nalina Sundari -- Ch. 89. Ecology and the future of humankind / C. Govindasamy and Jayapaul Azariah -- Ch. 90. Environment and human health: types of diseases and strategies / M.V. Subba Rao -- Ch. 91. The neem plant, Azadlrachta indica, an important medicinal plant / M.V. Subba Rao -- Ch. 92. Shifting cultivation - a cause for the loss of bioresources In Srungavarapu kota and Pachipenta mandals of Vizianagaram District of Andhra Pradesh / M.V. Subba Pao, A.N.P.S. Madhavi, M. Aruna Kumari, G.S.S.H. Varaprasad, Y.A.V.A.S.N. Maruthi and P. Sunitha -- Ch. 93. Immunization of cattle against ticks / D.P. Banerjee -- Ethics and development -- Ch. 94. The economic administration of biogeo resources in urban cities: a case study of CMDA) / A. Aruna Sivakami and R. Asha -- Ch. 95. Urbanisation and environmental sustainability - A case study in Madras, South India / R. Ramanibai -- Ch. 96. A post-Rio blunder! Are the poor to be saved first or germplasm / Felix A. Ryan -- Ch. 97. Vermiculture and vermicomposting of non-toxic organic solid waste applications In aquaculture / Arunabha Mitra -- Ch. 96. Production of farm vermi-compost using treated tannery effluent water / Lavanya P.G. and J. Venkatakrishnan -- Ch. 99. Bioethics and planet protection / Rolla S. Rao -- Ch. 100. Bio-concept of Tamils / J. Ramachandran -- Ch. 101. Sustainabiiity vs survival: dilemmas for the indigenous people of India / P.J. Sanjeeva Raj -- Ch. 102. Is the grassroots cooperation on environmental health possible among people in conflict? / Frank J. Leavitt -- Bioethics Education -- Ch. 103. Need for a personal, scientific and professional Code of Ethics in Indian science / R.N. Sharma -- Ch. 104. D être an ethical scientist: the art of being between the devil and deep-blue-sea / John S. Kennedy -- Ch. 105. On medical ethics and medical education / Annabelle Rajaseharan -- Ch. 106. Ethics in medical education / Pushpar Dhar -- Ch. 107. Literature and medical ethics / D.S. Sheriff -- Ch. 108. Attitudes and ethics in medicine - undergraduate medical student perceptions / K.P. Kochhar -- Ch. 109. Bioethics and educational conflict: an in-depth analysis of the stumbling blocks of progressive society / A.G. Bansode and E.R. Martin -- Ch. 110. Ethics, education and social development / S. Rajathy and P. Thankappan -- Ch. 111. The need and scope for bioethics in teacher training / V. Usha Sri -- Ch. 112. Towards an adequate basis for bioethics / L.T. Jeyachandran -- Ch. 113. Bioethics education in high schools: an investigation in Tamil Nadu with comparisons to Australia, Japan and New Zealand / Cynthia Pandlan and Darryl R.J. Macer -- Ch. 114. Ethics / Suniti Solomon
  • An environmental ethic of life -giving creativity informed by science and religion

    Kim, Michelle Yoon-Kyung Lee (DigitalResearch@Fordham, 2007-01-01)
    I address in this dissertation one of the most important issues of our day—the ecological crisis. Guided by a contemporary scientific story of the universe as a story of life-giving creativity and recognizing its potential for bringing together core convictions from science, religion, and ethics into a new shared world view that could foster a greater sense of ecological responsibility, I propose an environmental ethic. ^ Central to this ethic is a vision of life-giving creativity, which I claim characterizes the new evolutionary world view as interdependent and relational, holistic, emergent, historical, and communal—providing a morally, theologically, and ecologically coherent vision that can be shared by all. ^ The ethic of life-giving creativity is developed using an epistemological framework, which is based on two well known scientific models that have also been recognized as viable methodologies for theology: a Lakatosian research program and the Inference to the Best Explanation (IBE) model. A Lakatosian research program provides a basis for harmonizing and relating interdisciplinary ideas, providing support for a core belief at their center; the IBE model provides a basis for generating plausible or meaningful explanations for available data—whether they are scientific or theological. ^ Furthermore, I discuss the potential of the story of life-giving creativity to provide Christians with a sacred story that enables them to relate to people of other faiths and ultimately to all people of good will. I discuss an educational philosophy and a model of religious education that are consistent with the vision of life-giving creativity. Moreover, I discuss a new eco-spirituality that is also consistent with the shared vision, which encourages us to revalue the mystical and sacramental nature of creation. Finally, I present Franciscan spirituality as an expression of the authentic Christian attitude toward nature and also as an example of this new eco-spirituality. ^
  • The Identification for Development Agenda

    Hanmer, Lucia; Dahan, Mariana (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-10-21)
    Gender inequality and related issues remain a major global challenge, particularly for developing countries. Despite considerable progress on gender equality over recent decades, key gender gaps remain in endowments (health and education), in access to jobs and economic opportunities, and in voice and agency. Lack of data limits ability to assess gender gaps and measure progress toward eliminating them. Successfully addressing the incompleteness of civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) systems can help fill some of these vital data gaps. In addition, having official personal identification (ID) is an important stepping-stone for women and girls - enabling them to access services, claim their entitlements as citizens, and increase their voice and agency through participation in voting and other politics. Global initiatives such as identification for development (ID4D) promote opportunities to provide women with access to foundational documentation such as birth certificates and expansion of other ways to establish their legal identity. In addition, better data resulting from personal identity registration will advance gender equality policy discussions and planning. This paper examines rates of male and female registration for national identities globally to identify key registration constraints and gaps. The authors find no systematic evidence of gender-based gaps in birth registration; rather, evidence suggests that poverty, social exclusion, and geography may constrain birth registration of both males and females. Drawing on case studies and national-level data, the authors next examine outcomes in specific policy areas: access to financial services, access to social protection schemes, and inclusion in electoral roles and voting. Here, the evidence suggests, adult women face gender-specific barriers in getting ID, sometimes related to inability to obtain foundational documentation such as birth certificates.
  • Its Potential for Empowering Women and Girls

    Dahan, Mariana; Hanmer, Lucia (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015)
    Gender inequality and related issues remain a major global challenge, particularly for developing countries. Despite considerable progress on gender equality over recent decades, key gender gaps remain in endowments (health and education), in access to jobs and economic opportunities, and in voice and agency. Lack of data limits ability to assess gender gaps and measure progress toward eliminating them. Successfully addressing the incompleteness of civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) systems can help fill some of these vital data gaps. In addition, having official personal identification (ID) is an important stepping-stone for women and girls - enabling them to access services, claim their entitlements as citizens, and increase their voice and agency through participation in voting and other politics. Global initiatives such as identification for development (ID4D) promote opportunities to provide women with access to foundational documentation such as birth certificates and expansion of other ways to establish their legal identity. In addition, better data resulting from personal identity registration will advance gender equality policy discussions and planning. This paper examines rates of male and female registration for national identities globally to identify key registration constraints and gaps. The authors find no systematic evidence of gender-based gaps in birth registration; rather, evidence suggests that poverty, social exclusion, and geography may constrain birth registration of both males and females. Drawing on case studies and national-level data, the authors next examine outcomes in specific policy areas: access to financial services, access to social protection schemes, and inclusion in electoral roles and voting. Here, the evidence suggests, adult women face gender-specific barriers in getting ID, sometimes related to inability to obtain foundational documentation such as birth certificates.
  • Expanding Women's Access to Land and Housing in Urban Areas

    Rakodi, Carole (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2014)
    Evidence is mounting that secure property rights have positive effects for poor people in general and women in particular. The aim of this report is to review what is known about women s access to and control over land and real property in urban settings, identifying approaches to strengthening property rights that enhance women s agency, and sharing key lessons. Section two synthesizes the evidence on urban women s priorities with respect to land and housing; the factors that influence women s access to and control over land and secure tenure, including legal and institutional frameworks and social relationships, especially within the family; and what is known about the extent to which women have access to, control over and use of urban land and housing, and through what forms of tenure. In section three, recent reform of laws, policies and practices to meet the needs of poor people in urban areas, especially women, will be assessed. Section four provides a short discussion of some of the strategies, tactics and alliances that are being adopted to bring about legal reforms and to influence the content, design and implementation of programs in urban areas. The report draws on successive research projects by the author and her colleagues on land and housing markets and policies, urban livelihoods, and urban politics and governance in a variety of contexts, in particular Rakodi (2010).
  • Land Tenure and Gender : Approaches and Challenges for Strengthening Rural Women's Land Rights

    Namubiru-Mwaura, Evelyn (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2014)
    Land tenure security is crucial for women's empowerment and a prerequisite for building secure and resilient communities. Tenure is affected by many and often contradictory sets of rules, laws, customs, traditions, and perceptions. For most rural women, land tenure is complicated, with access and ownership often layered with barriers present in their daily realities: discriminatory social dynamics and strata, unresponsive legal systems, lack of economic opportunities, and lack of voice in decision making. Yet most policy reform, land management, and development programs disregard these realities in their interventions, which ultimately increases land tenure insecurity for rural women. This paper seeks to further develop the evidence base for access to and control over land.
  • Local Institutions, Poverty, and Household Welfare in Bolivia

    Narayan, Deepa; Grootaert, Christiaan (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2001-07)
    The authors empirically estimate the impact of social capital on household welfare in Bolivia--where they found 67 different types of local associations. They focus on household memberships in local associations as being especially relevant to daily decisions that affect household welfare and consumption. On average, households belong to 1.4 groups and associations: 62 percent belong to agrarian syndicates, 16 percent to production groups, 13 percent to social service groups, and 10 percent to education and health groups. Smaller numbers belong to religious and government groups. Agrarian syndicates, created by government decree in 1952, are now viewed mainly as community-initiated institutions to manage conmunal resources. They have been registered as legal entities to work closely with municipalities to represent the interests and priorities of local people in municipal decisionmaking. The effects of social capital operate through (at least) three mechanisms: sharing of information among association members; the reduction of opportunistic behavior; and better collective decisionmaking. The effect of social capital on household welfare was found to be 2.5 times that of human capital. Increasing the average educational endowment of each adult in the household by one year (about a 2.5-percent increase) would increase per capita household spending 4.2 percent; a similar increase in the social capital endowment would increase spending 9 to 10.5 percent. They measured social capital along six dimensions: density of memberships, internal heterogeneity of associations (by gender, age, education, religion, etc.), meeting attendance, active participation in decisionmaking, payment of dues (in cash and in kind), and community orientation. The strongest effect came from number of memberships. Active membership in an agrarian syndicate is associated with an average 11.5 percent increase in household spending. Membership in another local association is associated with a 5.3-percent higher spending level. Empirical results partly confirm the hypothesis that social capital provides long-term benefits such as better access to credit and a higher level of trust in the community as a source of assistance in case of need.
  • Gender-Sensitive Approaches for the Extractive Industry in Peru : Improving the Impact on Women in Poverty and Their Families - Guide for Improving Practice

    Ward, Bernie; Eftimie, Adriana; Heller, Katherine; Strongman, John (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2014-05-13)
    In the companion report to this guide, gender-sensitive approaches to the extractive industry in Peru: improving impacts on women in poverty and their families, ward and strongman present solid, evidence-based arguments leading to the conclusion that Extractive Industry (EI) companies could significantly improve their sustainable development impact on women and families by making some practical and simple changes in their working practices. The report also provides extensive evidence of weaknesses in company and government policies and practices that contribute to a previously under recognized issue: men are capturing more of the benefits of EI projects, which are not necessarily reaching the wider family; while women and children experience more of the risks that arise from EI projects.
  • 'We Want What the Ok Tedi Women Have!' Guidance from Papua New Guinea on Women's Engagement in Mining Deals

    Harley, Georgia; Menzies, Nicholas (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2014-02-18)
    Despite global gender equality gains in education, life expectancy, and labor force participation, two areas of persistent inequality remain: asset gaps and women's agency. In many developing countries, including Papua New Guinea (PNG), land and natural resources are citizens' key assets. This briefing note, centered on field research in north fly district explores the process of negotiation and the progress in implementation of the Community Mine Continuation Agreements (CMCAs). The purpose of the research and the resulting brief is to understand how the CMCAs came about, assess whether their promise is being realized in practice, and provide guidance for mining and gender practitioners looking to use mining agreements to improve development outcomes for women, both in PNG and further afield. Revised compensation agreements at the Ok Tedi mine, called CMCAs, concluded in 2007 are an encouraging innovation. In these revised CMCAs, women had a seat at the negotiating table and secured an agreement giving them 10 percent of all compensation, 50 percent of all scholarships, cash payments into family bank accounts (to which many women are cosignatories), and mandated seats on the governing bodies implementing the agreement (including future reviews of the agreement). The 2006-07 Ok Tedi negotiation process and the resulting CMCAs were internationally groundbreaking for having secured enhanced rights for women in legally enforceable mining agreements, even in a context of severe gender inequality. Nevertheless, the gender asset gaps that persist in the midst of the current global extractives boom highlight the need to engage women more proactively in mining agreements and support their ability to exercise greater agency over those resources. More attention to the principles and experiences of community-driven development, together with more local political economy analysis, will likely benefit women's engagement and outcomes.
  • Courage and Hope : Stories from Teachers Living with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Drake, Lesley; Woolnough, Alice; Aduda, David; Manda, Stella; Bundy, Donald; Woolnough, Alice; Drake, Lesley; Manda, Stella; Bundy, Donald; Aduda, David (World Bank, 2012-03-19)
    It is estimated that there are currently approximately 122,000 teachers in Sub-Saharan Africa who are living with HIV, the vast majority of whom have not sought testing and do not know their HIV status. Stigma remains the greatest challenge and the major barrier to accessing and providing assistance to these teachers. The idea to collect stories from teachers living with HIV was inspired during the Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA) biennial meeting in Libreville, Gabon, in March 2006. At the conclusion of the meeting, Margaret Wambete shared a moving account of her life as a teacher living with HIV in Kenya. Margaret's presentation alluded to the fact that teachers living positively, in part due to their leadership role and in part due to their visibility in society, experience a unique set of challenges related to their HIV-positive status. To emphasize the human dimension of these stories, the technical team worked with journalists rather than researchers. A seasoned journalist responsible for the education section of a major Kenyan newspaper led eight local journalists in documenting these stories. Working with teacher unions and networks of HIV-positive teachers in various countries, a number of HIV-positive teachers were identified as willing participants for this project. The journalists each interviewed teachers living with HIV from their home country and recorded their stories. Once collected, the stories were vetted for accuracy of interpretation and then reviewed more widely at the meeting of the African networks of ministry of education HIV&AIDS focal points in Nairobi in November 2007. From the interactions, the journalists learned that news conferences, reports, or press statements they rely on for information about HIV are not enough. Understanding the HIV challenge requires close association with those living with the HIV virus. These individuals have moving personal testimonies that cannot be captured through hard facts and figures. Only through close interaction can people living with HIV express their fears, needs, and aspirations. Personal testimonies from the teachers are a powerful tool for spreading the message on HIV. Facts and figures are important, but listening to those who have lived through the experiences telling their stories makes the message more potent. The lessons journalists learned from the exercise will surely help them and readers of this book in redefining their perception about HIV, especially in relation to professionals such as teachers.
  • From Early Child Development to Human Development : Investing in Our Children's Future

    Eming Young, Mary; Eming Young, Mary (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2002)
    Investing in every child at an early age is an investment in human, and economic development for all. Children born in poverty are far more likely to grow undeveloped in both body, and mind. Science tells us that early child development (ECD) is critical, and marks a child for life, and, young children who are well nurtured, do better in school, and develop the skills to compete in a global economy. It is in this context that the Bank hosted a conference to review the state of knowledge on brain development, the link between ECD and human development, the standards of care to improve children's educational outcomes, the qualitative and quantitative measures of effective programs, and elements of quality in ECD programs. This book contains the proceedings of the Conference on Investing in our Children's Future, which brought together leading experts, academicians, and practitioners from nongovernmental organizations, civil society, governments, and international organizations. The conference featured the benefits of investing in young children, and measuring ECD standards of care, to ensure a fair start for all based on case studies. It further evaluated the effectiveness of ECD programs, with presentations focused on the role of private initiatives in influencing public policy. Conclusions include the pursuit of a continued evaluation on the effectiveness of ECD programs, and, a deliberately planned global coalition to fund ECD initiatives.
  • Oil and the Propensity to Armed Struggle in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    Oyefusi, Aderoju (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2007-04)
    This paper attempts to explain the determinants of the propensity to armed struggle and the probability of participation by individuals in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria using primary (micro) data. While grievance appears to be pervasive among individuals and communities in the region and can be systematically explained, neither the grievance level nor its commonly cited causal factors appear to be strong enough to create a disposition toward armed rebellion. Rather, factors that reduce the opportunity cost and risk of participation or increase the perceived benefits appear to be more important. The study identifies three of these factors that are amenable to the policymaker's (government's) control as income level, educational attainment, and government presence.
  • On Norms and Agency : Conversations about Gender Equality with Women and Men in 20 Countries

    Muñoz Boudet, Ana María; Petesch, Patti; Thumala, Angélica; Turk, Carolyn (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2013-06-10)
    This report provides tremendous insight on gender norms an area that has been resistant to change, and that constrains achievement of gender equality across many diverse cultures. The report synthesizes data collected from more than 4,000 women and men in 97 communities across 20 countries. It is the largest dataset ever collected on the topic of gender and development, providing an unprecedented opportunity to examine potential patterns across communities on social norms and gender roles, pathways of empowerment, and factors that drive acute inequalities. The analysis raises the profile of persistent social norms and their impact on agency, and catalyzes discourse on the many pathways that create opportunities for women and men to negotiate transformative change. The report is underpinned by the fact that arguably the single most important contribution to development is to unleash the full power of half the people on the planet women. It underscores how crucial making investments in learning, supporting innovations that reduce the time costs of women s mobility, and developing a critical mass of women and men pushing the boundaries of entrenched social norms are in enhancing women s agency and capacity to aspire.
  • Os saberes ambientais e a governança das águas

    Bueno Guerra, Claudio (Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, 2009)
    This article is about a reflection on the relationship between nature, man and science, and emphasizes the importance of a rethink in our lives regards the appropriation of our natural resources. It is based on my own experiences with water resources in South-East Brazil and intends to call attention for an strategic subject in Brazilian society nowadays: waters resources. Brazil is not only one of the richest countries in the world in terms of water resources, but also has several negative and positive experiences on this matter. It concludes that is possible to build up a sustainable society, where equity, solidarity and social justice would be ordinary elements of our daily life. However, this challenge will only be achieved after decades of a struggle for life with an effective participation of different segments of our society and not only the governments. In this scenario, the social mobilization for waters, certainly, will play a key role.
  • Promoting research ethics training: Understandings of community, partnership, virtue and diversity

    Quigley, Dianne (SUrface, 2009-01-01)
    In this dissertation, "Promoting Research Ethics Training: Understandings of Community, Partnership, Virtue and Diversity," I argue for expanding traditional research ethics training beyond a sole focus on the individual for human subjects protections to protections and beneficence for the geographic community as a subject of research. Health and environmental researchers who conduct interventions in geographic communities require new ethics training on community-based engagement and participatory research approaches. These new approaches are being implemented to overcome past research experiences that produced too few benefits for many geographic communities with multiple disparity conditions and multiracial groups. Researchers now need to engage community members in partnerships; learn about local contextual conditions and subjective meanings of the community of study; and conduct cultural appropriate interventions with diverse groups. I argue for expanded training on meanings of community, on ethical theories that can support community-based partnerships and on intercultural models of community research to promote more respect with diverse cultural groups. I demonstrate the value of Religious Studies training, its texts and methods for conducting this expanded ethics training. With an investigation of the varied meanings of community associated with health and environmental interventions, researchers can be more prepared for engaging community members for collaborative research designs and methods and for producing beneficent outcomes. A need for building community solidarity and capacities is dramatic in geographic communities with disadvantaged conditions. Understandings of moral solidarities, the movements of robust socialities and creative interpersonal relationships are extremely useful to the conduct of participatory research approaches. More integration of biomedical research principles in research reports of community-based studies can advance the acceptance of partnership approaches with research ethics committees and academic research disciplines. A development of virtue training and analyses in community-based approaches is also proposed. The design and conduct of intercultural or interworld research models can be developed with more study on culturally-based meanings of community and knowledge values. New case studies on culturally diverse research methods demonstrate new creative arrangements in participatory research. I urge Religious Studies scholars to offer more expertise to all these ethical dimensions of community-based approaches to health and environmental research.
  • ISSP

    The International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) is a continuing annual programme of cross-national collaboration on surveys covering topics important for social science research. It brings together pre-existing national social science projects and co-ordinates research goals, thereby adding a cross-national, cross-cultural perspective to the individual, national studies. Formed in 1983, the group develops topical modules dealing with important areas of social science as supplements to regular national surveys. Every survey includes questions about general attitudes toward various social issues such as the legal system, sex, and the economy. Special topics have included the environment, the role of government, social inequality, social support, family and gender issues, work orientation, the impact of religious background, behaviour, and beliefs on social and political preferences, and national identity. Participating countries vary for each topical module. The merging of the data into a cross-national dataset is performed by the Zentralarchiv fuer Empirische Sozialforschung, University of Cologne. A compact disc (CD-ROM) (archived under SN 3479) containing data and documentation for ISSP surveys carried out 1985-1996, 1998, 2000 and 2002 is available from the UKDA. Main Topics:The CD-ROM contains the complete collection of data and documentation of the International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) between 1985 and 1996, 1998, 2000. In these years, the ISSP conducted twelve different Social Science Surveys in up to 30 countries. The collection comprises the following titles: 1985 - Role of Government I (6 countries) (ZA 1490,UKDA 2448) 1986 - Social Networks and Support Systems (7 countries) (ZA 1620, UKDA 2560) 1987 - Social Inequality I (10 countries) (ZA 1680,UKDA 2702) 1988 - Family and Changing Sex Roles I (8 countries) (ZA 1700, UKDA 2744) 1989 - Work Orientations I (10 countries) (ZA 1840, UKDA 2864) 1990 - Role of Government II (9 countries) (ZA 1950, UKDA 2956) 1991 - Religion (16 countries) (ZA 2150, UKDA 3062) 1992 - Social Inequality II (17 countries) (ZA 2310, UKDA 3498) 1993 - Environment (20 countries) (ZA 2450, UKDA 3473) 1994 - Family and Changing Gender Roles II (22 countries) (ZA 2620, UKDA 3584) 1995 - National Identity (22 countries) (ZA 2880, UKDA 3809) 1996 - Role of Government III (23 countries) (ZA 2900, UKDA 4480) 1998 - Religion 11 (30 countries) (ZA 3190, UKDA 4482) 2000 - Environment 2000 (34 countries) (ZA 3440, UKDA 4827) 2002 - Family and Changing Gender Roles III (34 countries) (ZA 3880, UKDA 5018) Additionally, the 1985 and 1990 surveys, Role of the Government I and II, have been cumulated for those countries and those variables which have been included in both surveys: 1985/1990 - Role of the Government I/II (5 countries) (ZA 2240, UKDA 3499). All of the above are also available as separate datasets. The data for 1997, 1999 and 2001 are available separately on dedicated CD ROMs.

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