• Kabbalah and ecology : God's image in the more-than-human world

      Seidenberg, David Mevorach (1963-)
      Kabbalah and Ecology is a groundbreaking book that resets the conversation about ecology and the Abrahamic traditions. David Mevorach Seidenberg challenges the anthropocentric reading of the Torah, showing that a radically different orientation to the more-than-human world of nature is not only possible, but that such an orientation also leads to a more accurate interpretation of scripture, rabbinic texts, Maimonides and Kabbalah. Deeply grounded in traditional texts and fluent with the physical sciences, this book proposes not only a new understanding of God's image but also a new direction for restoring religion to its senses and to a more alive relationship with the more-than-human, both with nature and with divinity.
    • Kairos for Creation : Confessing Hope for the Earth

      Andrianos, Louk; Biehl, Michael; Gütter, Ruth; Motte, Jochen; Parlindugan, Andar; Sandner, Thomas; Stork, Juliane; Werner, Dietrich, 1956- (United Evangelical Mission (UEM), 2019)
      The international and ecumenical conference on eco-theology, ethics of sustainability and eco-friendly churches took place in June 2019 in Wuppertal/Germany and was organized jointly by Bread for the World, the Protestant Association of Churches and Mission (EMW), the Protestant Church in Germany (EKD), United Evangelical Mission (UEM) and the World Council of Churches (WCC). It was a conference with lasting impressions, enriching and encouraging experiences of sharing and a remarkable outcome in content: 51 participants from over 22 different countries, men and women from different cultural, denominational and religious backgrounds, theologians, eco-activists, scientists and representatives of Faith Based Organizations gathered to share their insights, their experiences, their convictions, their doubts, their joy and their sorrows about fundamental eco-theological questions which are becoming more and more important and crucial for the continuation of life in our world, which is God’s creation. At the end of the conference the participants adopted the “Wuppertal Call: Kairos for creation – Confessing Hope for the Earth” which recommends to the World Council of Churches (WCC) to declare a “Decade for the Healing of Creation”.
    • Kanegelorato le kanegeloboitshwaro ya Sepedi (Sepedi)

      University of Pretoria. Faculty of Humanities. Dept. of African Languages; Mojalefa, M.J.; Makgabo, Mmamoyahabo Constance (University of Pretoria. Faculty of Humanities. Dept. of African Languages, 2007-01)
      A close look at the first literary works in European countries reveals that love stories and the theme of romance took prominence among the authors of the time. French authors are a good example of writers of these love stories. An in-depth study shows that different and/or supporting themes or series of events accompany the main love story in these stories. This trend is supported by Cuddon (1977:758) by emphasizing that in these early writings it was the trend to combine an adventure story aspect with the love story. Lewis (1960:23) supports Cuddon’s view in stating that Chréstien de Troyes was the first writer in France to apply love as a main theme for a love story. Funk and Wagnalls’s New Encyclopedia (1876:344) bears out Cuddon’s idea of combining various series of events (love and moral) in the same writing and explains that a love story should enhance two views of what the writing is about, in this case (a) the love aspect and (b) the moral aspect. The trend of combining themes, where one theme supplements the main theme in the same writing, also exists in Sepedi literature. Examples are Noto-ya-Masogana (Tsebe,1954) and Morweši (Motuku,1969). It will, be important and necessary to explain the love story and the moral story first. Cuddon states that the idea of having a variety of series of events supporting the main theme of the narrative is visible where a love story is a two-in-one narrative, relating love and moral, such as in Sir Gawain and Green Knight (14th C.). This demonstrates the importance of a love story. This fact led Yelland et al (1984:161) to state, in support of the important role of character, that love and moral are evidence of chivalry, such as that found in Morte D’Arthur (Malory,1470). Character or chivalry depicts the impeccable manners of the main characters of the love story. This combination of love and moral can also be seen in Sepedi writing, such as Noto-ya-Masogana (Tsebe,1954), Morweši (Motuku,1969), Tshehlana ya ka (Bosoma,1990) and Sesasedi sa katlego (Kekana,1990). Before proceeding with a discussion on this type of love and moral story, it is important to explain the other types of stories as well. Research by Phala (1999:18) and Abrams (1998:98) describes the idea of character and conduct as what one finds, learns or acquires at home, from the community, society or wherever one finds one’s self. The education acquired in this way gives birth to the basis of character, conduct and behaviour, be it good or bad. This should not be confused with formal school learning, but upbringing which is reinforced by cultural practices, religion and socialization, for example. This influences the complete person, including the soul. A person influenced in this manner becomes complete and can distinguish between good and bad, acceptable and unacceptable, as well as proper and improper, according to place and time. Marggraff (1994:14) stresses this distinction between the two opposing views of good and bad; desirable or acceptable on the one side and undesirable or unacceptable on the other. Groenewald (1994:20) also supports this view of right and wrong, stating that it gives us the understanding that bad, evil and wrong deeds or behaviour displeases the ancestors and can lead to punishment and misfortune for the character concerned. This encourages people to strive towards good deeds. It can, therefore, be concluded that humanity was meant to be and do good. Good deeds, behaviour and conduct are important and should be the goal, as depicted by the main character in the love story. The main character who does wrong things and changes his behaviour to good, is rewarded for being good with happiness, love, success and prosperity in his relationship with his partner. Viewed in this light, the importance of further examining and analyzing the love and moral story will be emphasized. In this type of story, where the main character does wrong things with which the reader does not approve or align himself, the reader’s curiosity will be aroused to read further in order to know what will happen to the main character at the end. Since there is always the anticipated element of punishment and reward for the main character present at the end of these types of love and moral stories, it serves as an attraction and magnet that hold the reader’s interest until the end. It also adds a moral value for the reader. Sepedi authors who write love stories are also on this bandwagon of combining love and moral themes in the same story, such as in Noto-ya-Masogana (Tsebe,1954) and Morweši (Motuku,1969). In order to establish the importance of combining love and moral or behaviour in the same love story, the following have been examined and researched in full: Tsebe’s Noto-ya-Masogana (1954) and Motuku’s Morweši (1969). This will be preceded by taking heed of the research and study results of these works already done by other critics.
    • Kanegelorato le Kanegeloboitshwaro ya Sepedi (Sepedi)

      Prof M J Mojalefa; Makgabo, Mmamoyahabo Constance (University of Pretoria, 2008-07-15)
      A close look at the first literary works in European countries reveals that love stories and the theme of romance took prominence among the authors of the time. French authors are a good example of writers of these love stories. An in-depth study shows that different and/or supporting themes or series of events accompany the main love story in these stories. This trend is supported by Cuddon (1977:758) by emphasizing that in these early writings it was the trend to combine an adventure story aspect with the love story. Lewis (1960:23) supports Cuddons view in stating that Chréstien de Troyes was the first writer in France to apply love as a main theme for a love story. Funk and Wagnallss <i> New Encyclopedia</i> (1876:344) bears out Cuddons idea of combining various series of events (love and moral) in the same writing and explains that a love story should enhance two views of what the writing is about, in this case (a) the love aspect and (b) the moral aspect. <p> The trend of combining themes, where one theme supplements the main theme in the same writing, also exists in Sepedi literature. Examples are <i> Noto-ya-Masogana</i> (Tsebe,1954) and <i> Morwei</i> (Motuku,1969). It will, be important and necessary to explain the love story and the moral story first. <p> Cuddon states that the idea of having a variety of series of events supporting the main theme of the narrative is visible where a love story is a two-in-one narrative, relating love and moral, such as in <i> Sir Gawain and Green Knight </i> (14th C.). This demonstrates the importance of a love story. This fact led Yelland <i> et al</i> (1984:161) to state, in support of the important role of character, that love and moral are evidence of chivalry, such as that found in <i> Morte DArthur</i> (Malory,1470). Character or chivalry depicts the impeccable manners of the main characters of the love story. This combination of love and moral can also be seen in Sepedi writing, such as <i> Noto-ya-Masogana</i> (Tsebe,1954), <i> Morwei</i> (Motuku,1969), <i> Tshehlana ya ka</i> (Bosoma,1990) and <i> Sesasedi sa katlego</i> (Kekana,1990). <p> Before proceeding with a discussion on this type of love and moral story, it is important to explain the other types of stories as well. Research by Phala (1999:18) and Abrams (1998:98) describes the idea of character and conduct as what one finds, learns or acquires at home, from the community, society or wherever one finds ones self. The education acquired in this way gives birth to the basis of character, conduct and behaviour, be it good or bad. This should not be confused with formal school learning, but upbringing which is reinforced by cultural practices, religion and socialization, for example. This influences the complete person, including the soul. <p> A person influenced in this manner becomes complete and can distinguish between good and bad, acceptable and unacceptable, as well as proper and improper, according to place and time. Marggraff (1994:14) stresses this distinction between the two opposing views of good and bad; desirable or acceptable on the one side and undesirable or unacceptable on the other. Groenewald (1994:20) also supports this view of right and wrong, stating that it gives us the understanding that bad, evil and wrong deeds or behaviour displeases the ancestors and can lead to punishment and misfortune for the character concerned. This encourages people to strive towards good deeds. It can, therefore, be concluded that humanity was meant to be and do good. Good deeds, behaviour and conduct are important and should be the goal, as depicted by the main character in the love story. The main character who does wrong things and changes his behaviour to good, is rewarded for being good with happiness, love, success and prosperity in his relationship with his partner. <p> Viewed in this light, the importance of further examining and analyzing the love and moral story will be emphasized. In this type of story, where the main character does wrong things with which the reader does not approve or align himself, the readers curiosity will be aroused to read further in order to know what will happen to the main character at the end. Since there is always the anticipated element of punishment and reward for the main character present at the end of these types of love and moral stories, it serves as an attraction and magnet that hold the readers interest until the end. It also adds a moral value for the reader. <p> Sepedi authors who write love stories are also on this bandwagon of combining love and moral themes in the same story, such as in <i> Noto-ya-Masogana</i> (Tsebe,1954) and <i> Morwei</i> (Motuku,1969). <p> In order to establish the importance of combining love and moral or behaviour in the same love story, the following have been examined and researched in full: Tsebes<i> Noto-ya-Masogana</i> (1954) and Motukus<i> Morwei</i> (1969). This will be preceded by taking heed of the research and study results of these works already done by other critics. <p> © University of Pretoria 2007 <p>E802 AG
    • Kanegelorato le Kanegeloboitshwaro ya Sepedi (Sepedi)

      Prof M J Mojalefa; Makgabo, Mmamoyahabo Constance (2013-09-07)
      A close look at the first literary works in European countries reveals that love stories and the theme of romance took prominence among the authors of the time. French authors are a good example of writers of these love stories. An in-depth study shows that different and/or supporting themes or series of events accompany the main love story in these stories. This trend is supported by Cuddon (1977:758) by emphasizing that in these early writings it was the trend to combine an adventure story aspect with the love story. Lewis (1960:23) supports Cuddon’s view in stating that Chréstien de Troyes was the first writer in France to apply love as a main theme for a love story. Funk and Wagnalls’s New Encyclopedia (1876:344) bears out Cuddon’s idea of combining various series of events (love and moral) in the same writing and explains that a love story should enhance two views of what the writing is about, in this case (a) the love aspect and (b) the moral aspect. The trend of combining themes, where one theme supplements the main theme in the same writing, also exists in Sepedi literature. Examples are Noto-ya-Masogana (Tsebe,1954) and Morweši (Motuku,1969). It will, be important and necessary to explain the love story and the moral story first. Cuddon states that the idea of having a variety of series of events supporting the main theme of the narrative is visible where a love story is a two-in-one narrative, relating love and moral, such as in Sir Gawain and Green Knight (14th C.). This demonstrates the importance of a love story. This fact led Yelland et al (1984:161) to state, in support of the important role of character, that love and moral are evidence of chivalry, such as that found in Morte D’Arthur (Malory,1470). Character or chivalry depicts the impeccable manners of the main characters of the love story. This combination of love and moral can also be seen in Sepedi writing, such as Noto-ya-Masogana (Tsebe,1954), Morweši (Motuku,1969), Tshehlana ya ka (Bosoma,1990) and Sesasedi sa katlego (Kekana,1990). Before proceeding with a discussion on this type of love and moral story, it is important to explain the other types of stories as well. Research by Phala (1999:18) and Abrams (1998:98) describes the idea of character and conduct as what one finds, learns or acquires at home, from the community, society or wherever one finds one’s self. The education acquired in this way gives birth to the basis of character, conduct and behaviour, be it good or bad. This should not be confused with formal school learning, but upbringing which is reinforced by cultural practices, religion and socialization, for example. This influences the complete person, including the soul. A person influenced in this manner becomes complete and can distinguish between good and bad, acceptable and unacceptable, as well as proper and improper, according to place and time. Marggraff (1994:14) stresses this distinction between the two opposing views of good and bad; desirable or acceptable on the one side and undesirable or unacceptable on the other. Groenewald (1994:20) also supports this view of right and wrong, stating that it gives us the understanding that bad, evil and wrong deeds or behaviour displeases the ancestors and can lead to punishment and misfortune for the character concerned. This encourages people to strive towards good deeds. It can, therefore, be concluded that humanity was meant to be and do good. Good deeds, behaviour and conduct are important and should be the goal, as depicted by the main character in the love story. The main character who does wrong things and changes his behaviour to good, is rewarded for being good with happiness, love, success and prosperity in his relationship with his partner. Viewed in this light, the importance of further examining and analyzing the love and moral story will be emphasized. In this type of story, where the main character does wrong things with which the reader does not approve or align himself, the reader’s curiosity will be aroused to read further in order to know what will happen to the main character at the end. Since there is always the anticipated element of punishment and reward for the main character present at the end of these types of love and moral stories, it serves as an attraction and magnet that hold the reader’s interest until the end. It also adds a moral value for the reader. Sepedi authors who write love stories are also on this bandwagon of combining love and moral themes in the same story, such as in Noto-ya-Masogana (Tsebe,1954) and Morweši (Motuku,1969). In order to establish the importance of combining love and moral or behaviour in the same love story, the following have been examined and researched in full: Tsebe’s Noto-ya-Masogana (1954) and Motuku’s Morweši (1969). This will be preceded by taking heed of the research and study results of these works already done by other critics.
    • Kanegelorato le Kanegeloboitshwaro ya Sepedi (Sepedi)

      Prof M J Mojalefa; mamoyahabo@webmail.co.za; Makgabo, Mmamoyahabo Constance (2013-09-07)
      Dissertation (MA (African Languages))--University of Pretoria, 2008.
    • Kant's Philosophy of Religion and Climate Change

      DiCenso, James J.; Religion, Study of; York, Thomas P. (2017-11)
      This thesis argues that Kant’s Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason (1793) may be applied to climate change issues. This thesis makes use of James DiCenso’s interpretation of Kant’s philosophy of religion (2011, 2012), which argues that Kant’s key text on religion conveys a social and political vision. This thesis addresses both traditional religious worldviews and secular political movements engaged in climate politics. It argues for the need to ethically assess these social formations’ evolving responses to the climate crisis. The failure (to date) of religious traditions to adequately address the climate crisis, and possible reasons for this, are addressed. Examples of social formations, ideologies, and religious responses examined include consumerism, environmental theology, religiously motivated climate change denial and dispensationalist theology, as well as the secular climate justice movement. Kant locates the source of many of our problems in the power of choice and determining ground of morality. In this sense, his ethical system is distinct from the neo-Marxist interpretation of “systems of power.” The theory of what DiCenso refers to as “shared representations” of “supersensible” cognition is helpful for understanding the dynamics of belief that inform complex social and political formations. Kant’s philosophy of religion may be of value for those trying to understand how religions and political ideologies that employ powerful symbols and ideals play a role in the unfolding of historical events.
    • Kant’s concept of indirect duties and environmental ethics

      Milene Consenso Tonetto (Universidade Federal Santa Catarina, 2017-12-01)
      The aim of this paper is to assess whether Kant’s moral theory is suitable to deal with our obligations to take care of nonhuman animals and the environment. Kant’s ethics distinguishes persons, that is, rational beings with unconditional values who are considered as ends in themselves, from things, which have only relative worth. In relation to nature as a whole and to nonrational beings, Kant argues that we have only indirect duties or duties with regard to them. According to some philosophers, Kant’s ethics has anthropocentric starting points which lead to speciesist conclusions. This paper will argue that indirect duties can be in accordance with nonhuman interests, such as the suffering of nonhuman animals, the preservation of species and ecosystems, and so on. Thus Kant’s moral philosophy may contribute to environmental ethics because it justifies at least animal welfare and environmental protections as constraints on unrestricted human action.
    • Kapitalmarktinformationen: ihre dienende Rolle für eine nachhaltige Entwicklung ; eine Analyse der Aufgaben des Finanzmarktes in ethischer Perspektive

      Hübner, Jörg (DEU, 2013-07-25)
      "Ausgehend von der These, dass ein jeder Finanzmarkt die Aufgabe hat, der Realwirtschaft leicht verständliche Informationen über Anlagemöglichkeiten zur Verfügung zu stellen, wird die Notwendigkeit einer Finanzmarktethik systemimmanent begründet. Ihre Aufgabe besteht darin, darauf hinzuwirken, dass der Grad an Zuverlässigkeit der am Finanzmarkt produzierten Informationen steigt. Dabei kommt insbesondere den Unternehmen der Finanzindustrie eine herausragende Bedeutung zu: Finanzethik ist an erster Stelle Unternehmens- und Unternehmerethik." (Autorenreferat)
    • Kaple sv. Anežky České v Čihovicích: Architektura, náboženské aktivity

      TOMAN, Bohumil (2011)
      This work is about building-up a modern chapel and about its use. In first two chapters there is outlined history and present of Týn nad Vltavou and Čihovice, a place wehere the Chapel was built. At the same time there is mentioned connection between Čihovice and Roman Catholic parish in Týn nad Vltavou and there are stated reasons which led to decision do build a chapel indeed in Čihovice. In another chapter, more theoretic, is described typology of sacred buildings, architectic rules and interior od sacred buildings. The third thematic part is dedicated to the process of building the St Anežka Česká chapel and to a discussion about wo whom sould it be sacred. Shortly there is also described course of ceremonious sanctification of the chapel. The last part includes recitation of activities which are held in the chapel or are planned to be.
    • Kasodo, Tourism, and Local People Perspectives for Tengger Highland Conservation

      Nakagoshi, Nobukazu; Hakim, Luchman (2006-09-25)
      "The relationship between God, nature and society among Tengger people at Tengger highland, East Java Indonesia is expressed in Kasodo ceremony. From the tourism perspectives, Kasodo is one of the Indonesia's best tourism attractions, and many domestic and international tourists entertained Tenggerese culture and the beautiful landscape of Mt. Bromo - Tengger Caldera (BTC). While Kasodo becomes an important tourism event, there are few studies related to the relationships of the ceremony, tourism and BTC conservation. Most of the scholars attention to Kasodo addressed the socio-religion and anthropological perspectives. The aim of the research is to examine some of the dynamic complex of the Kasodo, tourism, local people and the perspectives of ecosystem conservation to ensure sustainability of Tenggerese community and tourism industry. Semi structured interviews and questionnaires were employed to explore Tenggerese perspectives toward Kasodo, tourism and BTC conservation issues. Our findings show that Kasodo is an important part for Tenggerese to reflect their thankfulness, and it should be conserved to ensure the Tenggerese culture sustainability. The dependency of Tenggerese to BTC was high, mainly for Kasodo ceremony. According to Tenggerese, tourism should be managed to ensure the sacredness of the ceremony than nature conservation issues. However, less attention and participation for BTC conservation among Tenggerese should become the main issues of discussion to draw the conclusion, both for national park authorities and local government. Hence, Kasodo, tourism and nature conservation should be viewed integrally, particularly to the regional planning policy to ensure sustainable society."
    • Kebenaran Doktrin Antropologi dan Soteriologi Bagi Kepentingan Etika Lingkungan

      Kian Guan Tan (Sekolah Tinggi Teologi SAAT, 2012-10-01)
      Orang-orang sekuler menuduh kekristenan sebagai agama yang paling bertanggung jawab atas kerusakan ekologi. Menurut mereka, ajaran-ajaran kekristenan seperti antropologi dan soteriologi lebih mengutamakan manusia daripada ciptaan yang lain. Kalau memang benar ajaran doktrinal di atas yang menyebabkan terjadinya masalah ekologi, maka ini selaras dengan pernyataan Alister E. McGrath bahwa etika Kristen merupakan hasil yang keluar dari doktrin Kristen. Namun tentu bukan hasil etika seperti ini yang ia maksud. Sebaliknya, doktrin Kristen harus dibangun dan dipahami dengan benar sesuai Alkitab karena itu akan mempengaruhi seluruh etika Kristen. Dari permasalahan di atas, penulis memandang perlu untuk menegakkan kebenaran dari kedua doktrin tersebut supaya: pertama, orangorang Kristen dapat lebih utuh memahami dan mengimplementasikannya sehingga tidak menjadi batu sandungan lagi; dan kedua, golongan sekuler memahami kebenaran dari ayat-ayat yang dituduhkan dan mengerti bahwa kekristenan tidak antiekologi, namun mementingkan lingkungan.
    • Keeping God's earth : the global environment in biblical perspective

      Toly, Noah (1977-) (IVP Academic [u.a.], 2010)
      Introduction : keeping God's earth? : toward an evangelical response to environmental challenges / Noah J. Toly and Daniel I. Block -- Eschatology and environmental ethics : on the importance of biblical theology to creation care / Douglas Moo -- Cities and the global environment / Noah J. Toly -- A biblical theology of the city and the environment : human community in the created order / M. Daniel Carroll -- The diversity of life : its loss and conservation / Fred Van Dyke -- To serve and to keep : toward a biblical understanding of humanity's responsibility in the face of the biodiversity crisis / Daniel I. Block -- Water for life : global freshwater resources / Michael Guebert -- A biblical theology of water : plenty, food, and drought in the created order / David Toshio Tsumura -- The changing global climate : evidence, impacts, adaptation and abatement / Sir John Houghton -- "The earth is the Lord's?" : biblical foundations for global ecological ethics and mission / Christopher J. H. Wright -- Environmental ethics : bringing creation care down to earth / David Gushee
    • Keeping God's Earth: The Global Environment in Biblical Perspective

      Toly, Noah J. and Block, Daniel I. (2016-01-09)
    • ‘Keeping head above water’ : a case study in religious leadership in a polluted context

      Nell, Ian A. (AOSIS OpenJournals, 2015-03-18)
      Please cite as follows:
    • Keeping Safe on Campus

      Digital Commons @ St. Norbert College, 2018-10-03
      News Keeping Safe on Campus SNC Political Life: Promoting voting SNC’s Heroes Without Capes Seeing Signs on Campus Plants? Opinion Hello, My Name Is… Today, I am Angry The Kavanaugh Accusations Go Vote! Sudoku Trivia “Maximum Ride” Features Playing for a Cure Let’s talk about Title IX Entertainment Event Spotlight Book Review: “Heretics Anonymous” by Katie Henry “Game of Thrones” Spinoff Prequel Classics Review: “The White Album”- The Beatles Junk Drawer: Fall Films We Want to See Sports SNC Football Sets Record Athlete Spotlight: Graceanna Tarsa SNC Radio Features New Sports Talk Shows Athlete Spotlight: Ben Prange Bored? Green Knights Athletic Recap Upcoming Events
    • Keeping the Faith: A Phenomenological Study Exploring Intellectually-Gifted Adults Who Remain Practicing Christians

      Glynn, Deborah Jean (Scholars Crossing, 2020-07-01)
      The purpose of this phenomenological study is to explore the life experiences of intellectually-gifted adults in the United States who persist in their Christian beliefs. At this stage in the research, an intellectually-gifted adult will be generally defined as an individual who has scored at least two standard deviations above the mean (minus the standard error of measure) on a standardized intelligence test (Ohio Department of Education, 2017). The primary theory guiding this study will be Vygotsky’s (2011) theory of cognitive development. It is appropriate for this study because it will shed light on Jesus as a possible more knowledgeable other (MKO) for gifted adults who are practicing Christians and examine the potential level of development in a spiritual light as well as a worldly light. The secondary developmental theory guiding this study is Gagné’s (2013) differentiated model of giftedness and talent (DMGT), as it sheds light on the many catalysts that may or may not have caused these gifted adults to embrace or ignore their faith. The central research question is: What are the life experiences of intellectually-gifted adults in the United States who persist in their Christian beliefs? The sub-questions will look at who intellectually-gifted adults use as their MKO in their lives; how intellectually-gifted adults perceive or experience their Christianity in their academic lives; and, how some intellectually-gifted adults navigate society’s perception of Christianity. Data will be collected through interviews, focus groups, and journals. Data will be analyzed using strategies from Moustakas (1994) that include horizonalizing and clustering.
    • Kenya and Ethiopia: Community and religious leaders are effective advocates for HIV testing for young couples

      Population Council (Knowledge Commons, 2008-01-01)
      Early marriage is common for girls in much of sub-Saharan Africa. A common belief is that marriage protects them from HIV, but studies show that married girls are at much higher risk from HIV and from maternal morbidity and mortality. FRONTIERS conducted operations research in Ethiopia and Kenya to assess the acceptability and feasibility of community-based interventions to raise awareness of the HIV risks of early marriage and promote the use of HIV counseling and testing (C&#38;T) services by couples. The studies were an initial phase in a planned four-year intervention; this brief reports on the feasibility of the approach. The Ethiopia study (2006–08) was conducted in the Amhara region. The Kenya intervention (2005–08) was conducted in two districts of Nyanza Province. Both interventions used similar strategies including: engaging community and religious leaders in outreach campaigns; promoting premarital C&#38;T and, if necessary, antiretroviral services for couples; and supporting young wives through married girls’ clubs and mentoring. Findings show that addressing the reproductive health needs of adolescent wives is an important strategy for preventing HIV, and that religious leaders can be effective community educators on young women’s health risks, early childbirth, and domestic violence.