• M.E. Church and Parsonage,07/05/1925, Morristown, NJ

      Frederick Curtiss (1925-07-05)
      View from The Green and James Park
    • M.K. Gandhi and the social and ecological crisis

      Weber, Eberhard (2014-05-28)
      Social and environmental conditions are deteriorating in many parts of the developing world. What we call development often leads to environmental degradation and economic exploitation. It is doubtful, if sustainable development can be achieved without fundamentally changing the ethical dimension economies of based upon. 
 M.K. Gandhi contributed much to an ethics that put social and ecological considerations in the center of economic purpose. He fundamentally opposed the laissez-faire capitalism of the late 19th century and provides a fundamental critique of western civilization, where the economy has lost its ethical foundation, where development is understood as unhindered growth which leads to increasing standards of living for some, and to poverty and environmental destruction. 
 Gandhi’s economic ideas influenced the Sarvodaya – Movement in Sri Lanka and the Ujamaa Movement in Tanzania. In India itself Gandhian thoughts inspired the Bhoodan/Gramdan Movements in the 1950s and the Indian opposition movement against the rule of Indira Gandhi under JP Narayan in the 1970s.
 Globally Gandhi’s economic thoughts influenced many including Johan Galtung E. F. Schumacher, and Arne Naess. The latter one developed his approach of ‘Deep Ecology’ being very close to Gandhi’s ideas of Swaraj (self-rule). Like Gandhi deep ecologists have an intrinsic, fundamental objection to industrialism, and not only to its excesses like shallow ecologists.
    • Madang Journal [Vol 11, June 2009]

      Institute for the Study of Theology, Sungkonghoe University (Sungkonghoe University, 2009-06-15)
      "In East Asian tradition President’s death could be perceived as resistance against injustice. Death in resistance is regarded as the resistance for justice against the oppressive powers. When the Korean people had been subjugated by the Japanese colonial power, the Confucian intellectual leaders ended their own lives in protest and resistance against the brutal power and violence of the Japanese empire. This is the origin of the pacifist resistance tradition, which was manifest in the March 1st Independence Movement in 1919. In Buddhist tradition the case is also true. In the midst Vietnam war in 1960’s, Tri Quang, a Buddhist monk, died of self-emollition at the heart of Saigon, now Hochimin City, in protest against the US involvement in Vietnam War. It was a form of spiritual resistance against violence and injustice. The death of Jesus has a special characteristic of resistance against the brutal power of the Roman Empire. Belief in the resurrection of Jesus is a direct reflection of the death of Jesus in protest against the imperial power. Can we read the meaning of the death of the former Korean President Roh Mu Hyun in this light? Mr. Gorbachov is saying that all the criticisms against the North Korea are understandable; but they do not provide solution of the problem. Only way out is the negotiation with the North Korea. This situation raises the question of nuclear weapons in the Korean peninsula. Some argue that US criticism is hypocritical, for it is the most powerful nuclear power. It is suggested that the Obama administration is about to negotiate with Russia for the renewal of some sort of arrangement to reduce nuclear weapons respectably. One could imagine a multilateral negotiation for reduction of nuclear weapons among the nuclear have states. Is this possible to expect any fruitful result? Is there any role for non-nuclear states? Is it possible to expect any fruitful result from inter-state negotiation? What are roles of non-state parties in this process of negotiation if any? Perhaps this question is most important one. Religious partners such as Christian ecumenical organization and peace NGO’s may be critically important. We believe that this is a Kairotic time for new ecumenical discourse on peace and new ecumenical global process for peace, especially nuclear peace. It may be called the universal pacifism against nuclear weapons. Ecumenical movement has raised this question in 1980’s; now is the time to raise this question. There is a need to renew the peace discourse in the present context to influence the inter-state process of negotiation. This is right time."(pg 4-5)
    • Madang Journal [Vol 8, December 2007]

      Institute for the Study of Theology, Sungkonghoe University (Sungkonghoe University, 2007-12-15)
      "The history of the conversation between the Korean liberation theology and the Indian liberation theologies is entering into a new stage in new global context of the domination by the global market regime and by the global reality. This global reality makes direct impacts upon the realities of the Dalit and the Minjung. The Minjung theology is searching for a fresh direction in this new context. It is our contention that liberation theologies needs to evolve a perspective of convergence on local, national and global levels. Convergence of liberation traditions on all levels would include a process of convergence among Asian liberation theologies as well as a process of global convergence. The convergence would enhance the intensity and richness of liberation discourse in diverse situations and at the same time it would open a new horizon for a new and fresh discourse of liberation. This would also include a convergent process of divergent philosophies and religions at the OMEGA point of liberation of all living beings on earth. What we have learned of a remarkable development: 1. Indian ecumenical movement is deeply committed to the Dalit Struggle. 2. The theological studies are both academic and praxis oriented to support the Dalit struggle. There evolved several centers of Biblical and theological studies in Chennai, Madurai (TTC) and New Deli and so on. 3. The tribal peoples, the women, the youth and other groups are engaged in the struggle for identity and liberation as well as justice and wholeness. 4. Theological education system of India (Board of the Serampore Senate) bas taken the Dalit Theology into the official theological curricula. Korean counterpart of the Minjung theology has been carrying our theological studies; but its evolvement is less visible. The perspective of the Minjung theology has permeated into various social movements such as peace and national reunification, ecology and interfaith dialogue. There are several centers of study of the Minjung theology has been established; and its impact on the ecclesial and social issues are weakened. Under the “progressive government”it took a back seat. During the conference, there rose a new resolution to revive a passion for the study of the Minjung theology in the new context. Convergence of liberation discourses may be a fresh agenda in the ecumenical theological enterprise. This convergence would be directed against the global power of the world market regime and the global empire on the one hand and it would be inclusive of the cosmic and ecological dimension for the conviviality of all living beings."(pg 4-5)
    • Madang Journal [Vol 9, June 2008]

      Institute for the Study of Theology, Sungkonghoe University` (Sungkonghoe University, 2008-06-15)
      "The reality of the Christian church in the world is not the denominations such as the Roman Catholic Church, the Orthodox Church and Protestant churches; but it is a global network of local Christian communities among the people everywhere, which are radically being transformed. The distinct characteristics of this realty are (1) that the center of the gravity of the Christian population is in the South outside of the traditional Western Christendom, (2) that it is located among the religions of the world as well as in the context of the above mentioned global reality, and (3) that it is a global “network”of Diaspora churches in the migrant communities. This network of Diaspora Christian communities is a new reality. It is anachronism to think of traditions and denominations of churches in the 21st century in this context. This network is a new formation of Christian communities. The illusion of the world Christendom is quite contrary to the present reality of the Christian communities; and it is nothing but a shadow of the global empire. This situation brings about the crisis of theological discourse in our churches and in our ecumenical movement. The current theological discourse tends to be anachronistic, because it is an extension of the past traditions in the form of interpretation and in the form of modifications. The context is radically changed and therefore the theological discourse needs to be radically new, not the continuation of the old. For example, the Christian theological discourse on ecology cannot be only a re-interpretation of the creation theology. It needs to be convergent with various discourses on ecology among all religions and philosophies. Christian theology has been imperial since the Roman Empire. Simple extension of the Christian theology cannot challenge the global empire. It cannot challenge Christian imperial messianic syndrome. Perhaps authentic theological discourse may have to be post-Christian. Christian theology may have to learn from the Buddhist teaching in regard to dealing with the greed, for Christian theology co-habited with the modern capitalism, which is the supreme expression of the greed. Recently Christian churches have lost the discourse of justice, or the justice discourse has been weakened among churches and even in the ecumenical movement. Perhaps we should learn from some of Islamic discourse on justice, just as we have learned from Marxism in the past. In any case we need a new theological discourse on justice."(pg 4-5)
    • Magic hat economics: counter-cultural ideals and practices of the Nordic Ting community

      Janne Juhana Rantala (The Donner Institute, 2009-01-01)
      The author's anthropological study concerns one of today’s communities with no shared belief system, but with a clear spiritualist orientation. The Nordic Ting Community does not have any defined or committing roles, specialized distribution of tasks, entrance fee to their two annual gatherings, membership or any formal hierarchy. This exiguity of structural differentiation could well be understood to represent ‘subjective spirituality’. This thesis refers to the decline of institutional forms of religion with, instead, an increase in subjective experience in spirituality. This presentation shows that at least in the author's field of study, there hardly exists any increase in emphasis on individualism in spirituality. Instead the material indicates a relatively long continuum of a self-organized type of communality which could be understood as neither individualistic nor collectivistic. The type of agency observed in the social action of the studied network-like field is intersubjective. This article focuses on the use of the magic hat and the combination of ideals and practices characteristic to the Ting Community, which the author calls the magic hat economics. It is argued that by looking at these kinds of intermediating objects, the problem of individualization can be seen much more clearly
    • Magic, paganism and Christianity in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight

      Jakovljević Mladen M. (Faculty of Philosophy, Kosovska Mitrovica, 2018-01-01)
      Although Sir Gawain and the Green Knight had long been regarded as a dominantly Christian text, the treatment of magic and pagan, on the one hand, and Christianity, on the other hand, revealed that that their relationship was more complex than it may seem to be on the surface. Magic in this romance is not merely a principle opposed to Christianity but an important indicator of social and historical circumstances used by the poet to highlight the dominant problems in the medieval society in which magic is inherently present. The relationship between pagan magic and Christianity is based on the fusion of seemingly opposed principles which do not necessarily exclude each other, thus confirming the strong ties, co-existence and interdependence of Christian and magical practices, beliefs and locations. Pairs such as Morgana and Mary, Mary and pentagram, Gawain and the Green Knight, Arthur's court and Hautdesert, Christian and Pagan are not oppositions but syntheses that create unity recalling the magical principle in The Emerald Tablet: 'That which is Below corresponds to that which is Above, and that which is Above corresponds to that which is Below, to accomplish the miracles of the One Thing' (Hauck, 1999, p. 45). The answers are not necessarily found in one principle only since magic and Christianity are so intensely intertwined that they naturally complement each other. If the Green Knight and his court, a haven seemingly sent by God, carry the message from God and represent the temptation with the aim of testing the faith, then they are also the confirmation that the manifestations of divine were deeply rooted in magic practices, far beyond the boundaries of what Christianity formally found to be acceptable. If the appearance of Hautdesert was not the work of God, then Gawain's prayer to which the castle appeared as an answer did not invoke a truly and genuinely Christian place. The literature of medieval Europe is sometimes the image of reality in the Middle Ages, sometimes it is its distorted reflection, or an escape from it, or a picture of the ideals that reality should copy. It is not possible to unequivocally conclude which of these reflections is Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. This, however, is not necessary, nor is it an indicator of the literary flaw. Instead, this ambiguity allows the reader to enjoy the opportunity to see the many faces of the medieval society.

      An update of The history of Main Street United Methodist Church, Greenwood, South Carolina (1992) http://www.archive.org/details/historyofmainstr00mays.
    • Mainstreaming Morality : An Examination of Moral Ecologies as a Form of Resistance

      Brock, Samara; Cortesi, Luisa; Eren, Ayşen; Hebdon, Chris; Ludlow, Francis; Stoike, Jeffrey; Dove, Michael (1949-); Baker, Lauren
    • Maintaining a Health Environment: An Islamic Ethical Approach

      Deuraseh, Nurdeng (sic; Nurdeen) (2016-01-08)
    • Making a Garden out of the Wilderness

      Hornborg, Anne-Christine (De Gruyter, 2012)
      By using examples of European meetings with indigenous Mi‟kmaq in the Atlantic provinces of Canada in the early 17th century, I will show how the concept of wilderness was employed as a key metaphor for establishing the moral right and duty of Europeans to colonize the land, reorganizing the nomadic hunters in settled communities and remaking the mobile nature of the “savage” in the image of a cultivated plant.
    • Making a place on Earth : participation in creation and redemption through placemaking and the arts

      Hart, Trevor A.; Craft, Jennifer Allen (University of St AndrewsThe University of St Andrews, 2013-06-19)
      This thesis will explore a theology of place and placemaking that is focused on the participatory role of humans in both creation and redemption, while suggesting the central and paradigmatic role of artistry in our construction of and identification with place. Building on the most recent theological and philosophical engagement with place, this thesis will argue for a theology of place that takes seriously the doctrines of creation and incarnation, focusing on a particularly redemptive understanding of placemaking in the material world. In its study of scripture and theology, it will focus on God’s blessing of people to participate in the making of places, along with the role this human making has in relationship to divine presence and the divine plan for creation and redemption. After developing a theology of place and placemaking more generally, the second half of this thesis will consider the practical, constructive, and transformative capabilities of placemaking as witnessed through the arts. Relying on theological engagement with the arts, it will argue that artistic making of all kinds and attention to place go hand in hand. Exploring a selection of artistic genres, including the photography of Marlene Creates, the quilts of Gee’s Bend, and the literature of Wendell Berry, this thesis will suggest that imaginative and “artistic” placemaking practices can give us a deeper understanding of the creative, redemptive, and transformative work of Christ in Creation, while also elucidating our calling to participate in it.
    • Making it Work Before the Movement: African-American Community and Resistance in 1940s and 1950s Portland, Maine

      Hillebrand, Justus (DigitalCommons@UMaine, 2015-01-01)
      African Americans in Portland, Maine, in the 1940s and 1950s made up less than 0.5% of the population. As a consequence, discourse on race was more subtle than it was in other parts of the country. The Portland black community, as in other small northern New England cities, lacked the numbers for broad public or political action. Instead, African Americans developed individual and informal strategies of resistance aimed at broadening opportunities in education, employment, and housing. African Americans “made it work” by congregating in their own church, persevering in their own educational goals, operating their own businesses, and owning their own homes. Using largely oral history collections, this article argues that the racism was part of Portland life as it was elsewhere, albeit less visible, and that African Americans found subtle but creative ways of confronting it. The author earned his B.A. and M.A. at the University of Cologne in Germany and is now a Ph.D. student in History at the University of Maine. For his dissertation, he researches the dialectic between rural sense of belonging and modernization in nineteenth-century Western Maine and the Sauerland in Germany.
    • Making komuniti in Vanuatu (and beyond)

      Love, Mark (The University of Queensland, School of Social Science, 2016-12-21)
    • Making nature sacred : literature, religion, and environment in America from the Puritans to the present

      Gatta, John (Oxford University Press, 2004)
      John Gatta argues that the religious import of American environmental literature has yet to be fully recognized or understood. 'Making Nature Sacred' explores how the quest for 'natural revelation' has been pursued through successive phases of American literary and intellectual history.
    • Making Peace In and With the World : the Gülen Movement and Eco-Justice

      Kim, Heon; Raines, John (Cambridge Scholars Pub, 2012)
      Making Peace In and With the World: The Gülen Movement and Eco-Justice is a representative study and working analysis of contemporary Islamic thought on eco-justice. It cuts through problems facing humanity today, ranging from inequality and violence in the smaller globalized world to "the end/death of nature" as signaled by various environmental and ecological crises. Addressing these problems, this volume sheds light on two dimensions of peace in the earth community - making peace between d
    • Making peace with the earth : action and activism for climate justice

      Kim, Grace Ji-Sun (1969-); Kerber, Guillermo (1957-)
    • Making Pollution Inefficient Through Empowerment

      McBride, Cody (UC Berkeley School of Law, 2012)
      At its crux, environmental law is about forcing potential polluters to act in ways they would not otherwise. To do this, environmental law attempts to make noncompliance more costly than compliance. Without doing so, potential polluters would pollute regardless of its legality, a theory known as efficient breach of public law. Academics and judges alike have increasingly accepted this theory, resulting in courts struggling to prevent efficient breaches. But that has proven a difficult task. In Pakootas v. Teck Cominco Ltd., the Ninth Circuit sought to prevent efficient breach by barring citizen suits to enforce Environmental Protection Agency penalties, thereby concentrating enforcement power in the Environmental Protection Agency. This Note argues, however, that the Ninth Circuit ruling will generally make efficient breach more likely, even if it ensured compliance in Pakootas v. Teck Cominco Ltd. The Environmental Protection Agency has repeatedly failed to protect the environment due to lack of oversight, a lack of resources, or a lack of desire. Citizen suits are powerful tools to counteract the Environmental Protection Agency’s failure and should not be uniformly discarded. Contrary to the Ninth Circuit’s rule, I argue for a case-by-case approach to determine whether a citizen suit for Environmental Protection Agency penalties would increase or decrease the likelihood of compliance in each particular case. Even beyond the realm of citizen suits, environmental protection powers should be broadly shared among potential enforcers, including the Environmental Protection Agency, citizens, states, and Native American tribes, so that the probability of paying for pollution and the cost of noncompliance both rise.