• Back Home and Back to Nature? Natural Parenting and Religion in Francophone Contexts

      Guignard Florence Pasche (De Gruyter, 2020-03-01)
      New entanglements between parenting (in theory and practice), environmentalism, religion, spirituality, and secularism are at the core of the analysis presented in this article. In francophone contexts, discourses by practitioners, advocates and detractors of natural parenting contribute to associating this specific style of parenting and several of its key practices with religion and spirituality. After documenting and defining natural parenting by listing its characteristic practices and underlining its values as well as its important overlap with attachment parenting, this article examines the historically religious roots of movements linked to several practices still regarded as typical of natural parenting (natural childbirth movements, natural family planning or fertility awareness, and breastfeeding advocacy). Along with feminist and medical strands of criticism, within these highly secular contexts, the association with religion and spirituality participates in the criticism of this style of parenting which combines the key tenets of attachment parenting with a strong environmentalist agenda implemented for the most part in the domestic sphere and around women’s bodies.
    • Bad Ethics, Good Ethics and the Genetic Engineering of Animals in Agriculture

      Rollin, Bernard E. (2015-05-05)
      Genetic engineers have been remiss in addressing ethical and social issues emerging from this powerful new technology, a technology whose, implications for agriculture are profound. As a consequence of this failure, society has been uneasy about genetic engineering of animals and has had difficulty distinguishing between genuine and spurious ethical issues the technology occasions. Many of the most prominent concerns do not require a serious response. On the other hand, concerns about a variety of possible risks arising from genetic engineering of animals require careful consideration and dialogue with the public. Such concerns are an admixture of ethics and prudence. A purely ethical challenge, however, hitherto not addressed, is represented by problems of animal welfare that arise out of genetically engineering agricultural animals. A principle of "conservation of welfare" is suggested as a plausible moral rule to guide such genetic engineering.
    • Bajo el signo del miedo ecológico global: la imbricación de lo sagrado en la conciencia ecológica europea

      Jose Manuel Echavarren (Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas (CIS), 2010-01-01)
      La situación de crisis ecológica actual ha provocado un clima de miedo que afecta a amplios sectores de la sociedad. En el presente artículo se estudia cómo el miedo medioambiental influye en las actitudes y prácticas ecocéntricas por parte de la población europea, y cómo se imbrica a su vez con una interpretación sagrada del medio. La religión se puede considerar una respuesta cultural a miedos colectivos, y aquí se analiza cómo reacciona ante los nuevos miedos medioambientales del cambio de siglo. En particular interesa el caso de la ecorreligiosidad de nuevo cuño denominada por Giner y Tàbara Piedad Cósmica. Los datos se extraen de la encuesta ISSP Environment del año 2000, trabajando sobre una muestra de trece países europeos. Los resultados muestran que el miedo medioambiental es un activador de la conducta ecológica y que la Piedad Cósmica en particular destaca por su compromiso medioambiental.
    • Baptist-Evangelical Medical Ethics

      Simmons, Paul D. (2015-05-05)
    • Bare Rocks and Fallen Angels: Environmental Change, Climate Perceptions and Ritual Practice in the Peruvian Andes

      Karsten Paerregaard (MDPI AG, 2013-05-01)
      One of the many dimensions of globalization is climate change that in recent years has caused much concern in the developed world. The aim of this article is to explore how people living on the margins of the global world conceive climate change. Drawing on ethnographic field data from the 1980s and today it examines how the ritual practice and the religious belief of a rural community in the Peruvian Andes has changed during the last 27 years and how the villagers perceive this change. It argues that the villagers traditionally conceive the environment as co-habited by humans and non-humans but that recent environmental change in the Andes has caused a shift in this world-view. Today, many villagers have adopted the global vocabulary on climate change and are concerned with their own impact in the environment. However, the villagers reject the idea that it is human activities in other parts of the world that cause environmental problems in their community and claim that these must be addressed locally. It suggests that even though the villagers’ reluctance to subscribe to the global discourse of climate change makes them look like the companions of climate skeptics in the developed world, their reasons are very different.
    • Basisteorie vir familiepastoraat

      De Jongh van Arkel, Jan; Van Heerden, Leon Johan (2015-01-23)
      Met die oog daarop om 'n basisteorie vir familiepastoraat te ontwerp, word verskeie basisteoretiese konsepte geidentifiseer en bespreek. Dit is veral die relasionele definiering van families - eerder as die tradisionele biologiese definiering - wat van fundamentele belang vir basisteoretiese besinning is. Hierdie 'ekologiese' verstaan van families, sluit familiesisteme van alle vorms in en hou rekening met huidige sosiologiese realiteite sowel as bepaalde teologiese perspektiewe. In aansluiting by die relasionele definiering van families, het familiepastoraat 'n verhoudingsfokus en werk dit met 'n
 multidimensionele perspektief wat op al die dinamiese verhoudingsprosesse en -fases binne familiesisteme gerig is. In verbondenheid met die gemeente, benader familiepastoraat families as ekologiese geloofsisteme en funksioneer dit in die lig van die
 evangelie asook doelbewus binne koninkrykskonteks. In die slothoofstuk word al die sentrale basisteoretiese konsepte geintegreer tot 'n teoretiese geheel. Die basisteorie vir
 familiepastoraat, wat hier ontwerp word, kan kemagtig soos volg geformuleer word: Familiepastoraat is gesprekmatige verhoudingsorg van die ekologiese familie en dit geskied binne koninkrykskonteks.
    • Beautiful interrelation with nature

      Edwards, L. Clifton (Gannon Murphy, 2011)
      "A powerful connection exists between natural beauty and the way in which human beings interact with the natural environment. For as we interact with nature, we not only perceive her beauty, but we must live our lives in and amongst it. Such interaction, says environmental philosopher, Holmes Rolston, is the substance of environmental aesthetics: “the beauty of life in dialectic with its environment, the landscape as a place of . . . satisfying adapted fit.”1 Rolston emphasizes ecological science, but ecology2 intertwines with the arts because art also fits humanity into an environment, such as through architecture and landscape painting. An ecological-artistic approach to environment relates to Paul Tillich’s theological approach: for him a human worldview expresses itself symbolically in relation to an environment, revealing something about both the world and humankind in their encounter. As a result of this encounter, the environment achieves a theological significance"
    • Becoming Green

      Vincent, Andrew. (Indiana University Press, 2006-10-04)
      Victorian Studies - Volume 48, Number 3, Spring 2006
    • Becoming. Transformations within the Maternal Exchange: MFA Thesis - Printmaking

      Jaehnert, Tina (2016-05-23)
      Entering into a parenting role awakens unexpected concerns, fears, joys, and anticipations. Instincts go into overdrive as life’s main purpose shifts from self-preservation to protection and nurturing our child or children. The life once mapped out, or even the life in mid pursuit of, becomes magnified and heavily interrogated within this shift. My installation joins different environments, objects and works to explore the roles taken on during the tender and transformative incubation period of infancy and toddler stages. The role of protection is the focus of this body of work, using symbolic representations that contain processes within the natural world.
    • Behavior Genetics in Context of Russian Psychology

      Sergey B. Malykh (M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 2011-01-01)
      The article is devoted to individual differences in psychological characteristics, the influence of genotype and environment on individual differences in evoked potential of brain related to the execution of motor action, the role of genetic and environmental factors in individual characteristics of the parameters of sensorimotor activity, genetic and environmental factors in development of psychological traits.
    • Being at Home in Nature: A Levinasian Approach to Pagan Environmental Ethics

      Barbara Jane Davy; Past-President of the Environmental Studies Association of Canada (Equinox Publishing Ltd., 2007-03-08)
      Pagans have accused Judaism of a transcendental disregard for nature, while Jewish thinkers have suggested that paganism exhibits a natural, if primitive, disregard for ethics. For the most part, the paganism of which Jewish philosophers have spoken is understood as religion that has not yet developed any awareness of or respect for God, rather than contemporary Paganism. Pagans have cited some biblical texts in environmental work done by Jewish philosophers and activists. It seems obvious that individual Pagans and Jews have more or less appreciation of nature based on their personal inclinations; there are certainly many examples of good work being done on both sides. Addressing the basic difference in worldview or cosmology that underlies the accusations, I suggest a supplementation of Jewish and Pagan ideas, drawing on the work of the (post)modern Jewish philosopher Emmanuel Levinas (1906–1995). If Levinas’s under¬standing of transcendence is interpreted in terms of a lateral transcendence of one’s own ego, and one’s limited view of the world, rather than the vertical transcendence of nature, his ethical theory can contribute to the development of interpersonal environmental ethics in a contemporary Pagan worldview.
    • Being human: ethics, environment, and our place in the world

      Peterson, Anna Lisa 1963- (University of California Press, 2001)
      Being Human examines the complex connections among conceptions of human nature, attitudes toward non-human nature, and ethics. Anna Peterson proposes an "ethical anthropology" that examines how ideas of nature and humanity are bound together in ways that shape the very foundations of cultures. Peterson discusses mainstream Western understandings of what it means to be human, as well as alternatives to these perspectives, and suggests that the construction of a compelling, coherent environmental ethics will revise our ideas not only about nature but also about what it means to be human.
    • Being Known by a Birch Tree: Animist Refigurings of Western Epistemology

      Priscilla Stuckey; Prescott College (Equinox Publishing Ltd., 2010-10-04)
      Animism, as derived from Ojibwa philosophy and articulated by anthropologists of religion, begins in a relational worldview and implies ways of knowing that challenge a Cartesian framework. Beginning with a story of my relationship with a weeping birch tree at my childhood home in northwest Ohio, I examine elements of an animist epistemology using Indigenous philosophers such as Carol Lee Sanchez, Vine Deloria, Donald Fixico, and Makere Stewart-Harawira. But to trouble the dichotomy between indigenous and Western ways of knowing, I draw also on Nonindigenous scholars such as Donna Haraway and ‘situated knowledges’; Karen Barad and ‘intra-acting,’ and Val Plumwood and ‘spirituality of place.’ My goal is to situate humans as but one extension of Earth’s ability to know and to explore how we might take our places in a community of knowers, only some of whom are human.
    • Beitrag zu einer Begriffsbestimmung von "Ökologischer Gerechtigkeit" in Deutschland

      Rehberg, Karl-Siegbert; Deutsche Gesellschaft für Soziologie (DGS); Schlüns, Julia (Campus Verl.DEUFrankfurt am Main, 2010-10-01)
      "Der deutsche Umweltschutzdiskurs steht gegenwärtig weitgehend unverbunden neben dem Wohlfahrtsdiskurs. Ein Ansatz, der explizit Zusammenhänge zwischen Umwelt- und sozialen Fragen problematisiert, ist 'Ökologische/ Umweltgerechtigkeit'. Dieser in den USA entwickelte Ansatz könnte auch hierzulande hilfreich sein, einen Brückenschlag von Umwelt zu Wohlfahrt zu ermöglichen und so die gegenwärtigen Wohlfahrtskonzepte um wesentliche Dimensionen zu erweitern. Dazu bedarf es jedoch einer entsprechenden Begriffsbestimmung von 'Ökologischer Gerechtigkeit' im spezifischen deutschen Kontext. Dieser Vortrag versucht hier einen kleinen Beitrag zu leisten. Der empirische Teil des Vortrags greift zunächst Erfahrungen auf, die gegenwärtig im Rahmen einer einschlägigen Sondierungsstudie des Wuppertal Instituts gewonnen werden. Erste Erkenntnisse verweisen darauf, wo sich besonders Schnittstellen zwischen den Diskursen ergeben können. Der theoretische Teil des Vortrags wird aus einem aktuellen Dissertationsprojekt entwickelt, das auch auf Ergebnisse der genannten Studie aufbaut. Während traditionell intragenerationelle Fragen im Mittelpunkt der Gerechtigkeitsdebatte standen und stehen und intergenerationelle Fragen erst später hinzukamen, greift der Umweltschutzdiskurs im deutschen Raum gegenwärtig primär intergenerationelle Fragen auf. Um sich einer umfassenden Begriffsbestimmung 'Ökologischer Gerechtigkeit' zu nähern, soll zunächst untersucht werden, welche philosophischen Ansätze es diesbezüglich gibt. Weiterhin erscheint ein Rückblick in die siebziger/ achtziger Jahre lohnenswert, Dekaden, die hierzulande augenscheinlich besonders zahlreiche integrative Ansätze zu Umwelt und sozialer Gerechtigkeit hervorbrachten. Die bislang rezipierte Literatur legt die These nahe, dass der heutige Umweltschutzdiskurs hinter diese Zeit zurückgefallen ist. Unter welchen Framings erscheinen Umwelt und Soziales als Gegensätze und welche Framings herrschen derzeit vor? Schließlich: Wie könnte der Rahmen der Diskussion so umkonstruiert werden, dass sie nicht mehr als Gegensätze erscheinen?" (Autorenreferat)
    • Belief in moralizing gods

      Institut des Sciences de l'Evolution [Montpellier] (ISEM) ; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) - Institut de recherche pour le développement [IRD] : UR226 - Université de Montpellier (UM); Lauriergracht 127-II, 1016 RK ; Lauriergracht 127-II, 1016 RK; Raymond, Michel; Roes, F.L. (HAL CCSDElsevier, 2003)
      According to Alexander's [Alexander, R. D. (1987). The biology of moral systems. New York: Aldine de Gruyter] theory of morality, human social groups became large as a result of between-group competition over preferred habitats and resources, but although larger social groups are more successful in competition, they also experience more pressures to fission. Morality unites a society by limiting infringements upon the rights of other society members, so if larger societies are indeed more likely to split, then those that remain intact may be expected to have more effective inviolable moral rules, such as those imposed by moralizing gods. Cross-cultural analyses support this line of thought: more competition between societies is found in environments rich in resources and larger societies tend to occupy these environments; large societies engage in external conflicts at higher rates and are more often characterized by beliefs in moralizing gods. An additional explanation is briefly discussed, and we speculatively picture the historical chain of events giving rise to a belief in moralizing gods.