Learning Presence as a Predictor of Achievement and Satisfaction in Online Learning Environments
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AbstractPrevious research has indicated the possible impact of learning presence, which consists of cognitive, emotional and social presences, on online learning outcomes. However, the data-driven evidence in actual learning situations is notably lacking. This study, therefore, investigated the viability of the three domains of learning presence to accurately predict the learning outcomes such as achievement and satisfaction. Three consecutive studies were conducted over a two-year period. A total of 178 students enrolled in three different online courses participated in these studies. The results show that cognitive presence significantly predicted learners’ satisfaction in all studies and achievement in studies 1 and 2, that emotional presence predicted satisfaction in study 1 and 3, and that social presence predicted learning achievement in study 3. In conclusion, the results indicate that learning presences could be powerful predictors for learning outcomes in various online learning environments.