Promoting L2 Motivation via Motivational Teaching Practice: A Mixed-Methods Study in the Turkish EFL Context
KeywordsEnglish as a foreign language
Ideal L2 Self
L2 Motivational Self System
L2 teacher education
Motivational Teaching Practice
Other Teacher Education and Professional Development
Teacher Education and Professional Development
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AbstractThe shift toward bilingualism and multilingualism in historically monolingual societies resulting from globalization has positioned second/foreign language (L2) learning research as a significant field. Extensive research in L2 motivation over decades has demonstrated motivation to be a significant determiner of L2 learning achievement and has yielded many sound L2 motivation theories and frameworks. The latest L2 motivation framework is the L2 Motivational Self System (L2MSS) offered by Dörnyei (2005, 2009). Numerous studies have been conducted to validate this theory in different English as a foreign language (EFL) contexts (e.g., in China, Iran and Japan: (Taguchi, Magid & Papi, 2009); in Hungary: (Csizér & Kormos, 2009); in Saudi Arabia: (Al-Shehri, 2009); and in Turkey: (Thompson & Erdil-Moody, 2014). Studies have found the theory sufficiently elaborate to explain the multifaceted L2 motivation in its dynamic nature. This study utilized the theoretical framework of L2MSS to examine L2 learners’ motivation. Due to the importance of motivation in L2 learning and achievement, research focusing on EFL instructors’ use of motivation-enhancing strategies has gained significance. To fill a longstanding gap in L2 research for a unified and systematic motivational strategies framework for teachers, Dörnyei (2001) offered the Motivational Teaching Practice in the L2 Classrooms Model (MTP) – which offers various strategies that L2 teachers can use to enhance student motivation. The current study used this MTP theoretical framework to investigate L2 teachers’ motivational teaching practice. However, how the L2MSS could be integrated into the motivational teaching practice has not been adequately studied and requires further examination. Moreover, most language teacher education programs lack motivational teaching practice training for pre-service L2 teachers. Consequently, the present study aims to fill the gap in L2 research by examining a) how to promote EFL instructors’ motivational teaching practice through a training program on motivation-enhancing strategies within the L2MSS framework; b) how L2 teachers’ consistent and systematic use of motivation-enhancing strategies within this framework impact students’ motivated learning behaviors. Another way this study contributes to L2 research is by offering both quantitative and qualitative empirical data in an understudied EFL context, Turkey, concerning the relationship between motivational teaching practice and learner motivation. The study employed a mixed-methods experimental design. The researcher collected data from February 2015 to June 2015, coordinating and delivering the teacher workshops, and analyzing and interpreting the data. The data involve various sources: self-report questionnaires from L2 teachers and students, classroom observations of teachers’ motivational teaching practice and students’ motivated learning behaviors, semi-structured interviews with teachers and students, teachers’ strategy logs and reflective journals. Quantitative and qualitative data analysis procedures were employed to analyze the data. The self-report questionnaire data were analyzed via exploratory factor analyses, Cronbach’s alpha, descriptive statistics, independent and paired samples t-tests; the classroom observation data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA; strategy logs were analyzed using descriptive statistics; and the qualitative data via classroom observations, reflective journals and interviews were analyzed via content analysis. The researcher coded, categorized, themed, and analyzed the data separately. This study intends to a) contribute to the L2 motivation research, b) offer pedagogical recommendations for motivational teaching practice to promote learner motivation within the L2MSS framework, c) contribute to the pre-service L2 teacher training to promote motivational teaching practice. The results showed that instructors’ and students’ perceptions of instructors’ use of motivational strategies demonstrated both differences and similarities, indicating that both groups have varying perceptions in regards to instructors’ motivational teaching practice. An overall analysis of the MTP across 25 different EAP classes showed an average use of motivational strategies excluding any of the recently suggested strategies that enhance the L2 self guides (the ideal L2 self and the ought-to L2 self) of learners grounded in the L2MSS theory. The classroom observation and L2 motivation data that were collected in both experimental and control groups before and after the treatment showed that instructors who received motivational teaching workshop started using more varieties of strategies more often and in a more consistent way compared to the control group instructors who did not receive any treatment. Similarly, experimental group students in the classes where instructors used more consistent and varied motivational strategies demonstrated more motivated classroom behaviors compared to the control group students. Experimental group instructors’ reflective journals and strategy logs also indicated an increased awareness of MTP and more conscious effort in trying to vary their motivational strategy use and develop their own consistent MTP. The interviews with the experimental group instructors showed that instructors were more confident in their MTP, more conscious in their choice of motivation-enhancing strategies and lesson and material design that address learners’ ideal L2 selves. They all expressed that participating in the study including but not limited to taking the MTP workshop, implementing those strategies in their classes, continuous feedback and discussion sessions with the other experimental group instructors and the researcher, writing the reflecting journals and the strategy logs were altogether helped them to a great deal creating a “transformational experience like a wake-up call” in their teaching. Interviews with the students revealed that experimental group students were happier in their EAP class this semester compared to their previous pre-requisite EAP class because they were kept more motivated, engaged and active throughout the semester. They found their instructors as the most motivating factor on their motivation and achievement this semester.
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Metacognition, Motivation and Emotions: Contribution of Self-Regulated Learning to Solving Mathematical ProblemsMeirav Tzohar-Rozen; Bracha Kramarski (Mercy College, 2014-11-01)Mathematical problem solving is among the most valuable aspects of mathematics education. It is also the hardest for elementary school students (Verschaffel, Greer & De Corte, 2000). Students experience cognitive and metacognitive difficulties in this area and develop negative emotions and poor motivation which hamper their efforts (Kramarski, Weiss, & Kololshi-Minsker, 2010). 9–11 seems the critical stage for developing attitudes and emotional reactions towards mathematics (Artino, 2009). These metacognitive and motivational-emotional factors are fundamental components of Self-Regulated Learning (SRL), a non-innate process requiring systematic, explicit student training (Pintrich, 2000; Zimmerman, 2000). Most self-regulation studies relating to problem-solving focus on metacognition. Few explore the motivational-emotional component. This study aimed to develop, examine, and compare two SRL interventions dealing with two additional components of self-regulation: metacognitive regulation (MC) and motivational-emotional regulation (ME). It also sought to examine the significance of these components and their contribution to learners' problem-solving achievements and self-regulation. The study examined 118 fifth grade students, randomly assigned to two groups. Pre- and post-intervention, the two groups completed self-regulation questionnaires relating to metacognition, motivation, and emotion. They also solved arithmetic series problems presented in two ways (verbal form and numeric form). After intervention we also examined a novel transfer problem. The intervention consisted of 10 hours for 5 weeks. Following the intervention the groups exhibited similar improvements across all the problems. The MC group performed best in metacognitive self-regulation and the ME group performed best in certain motivational-emotional aspects of self-regulation. Research implications are discussed.
The motivational function of the social work managerMalherbe, Blanche Regina; Willemse, Ursula Berenice (2009-08-25)Motivation is critical to the effective management of social workers in an organisation. A literature study of the concept motivation and an empirical study on the motivational function of the social work manager were conducted. This exploratory/descriptive study aimed to set scientifically grounded guidelines for the implementation of motivation as management function of social work managers.
The literature indicated that motivating employees is the responsibility of social work managers. Research showed that social workers, social work managers and the organisation do benefit from motivation. The respondents indicated that motivation as a management function is important. They highlighted that intrinsic motivation and internal and external motivators influence their motivation positively. Organisational policies and a leadership style characterised by autocracy and a laissez-faire approach are demotivating.
Social work managers should apply the principles of motivation theories, motivational strategies and guidelines to maintain and sustain motivation. Conclusions and recommendations were made regarding the motivational function of the social work manager.
ŉ Leesmotiveringsprofiel van en ŉ -raamwerk vir Afrikaanssprekende adolessentelesers / Judith ElizabethVosVos, Judith Elizabeth (2014-11-06)Reading plays a significant role in society and currently there is worldwide pressure for higher literacy results. The focus of this thesis is reading motivation and how it relates to a learner's amount of reading, reading comprehension and academic achievement since these problematic constructs are attracting the interest of researchers internationally. Researchers have investigated the relationships among these constructs with a variety of results. These relationships, however, have not yet been investigated in a South African context with Afrikaans-speaking adolescent readers, and the only information available on the reading motivation of Afrikaans-speaking adolescent readers is information on their reading preferences in regard to literary texts. Hence the following three research aims were determined for this study: the compilation of a reading motivation profile of Afrikaans-speaking adolescent readers, the analysis of the relationships among Afrikaans-speaking adolescent readers' reading motivation and their amount of reading, reading comprehension and academic achievement in an Afrikaans Home Language environment, as well as the development of a reading motivation framework, particularly for use in the school and classroom environment, for these adolescent readers. The study was carried out in the post-positivistic research paradigm by means of a non-experimental quantitative research approach. Three methods of data collection were used, namely a structured questionnaire (based on the eleven reading motivation dimensions of Wigfield and Guthrie's (1997) Motivation for Reading Questionnaire, which for this purpose had been adapted for the South African context), two reading comprehension tests and obtaining the data regarding the academic achievement of the respondents. The 823 respondents that had participated in this study were the grade 9 learners (Afrikaans Home Language) of seven schools from the Dr Kenneth Kaunda district (North West Province, South Africa), selected by means of purposive sampling so that different quintiles and geographic areas were represented. Information obtained from a comprehensive literature study on relevant motivation theories, on reading motivation in practice and on the relationship among their reading motivation, amount of reading, reading comprehension and academic achievement, as well as from the results of an empirical investigation of the reading motivation of specific grade 9 learners, was used to compile a reading motivation profile of Afrikaans-speaking adolescent readers. The motivation theories on which motivation in this study was based, were the social-cognitive theory, the self-efficacy theory, the ecological system theory of human development and the expectancy-value theory, because these theories emphasise the individual's behaviour within particular social contexts and because constructs such as self-efficacy, task value and mastery, which emanate from these theories, play a cardinal role in determining suitable reading motivation strategies for specific readers. It was essential to compile a reading motivation profile of Afrikaans-speaking adolescent readers before a reading motivation framework for these adolescent readers could be compiled. The reading motivation framework recommends specific reading motivation strategies various social role-players in the school and classroom environments can implement so as to improve Afrikaans-speaking adolescent readers' reading motivation levels. The various social role-players that would influence the Afrikaans-speaking adolescent reader's reading motivation and the reading motivation strategies each of them could use, was systematised (namely the Department of Education, the school principal and management team, teachers and parents). The essence of the contribution made by this study is that a reading motivation profile of a group of Afrikaans-speaking adolescent readers (grade 9 learners) could be compiled, that clear mutual relationships among the respondents' reading motivation and their amount of reading, reading comprehension and academic achievement came to the fore from this study and that a reading motivation framework could be developed by means of which to improve the reading motivation levels of these adolescent readers.