This collection gathers interdisciplinary studies and research work from all continents, mainly on the history and theology of Christian missions, the mission of the Church, historical and contemporary theological, anthropological, (cross-) cultural, socio-political aspects, (inter-) religious and interdenominational perspectives and developments (trends) of missionary praxis and theory in local, regional and global contexts of Church history, the modern ecumenical movement and world Christianity.

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  • Narratives in Conflict: Atonement in Hebrews and the Qur'an

    Bennett, Matthew A. (DigitalCommons@Cedarville, 2017-12-01)
    As the last 1400 years of Christian–Muslim dialogue have demonstrated, there are several areas of Islamic theology and Qur’anic claims that conflict with the message of the Bible. One such area of conflict is at an area of vital concern to the Bible: the concept of atonement. In the Hebrew Bible atonement is a logically unified concept whereby God grants his people means of achieving forgiveness and purification by accepting the blood of a sacrificial animal as a ransom–purgation. The book of Hebrews highlights the way the Christ Event accomplishes atonement by connecting Jesus’ death, resurrection, and ascension with the ritual actions of the high priest on the Day of Atonement. The Qur’an, however, despite both claiming to continue and complete prior revelation and while including similar language often understood to mean atonement, teaches a very different doctrine of forgiveness. Despite the presence of the component parts of biblical atonement—sacrifice, forgiveness, purification, ransom, blood—the Qur’an keeps each aspect conceptually separate from the others. Such separation is most clearly seen in the Qur’an’s refusal to acknowledge blood’s role in achieving forgiveness or purification. Thus, while atonement language and the concepts of forgiveness and purification are present in both texts, there is an underlying disunity in the biblical and qur’anic ideas of atonement (conveyed through the Arabic word, kaffāra). Where many scholars accuse the Qur’an of being blatantly mistaken or ill– informed in its retelling of quasi–biblical narratives, this dissertation will show that a generous reading of the Qur’an reveals a potentially nuanced intertextuality resulting in a PREVIEW xiii different understanding of continuation. Exegesis of Sura 5 demonstrates that the Qur’an sees sacrifice as a demarcation given to mark off new dispensations of revelation. This understanding of the purpose of sacrifice gives the Qur’an the ability to claim to stand in the stead of Judaism and Christianity without having to account for some of the details of underlying meaning and overt ritual. Thus, rather than assuming the Qur’an to be negligent in its treatment of Jewish and Christian atonement, the Qur’an simply makes a different claim to continuation than the book of Hebrews makes. Ultimately, Hebrews offers a narrative–driven answer to the question, “Why did the Christ Event occur as the Bible indicates?” In so doing, it challenges the Qur’anic claims to continuation of prior revelation more forcefully than does the mere factual question, “Did the Christ Event occur as the Bible indicates?” The affirmative answer given to the latter question gains impact through understanding the whole biblical narrative that the Christ Event brings to a climax. The book of Hebrews demonstrates the climactic nature of the Christ Event, and thus its portrayal of Christian atonement coheres more seamlessly with biblical ritual, metanarrative, and worldview than does the disjunctive metanarrative suggested by the Qur’an. Ultimately, the argument of this dissertation is that Christ’s fulfillment of the Day of Atonement, as presented in the Book of Hebrews, exposes distinct worldviews between the Qur’an and Bible, and can be used to challenge Qur'anic claims to completing prior revelation.
  • Address of the Board of Directors of the Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America : to the members of the said church.

    Columbia University Libraries; Episcopal Church. Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society; White, William, 1748-1836 (Philadelphia : [The Society], 1822-01-01)
    Title from cover
  • How missionaries applied Portuguese and Latin descriptive categories in the classification and explanation of verb conjugations and paired verbs of Tamil

    Cristina Muru (Open Library of Humanities, 2021-07-01)
    Tamil verb stems may be inclusive of a voice morpheme that encodes the degree of agency of the verb. Hence, using Paramasivam’s (1979) terminology, these kinds of verbs are paired verbs of which one is the affective and the other its effective counterpart. In the former, the action expressed by the verb is realised by an agent and affects a patient, whereas in the latter the consequences of the action fall on the subject who realises the action.This paper intends to analyse how missionaries described the verb system of Tamil which differed substantially from their own model of reference (Latin and Portuguese), and how they understood paired verbs, as defined above. As such, taking into account the Western sources that missionaries used to compose and organise their descriptions, this paper focuses on both verb conjugations and paired verbs in Tamil. It also demonstrates how the Latin grammatical framework was applied for the description of Tamil verbs and discusses the Indian grammatical sources available to missionaries.Given that the present classification of Tamil verbs is based on the one offered by a missionary, Karl Friedrich Leberecht Graul (1814–1864), this study highlights how earlier missionaries’ descriptions contributed to the current classification.
  • The westward dissemination of pre-modern Chinese book collections to Europe : the books of Joachim Bouvet

    Yueshan, Zhou (2020)
    One of the most magnificent collections of pre-modern Chinese books kept in Europe was brought to France by Joachim Bouvet, a French missionary, in the 17th century. It is widely accepted that these forty-nine volumes of Chinese books were a gift from the Chinese emperor Kangxi to Louis XIV, the king of France, with Bouvet, the person who brought the books, believed to have been appointed as the Kangxi Emperor's special envoy. However, as I intend to show here, it may be that neither was Bouvet a special envoy, nor were the books a gift from the Chinese emperor.
  • Exhibition of the Hallaquah Society Program

    Hallaquah Press, 1881-06-30
    Program with music from students from the school on the S.S.and W. Mission.
  • Establishment of Modern Universities in Korea

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu (Mary Lou Fulton Teachers College, Arizona State University, 2001-07-31)
    The purpose of this study is to examine the historical factors which affected the rise of modern higher education during the late Choson period (1880-1910), and to analyze the implications of these historical factors on educational policies in contemporary higher education in Korea. The rise of modern higher education in Korea can be viewed as occurring in three principal phases: Confucian Choson Royal Government, Western Christian missionaries, and patriotic nationalists. The author points out that the major historical factors influencing the development of modern higher education were Confucianism, Christianity, and Korean nationalism. In particular, Confucianism and Christianity have had substantial impacts on the planning of educational policies in contemporary Korean higher education; the former is viewed as an original source of educational enthusiasm which has expanded Korean higher education, and the latter a matrix of modern Korean higher education which has embodied educational enthusiasm.
  • Anti-Sectarian Mission of Holy Cross Brotherhood in Nizhny Novgorod Diocese in 1906-1916

    N. E. Arkhipova (Tsentr nauchnykh i obrazovatelnykh proektov, 2018-02-01)
    The work of the anti-sectarian mission of the brotherhood of the Holy cross in the Nizhny Novgorod diocese, founded in connection with the decree of 1905, which established freedom of religion for sectarians, is considered. It is indicated that at that time a sect was understood as religious association, deviating from the dogmatic teaching of the Orthodox Church (except for the Catholicism, Lutheranism and Anglicanism). It is shown that the Nizhny Novgorod mission conducted polemic conversations, teachings, anti-sectarian conversations at fairs, distributed free leaflets and brochures, organized short-term anti-sectarian courses for clergy, as well as for peasants during fairs. It is noted that the parishes created societies and brotherhoods of Orthodoxy zealots, but they were few. It is shown that during the First world war polemic conversations were replaced with preaching ones, technical novelty was used at meetings with peasants - a lantern with light pictures, in the course of conversations the main emphasis was placed on enlightenment of the Orthodox people of the state Church. The author notes the difficulty of assessing the success of the anti-sectarian mission, since there were no exact data on the number of sectarians, their transitions from Church to sect and back. Along with that the growth of sectarianism caused by the unconscious attitude of the Orthodox people to Church life and apostasy occurred secretly. It is concluded that the work of the anti-sectarian mission was mainly of a preventive nature.
  • Missionary Brotherhood of the Holy Cross in Nizhny Novgorod Diocese in 1875-1916

    N. E. Arkhipova (Tsentr nauchnykh i obrazovatelnykh proektov, 2019-01-01)
    The history of the formation and development of the missionary brotherhood of the Holy cross in Nizhny Novgorod is presented. Attention is paid to the issues of organization, formation of the budget of the brotherhood and its branches, problems of organization and work of these institutions. In the analysis it was found out that for more than forty-year term functioning the brotherhood of the Holy cross had significantly expanded the scope of its activities, covering all the deanery districts of the diocese with its branches, attracting new forces to its ranks. It is noted that by 1913 the budget of the brotherhood had increased 10 times. It is reported that the brotherly library had increased. The author emphasizes that for a quarter of a century the process of drawing up the uniform rules of the organization of the branches of the brotherhood had been delayed; among them there were those that functioned at the expense of the enthusiasm of individual priests or secular zealots of the faith. It is concluded that the appearance in 1902 of the General Charter of the branches brought order, uniformity in their organization and created the basis for providing them with funds. It is shown that the main missionary load lay on the clergy, but in the work of the brotherhood the secular persons of the peasants also showed activity. The lack of finance had not allowed to implement some ideas: to open a charitable institution, to issue regular missionary magazine, etc.
  • Missionary Work in Nizhny Novgorod Diocese in the Last Third of 19<sup>th</sup> - early 20<sup>th</sup> Centuries

    N. E. Arkhipova (Tsentr nauchnykh i obrazovatelnykh proektov, 2017-03-01)
    The article is devoted to the study of the organization of missionary work in the Nizhny Novgorod region in the period after the great reforms of Alexander II to 1905. The article characterizes the work of two major institutions in the field of missionary work - Novgorod Committee of the Orthodox Missionary Society (OMS) and the brotherhood of the Holy cross. The Committee of OMS was responsible for the spread of Orthodoxy among the natives of the Nizhny Novgorod diocese, mostly Tatars, it collected funds for the development of missionary work and propaganda of the official Orthodoxy among non-Christians in the Eastern part of the Empire. The aim of the Brotherhood was to return to the official Church the old believers and sectarians. The author reveals the problems of the organization of missionary works, analyses its results. Work on the return of “fallen away” baptized Tatars, the spread of Christianity among the Tatar Muslims in Nizhny Novgorod province was ineffective. The Committee did not have enough material resources, well-trained staff to preach in the environment of the Muslims well-read and strong in the faith. Unlike the Committee of OMS, the work of the brotherhood of Holy cross was more successful. The number of its branches in the diocese increased steadily. Missionary work extended not only priests but also the laity, among which the most active and successful missionaries stood out. Systematic interviews were popular among the population of the Nizhny Novgorod province and guests of the fair from other parts of the country. The author comes to the conclusion that the work of the brotherhood of Holy cross had a certain influence on the religious consciousness of the old believers and sectarians. With the early activities of the brotherhood the number of transitions in the official Church increased significantly, but the number of departures from it in the old believers continued to dominate.
  • History of Karras Colony and Nearby Settlements of Europeans in 19th — First Half of 20th Centuries at Present Stage of Study

    V. A. Fomenko; A. T. Dzhumagulova (Tsentr nauchnykh i obrazovatelnykh proektov, 2021-07-01)
    The issues of the current stage of studying the history of the Karras colony and nearby European settlements in the 19th and first half of the 20th centuries are considered. A review and analysis of new sources and historiography from 2000 to 2020 has been carried out. The relevance of the study is due to the poorly studied and fragmentary coverage of the history of European settlements in the central part of the North Caucasus in the 19th — first half of the 20th centuries in Russian historiography. The authors dwell on terminology issues. It is emphasized that the terms-cliches ‘mountaineers’ and ‘Tatars’ are characteristic of the historical literature of the 19th century and are inaccurately used by some authors today. The novelty of the research is seen in the fact that in this work the history of the Karras colony and neighboring settlements of Europeans in the 19th — first half of the 20th centuries is considered based on publications of 2000—2020. It is concluded that there is a possibility and a need for an independent review of the history of the Scottish mission, the center of which was originally located in Karras. The authors proceed from the fact that the history of the settlements of the colonists has a broader chronological framework and the main task of the colonists was not always missionary activity.
  • Missionary Activity of Russian Orthodox Church in the Second Half of the XIX - Early XX Centuries (Vyatka province)

    E. N. Nemchaninova; M. Yu. Polovnikova (Tsentr nauchnykh i obrazovatelnykh proektov, 2020-04-01)
    The study is devoted to the analysis of the missionary activity of the Russian Orthodox Church in the second half of the XIX - early XX centuries in the context of the history of church-state relations of the period. An attempt is made to classify the key problems of missionary activity based on an analysis of its leading areas using a regional approach. Based on archival documents (primarily the reports of Vyatka bishops and governors), the main problems of the missionary activity of the Russian Orthodox Church in the vast Vyatka province, which is one of the largest in empire in terms of population are analyzed in the paper. The authors proceed from the position that the organization of missionary activity was an important element in ensuring the unity of the state in the period under review, and in this regard consolidated the interests of secular and spiritual authorities both at the central and regional levels. The range and content of the problems of missionary activity, according to the authors, were largely determined by the specifics of the national and confessional composition of the population of the region, the nature of its settlement, as well as unique models of church-state relations that developed at the local level.
  • Missionary Activity in Nizhny Novgorod Diocese in 1906-1916

    N. E. Arkhipova (Tsentr nauchnykh i obrazovatelnykh proektov, 2018-01-01)
    The purpose of this article is to analyze the activity of the internal Nizhny Novgorod mission of the brotherhood of the Holy Cross from 1906 to 1916. Significance of the “Decree on religious tolerance development” of 1905 is commented. On the one hand, it put the Nizhny Novgorod diocesan leadership in more complex conditions of missionary work, and on the other, contributed to the emergence of new forms of activity: missionary courses of national importance, free distribution of leaflets and pamphlets of religious and moral content, groups of adherents of Orthodoxy. It is noted that due to the pastors’ busyness such groups have not been established in all parishes. It is reported that the local missionary magazine was not organized. It is emphasized that fair conversations due to the rare participation of the old believers-dogmatists were aimed at the protection of the Orthodox state Church from the influence of “the split.” It is shown that anti-old believers mission of the brotherhood of the Holy Cross had a shortage of leadership capacity, having a spiritual and missionary formation. Data on reports of the brotherhood are provided, according to which the number of people attached to the state Church exceeded the number of old believers, and the main threat was the spread of sectarian and atheistic ideas. The author argues that the devaluation of traditional spiritual concepts after the defeat in the first world war led to a cooling of the peasants to religious questions.
  • Bishop Andrew (Ukhtomsky)’s Activity on Organization of Missionary Work in Sukhumi Eparchy in 1912-1913 (Based on “Employee of the Transcaucasian Mission” Journal Materials)

    O. S. Pavlova (Tsentr nauchnykh i obrazovatelnykh proektov, 2018-07-01)
    The work of Bishop Andrew (Ukhtomsky) in the Sukhumi eparchy in 1912-1913 is analyzed, aimed at organizing parish life and missionary and educational work in general. It is shown that an important step in this direction was the creation of the first in the eparchy printed Church missionary journal “Employee of the Transcaucasian mission.” Studying the journal materials allowed to draw conclusions that the wide experience of missionary work, accumulated by Bishop Andrew in the Kazan eparchy, has found application in the new appointment. It is proved that the purpose of the journal “Employee of the Transcaucasian mission” was the implementation of the key tasks of missionary work; it also became a periodical of the Brotherhood of St. Blessed Prince Alexander Nevsky. The article presents the results of the analysis of the materials published in this journal, which contain information on specific activities, as well as reflections on the revival of parish Orthodox life, the organization of pastoral ministry, parish schools, churches, the local Church Archaeological Commission, etc. It is reported that the journal was published till 1916. The author of the article comes to the conclusion that the Ministry of Bishop Andrew in Sukhumi eparchy was reflected and wide developed in the future.
  • Sarapul Ascension Brotherhood and Its Activities in the Late XIX - Early XX Centuries

    M. Yu. Polovnikova (Tsentr nauchnykh i obrazovatelnykh proektov, 2019-11-01)
    The article raises the question of the implementation of religious policy within the borders of the Vyatka province in the second half of the 19th century in terms of creating religious educational organizations to increase the effectiveness of the clergy with the Old Believer and non-Orthodox populations. Based on archival documents and published sources, the history of the foundation and the main activities of the Ascension Brotherhood on the territory of the Sarapul Vicariate, created to conduct religious and educational work among the local population and provide assistance to other religious organizations of the Vyatka diocese, are examined. The novelty of the study is that a comprehensive review of the history and activities of the Ascension Brotherhood, opened in Sarapul in 1892, is carried out for the first time. The author dwells on the religious and educational work of the Ascension Brotherhood, which was his main business. It is reported that members of the fraternity, with the assistance of the local clergy, engaged in religious-educational readings and conversations, which were popular with the local population. It is noted that this activity was initially supported by the local authorities of Sarapul, but over time, assistance to the Ascension Brotherhood from the local secular authorities became minimal. It turned out that members of the Ascension Brotherhood and the organizers of the readings were forced to continue their activities at the expense of material assistance from donors and support from the clergy of the Vyatka diocese.
  • Domínios da Fé: políticas missionárias e a defesa do Padroado régio português (Portugal e a Santa Sé, 1640-1715)

    Puntoni, Pedro Luis; Gatti, Agatha Francesconi (Biblioteca Digital de Teses e Dissertações da USPUniversidade de São PauloFaculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas, 2021-06-09)
    A presente tese tem como objetivo principal estudar a configuração da política missionária de Portugal no período compreendido entre a aclamação de D. João IV e os acordos de Paz (Tratado de Utrecht) que colocaram fim à Guerra de Sucessão Espanhola em 1715. Tal propósito foi realizado a partir de duas frentes principais de investigação, em nossa visão fundamentais e ao mesmo tempo complementares para o amplo entendimento do tema proposto. A primeira delas procurou compreender os antecedentes e desdobramentos que se seguiram à iniciativa da Coroa portuguesa de criar novos organismos com o intuito de aperfeiçoar a gestão de seu empreendimento missionário. A instituição de uma Junta de Missões no reino (1655) e de Juntas de Missões ultramarinas em 1681, integram um movimento mais largo de especialização dos processos decisórios e de institucionalização de novas instâncias político-administrativas que marcou os anos que se seguiram à Restauração de Portugal. Por outro lado, as Juntas de Missões estão igualmente vinculadas às políticas e estratégias desenvolvidas pela monarquia portuguesa para defender suas prerrogativas espirituais nos territórios ultramarinos num momento de profundas disputas no cenário europeu. Nessa chave, nos interessou especialmente a relação que Portugal teceu com a Santa Sé e sua mobilização frente à atuação da Sagrada Congregação \'De Propaganda Fide\' criada em 1622. Os embates político-diplomáticos travados entre Portugal e a Santa Sé em defesa de seu direito de padroado, e as estratégias concebidas pelo reino no anseio de opor-se a uma política de expansão da fé católica que progressivamente se conformava e se fortalecia na Cúria Romana, constituíram o cerne da segunda frente de investigação que animou este trabalho.
  • The health of our missions

    Princeton Theological Seminary Library; Dodd, Edward M. (Edward Mills), 1887-1967 (New York : Board of foreign missions of the Presbyterian church in the United States of America, 1940-01-01)
    111 pages : 23 cm
  • Fact Book 2014 - 2015

    Qatar University, 2021-08-18
    The 2014-2015 Fact Book is issued annually in October and is intended to provide the university community and others with a summary of institutional data about Qatar University. It is a consolidation of institutional information gathered from various sources and contains many tables and graphs, which are helpful to administrators, faculty, staff, students, and other stakeholders.
  • Evolving email clustering method for email grouping:a machine learning approach

    Ayodele, Taiwo; Zhou, Shikun; Khusainov, Rinat (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2009-10-02)
  • Promising Agroforestry Tree Species In India

    O.P. Chaturvedi; A.K. Handa; A.R. Uthappa; K.B. Sridhar; Naresh Kumar; S.B. Chavan; Javed Rizvi (Central Agroforestry Research Institute (CAFRI), NH- 75, Rasra, Jhansi, Uttar Pradesh 284003, India., 2021-08-15)
    Not Available
  • Evaluating a Community-Based Breastfeeding Support Organization in Nebraska

    Goodroe, Katelyn Elaine (DigitalCommons@UNMC, 2021-08-01)
    Specific Aims: The aims of this evaluation plan are to investigate the role of the Nebraska nonprofit organization, MilkWorks, in promoting breastfeeding and family support programming and to identify future internal and external growth opportunities through an assessment of the organizational practices using stakeholder perspectives and marketing structure to better promote infant and parental health. Significance: As a best practice, evaluation of MilkWorks is critical to providing proper services for promoting infant development and parental health in urban and rural Nebraska communities. Background: MilkWorks was founded in Lincoln, Nebraska, by mothers with the intention of promoting breastfeeding by offering support services. MilkWorks expanded into Omaha, Nebraska, with a second full-service location in 2015 and offers condensed services in York, Nebraska. Methods: A mixed-methods approach was used to collect feedback from MilkWorks staff, board members, partners, and consumers. Quantitative data were collected through three surveys to investigate the organizational culture. Qualitative data were collected through the same surveys and additional consumer focus groups to identify growth areas and inspirations for future development. Results: Recommendations were made regarding the development of growth areas and the maintenance of organizational strengths. The organization’s operations were broken down into a dynamic input, conversion, and output model that can be used to evaluate future growth opportunities. Finally, demonstrations on how goals identified in the strategic planning process could be implemented and evaluated over time. Discussion: MilkWorks has strong potential for increasing its reach in communities across Nebraska within the next decade with expanded services to promote mental health wellness for parents and access for marginalized communities. Emphasis must be placed on establishing standards for defining success as the organizational leaders created an ambitious and diversified list of goals for growing the organization.