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  • Boskie zarządzanie świeckimi sprawami. Agambenowska teologiczna genealogia ekonomii jako polityczna filozofia praktyki

    This article is a result of a research grant “Critique of the Politico-Economic Theology in the Philosophy of Giorgio Agamben” funded by the Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of PAN.; This article is a result of a research grant “Critique of the Politico-Economic Theology in the Philosophy of Giorgio Agamben” funded by the Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of PAN.; Ratajczak, Mikołaj; IFiS PAN Nowy Świat 72 00-330 Warszawa (Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, 2015-04-21)
    Celem tego artykułu jest przedstawienie takiej interpretacji Agambenowskiej teologicznej genealogii ekonomii, która ukaże jej znaczenie dla badań w obszarze ekonomii politycznej. Jedynym sposobem na powiązanie dyskursów teologii ekonomicznej i ekonomii politycznej jest pokazanie, że teologia ekonomiczna nie zajmuje się kwestiami przynależnymi do sfery ekonomii, lecz podejmuje dużo bardziej ogólny problem – problem ludzkiej praktyki. Postaram się udowodnić, że stawką Agambenowskiej filozofii jest krytyka teologicznych, a więc metafizycznych, założeń koncepcji ludzkiej praktyki, którą to krytykę można przeprowadzić za pomocą teologicznej genealogii, w szczególności trynitarnej ekonomii. Artykuł skupia się na pojęciu liturgii i jego roli w Agambenowskich badaniach genealogicznych jako teologicznym paradygmacie kapitalistycznego zarządzania ludzkim życiem (czyli praktyką) i kończy się rozważaniami nad możliwą aplikacją Agambenowskiej teologicznej genealogii ekonomii do marksistowskiej krytyki ekonomii politycznej, przede wszystkim do krytyki podziału na pracę produkcyjną i nieprodukcyjną.
  • La conception ricoeurienne de la raison pratique: dialectique ou éclectique?

    Jaffro, Laurent (University Library System, University of Pittsburgh, 2012-06-25)
    L’article examine et discute les présupposés de la réponse que Paul Ricœur a apportée à la question “qu’est-ce que la rationalité pratique?” dans une série d’études qui aboutit à la “petite éthique” de Soi-même comme un autre. La conception défendue par Ricœur se présente comme une sorte de conciliation, ou de composition, de l’éthique aristotélicienne et de la morale kantienne. Deux problèmes se posent en particulier: le premier est posé par le caractère contestable de l’interprétation par Ricœur des positions qu’il synthétise; le second concerne le modèle, dialectique ou éclectique, de cette synthèse.
  • Plek van Empedokles in die metafisies-mistieke tradisie

    Kruger, J.S. (Jacobus Stefanus), 1940- (Faculty of Theology, University of Pretoria, 2009-11-09)
    This article argues that Empedocles was more than a pre-Socratic philosopher. His thinking was also essentially mystical and should be situated on a large map of metaphysical-mystical continuities with the following dimensions: A historically discernable cultural and religious pool, encompassing not only South-Eastern Europe, Asia Minor and Mediterranean Africa, but also the north-eastern Eurasian shamanic tradition, and India; an historically largely inaccesible esoteric tradition; a set of structural elements of the human psyche, running under and across historical religions through time; and the development of a new convergence of previously historically unconnected mystical traditions in the social and cultural circumstances of today. In particular, the article investigates similarities and differences between Empedocles and Indian (specifically Buddhist) views on various issues, such as the four roots and the cyclical dialectic of love and strife. In that context the article notes the remarkable interpretation of Empedocles by Peter Kingsley which seems to draw Empedocles closer to Buddhism, but without explicating this implication of his reception.
  • Applied philosophy and psychotherapy : Heraclitus as case study

    Beukes, C.J. (Cornelius Johannes) (Faculty of Theology, University of Pretoria, 2010-03-19)
    Spine cut of Journal binding and pages scanned on flatbed EPSON Expression 10000 XL; 400dpi; text/lineart - black and white - stored to Tiff
 Derivation: Abbyy Fine Reader v.9 work with PNG-format (black and white); Photoshop CS3; Adobe Acrobat v.9
 Web display format PDF
  • Can Aristotle's prime mover be a physical cause?

    Tegtmeyer, Henning; U0089619; JFA; CORA; JLA (Vita e pensiero, 2015-10)
    The paper examines Aristotle’s arguments for an unmoved mover in his Physics and Metaphysics. First, the question is raised whether it is legitimate to address this theological topic within the context of a scientific investigation of nature at all. The question presupposes, however, that physics can do without at least a theological perspective, and Aristotle argues that it cannot. In a second step, Aristotle’s arguments for an unmoved mover are reconstructed. One important result is that Aristotle cannot explain the nature of the first mover and the type of transcendent causality that is involved in a physical context because these questions are genuinely metaphysical. Therefore, the third step leads to Metaphysics Λ where both questions are answered. The paper closes with three points for further discussion: (1) Is Aristotle’s metaphysical conception of matter really sufficient? (2) Does his metaphysical theology rest on an entirely outdated physics? (3) What is the method that Aristotle employs in theological reasoning, and especially, how do his inferences towards the existence of a divine intellect work?
  • Wprowadzenie: teologia jako krytyka

    Ratajczak, Mikołaj; IFiS PAN Nowy Świat 72 00-330 Warszawa; Zawisza, Rafał; Institut für die Wissenschaften vom Menschen Spittelauer Lände 3 1090 Wien (Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, 2015-04-21)
    This is an introduction to the issue of “Theoretical Practice” (“Praktyka Teoretyczna”), entitled “Economic Theologies” (no. 3, 2015), edited by Mikołaj Ratajczak and Rafał Zawisza. It contains contextual explanation of the theoretical field projected by the Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben, namely a critique of the economic theology elaborated on the basis of early Christian theological debates concerning the concept of divine “oikonomia”. The introduction also includes short summaries of the articles, translations and reviews collected in the issue.
  • Introduction: Theology as a Critique.

    Ratajczak, Mikołaj; IFiS PAN Nowy Świat 72 00-330 Warszawa; Zawisza, Rafał; Institut für die Wissenschaften vom Menschen Spittelauer Lände 3 1090 Wien (Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, 2015-04-21)
    This is an introduction to the issue of “Theoretical Practice” (“Praktyka Teoretyczna”), entitled “Economic Theologies” (no. 3, 2015), edited by Mikołaj Ratajczak and Rafał Zawisza. It contains contextual explanation of the theoretical field projected by the Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben, namely a critique of the economic theology elaborated on the basis of early Christian theological debates concerning the concept of divine “oikonomia”. The introduction also includes short summaries of the articles, translations and reviews collected in the issue.
  • Buddhist mysticism and philosophy

    Ferreira, Ignatius (Naas) Wilhelm (OpenJournals Publishing, 2015-09-28)
    Book review : Turning-points in Buddhist mysticism and philosophy / Jacobus S. Kruger. ISBN: 978-0-6203-9731-5. Publisher: Aurora Press, New Mexico, pp. 192.
  • Outlining the parameters for a linguistic nativist position

    Vos, Mark de (Department of General Linguistics, Stellenbosch University., 2016-04-08)
    I will outline the so-called “nativist position” as it relates to language.1 While this debate has a long history, the data on which we can now draw is much richer and more varied than that available when the issues were first articulated and debated in the ‟60s and ‟70s. Similarly, the research context is radically different: behaviourism is no longer as dominant as it once was; Linguistics and Cognitive Science are much more theoretically mature and diverse, sporting a rich array of subdisciplines and perspectives. Along the way, some arguments have proved richer and more sustainable than others and indeed, in my opinion, the nativist position has shifted over the years. In some sense, it might be fair to ask whether the field has outgrown the debate and whether it is still as polarising as it once was. This article attempts to outline a nativist position by looking at the fundamental research questions that define it. Nativism is one possible coherent way of navigating through these questions, though other routes may also be possible. Consequently, there may be new spaces for rapprochement between different linguistic disciplines, which are often concealed by our scientific discourses.Keywords: Innatism, nativism, Humboldt, Plato, biolinguistics, Universal Grammar.
  • How Serious is Our Divergence?

    Angle, Stephen C. (SelectedWorks, 2008-01-01)
    Near the beginning of his magisterial A Cloud Across the Pacific, Thomas Metzger sums up what he calls his “paradoxical combination of reflexivity with cultural patterns” as follows: This book is based on the premise that thinking about how to improve political life cannot be the product of either a closed cultural system or of reason as a uniform cognitive faculty with which all persons try to apprehend and reflect on objective realities or universal principles. Insisting that both dimensions are paradoxically combined in everyone’s thinking, I take issues with two groups — the Western scholars fascinated just with culture, and the many Western and Chinese intellectuals who today still largely ignore how reflexivity is shaped by disparate cultural patterns. [Metzger 2005, p. 13-14] Another key feature of Metzger’s approach is to focus on “discourses,” his label for the language, concerns, and “indisputables” that various “we-groups” share. That is, people who mutually recognize one another as part of a community share certain commitments that they find indisputably reasonable, not standing in need of justification. A central thesis of A Cloud Across the Pacific is that Chinese political thinkers in the twentieth century, whatever their differences, virtually all are members of a single community whose mode of expression he labels Discourse #1. Most Western political thinkers, in contrast, participate in Discourse #2, whose main indisputables flow from what he has called the Great Modern Western Epistemological Revolution, or GMWER, though some Western thinkers persist in a more old-fashioned search for true political principles that Metzger calls Discourse #3.1
  • How Serious is Our Divergence

    Angle, Stephen C. (SelectedWorks, 2008-01-01)
    Near the beginning of his magisterial A Cloud Across the Pacific, Thomas Metzger sums up what he calls his “paradoxical combination of reflexivity with cultural patterns” as follows: This book is based on the premise that thinking about how to improve political life cannot be the product of either a closed cultural system or of reason as a uniform cognitive faculty with which all persons try to apprehend and reflect on objective realities or universal principles. Insisting that both dimensions are paradoxically combined in everyone’s thinking, I take issues with two groups — the Western scholars fascinated just with culture, and the many Western and Chinese intellectuals who today still largely ignore how reflexivity is shaped by disparate cultural patterns. [Metzger 2005, p. 13-14] Another key feature of Metzger’s approach is to focus on “discourses,” his label for the language, concerns, and “indisputables” that various “we-groups” share. That is, people who mutually recognize one another as part of a community share certain commitments that they find indisputably reasonable, not standing in need of justification. A central thesis of A Cloud Across the Pacific is that Chinese political thinkers in the twentieth century, whatever their differences, virtually all are members of a single community whose mode of expression he labels Discourse #1. Most Western political thinkers, in contrast, participate in Discourse #2, whose main indisputables flow from what he has called the Great Modern Western Epistemological Revolution, or GMWER, though some Western thinkers persist in a more old-fashioned search for true political principles that Metzger calls Discourse #3.1
  • How Serious is Our Divergence

    Angle, Stephen C. (SelectedWorks, 2008-01-01)
    Near the beginning of his magisterial A Cloud Across the Pacific, Thomas Metzger sums up what he calls his “paradoxical combination of reflexivity with cultural patterns” as follows: This book is based on the premise that thinking about how to improve political life cannot be the product of either a closed cultural system or of reason as a uniform cognitive faculty with which all persons try to apprehend and reflect on objective realities or universal principles. Insisting that both dimensions are paradoxically combined in everyone’s thinking, I take issues with two groups — the Western scholars fascinated just with culture, and the many Western and Chinese intellectuals who today still largely ignore how reflexivity is shaped by disparate cultural patterns. [Metzger 2005, p. 13-14] Another key feature of Metzger’s approach is to focus on “discourses,” his label for the language, concerns, and “indisputables” that various “we-groups” share. That is, people who mutually recognize one another as part of a community share certain commitments that they find indisputably reasonable, not standing in need of justification. A central thesis of A Cloud Across the Pacific is that Chinese political thinkers in the twentieth century, whatever their differences, virtually all are members of a single community whose mode of expression he labels Discourse #1. Most Western political thinkers, in contrast, participate in Discourse #2, whose main indisputables flow from what he has called the Great Modern Western Epistemological Revolution, or GMWER, though some Western thinkers persist in a more old-fashioned search for true political principles that Metzger calls Discourse #3.1
  • Confucian Leadership Meets Confucian Democracy

    Angle, Stephen C. (SelectedWorks, 2016-01-01)
    Many famous images of the inspirational, almost magical character of Confucian leadership seem very distant from any idea of democracy. Some modern Confucian celebrate this distance, arguing that modern Confucian polities should be ruled by elites, and perhaps that these elites should be venerated in something like the traditional way.3 Confucian democrats, in contrast, hold that the roles of Confucian political leaders must be rethought, just as the modern Confucian polity must shift from a monarchy to a constitutional democracy. This does not mean that modern Confucians must turn their backs on traditional Confucian views of leadership: the key traditional insights are still important, although to some degree they take on new significance in the new context of modern democratic Confucianism. In this essay I will articulate and defend this democratic vision of leadership; I make my case in four steps. First, drawing on recent work by Joseph Chan and Elton Chan, I outline a traditional Confucian view of the “inspirational” leader, and examine the view that process and institutions played a decidedly secondary role in traditional Confucianism. Second, I unpack and then critique Jiwei Ci’s argument that Confucian leadership rests on an “identification model” of agency that is incompatible with democracy. Third, I build on some of the argument from my book Contemporary Confucian Political Philosophy: Toward Progressive Confucianism to the effect that modern Confucians need to resolve a tension within traditional Confucianism by embracing a person-based democracy instead of mass-based authoritarianism. Finally, I conclude by making explicit why Confucian democracies still need leaders playing roles that are very much in the spirit of traditional leadership.
  • The status of non-citizens : equivalence between platonic and contemporary citizenship

    South African Society for Greek Philosophy and the Humanities; Maritz, P.J. (Petrus Jacobus) (South African Society for Greek Philosophy and the Humanities, 2009-10-07)
    Appears in Phronimon, Volume 2 Number 1(2000)
  • Relativisme as epistemologiese probleem

    alex.antonites@up.ac.za; Antonites, Alex J. (Suid Afrikaanse Akademie vir Wetenskap & Kuns, 2007-05-15)
    Relativism is examined as it manifests itself in two phases. Both regard the contextuality of culture as normative. The second and post-modern phase deconstructs the normative epistemological role of the world and situates normativity completely in the community. This is the crux of the current relativist debate. Rorty's view on dualism is examined. It is concluded that relativism's equation of objectivity with objectivism is untenable and that certainty alone is insufficient to guarantee reliable knowledge. Positive insights of the second relativist phase are the non-algorithmic and unforced agreement of scientists. The total divergence and asymmetry thesis is incompatible with the universality of logic and other theoretical values. Relativism does not sufficiently account for the success and progress of science.
  • Aristotelies-filosofiese invloede by die Sinode van Dordt (1618–1619) en die bevrydende perspektief van 'n Reformatoriese filosofie op goddelike soewereiniteit en menslike verantwoordelikheid

    Van der Walt, B.J. (Suid-Afrikaanse Akademie vir Wetenskap en Kuns, 2016-04-15)
    The clash between the Reformed and Arminian parties at the Synod of Dort (1618-1619) and its Canons (1619) can be explained philosophically as the result of different interpretations of the philosophy ofthe pre-Christian Greek philosopher, Aristotle (384-322 BC), which were sanctioned through the methods of eisegesis-exegesis and nature-grace.1 The present article firstly investigates more in detail Aristotle's philosophy, especially his idea about being, God, doctrine of causality and syllogistic logic. It will explain why this pre-Christian thinker's philosophy (which experienced a revival in Europe from about 1500 to 1650) was attractive to Reformed theologians of the 17th century. At the same time the investigation will reveal the impossibility to achieve a synthesis between an unbiblical philosophy and the Bible when looking for a solution to the problem of divine sovereignty and human responsibility. Therefore, the second main part of this contribution provides an alternative to this age-old problem from the perspective of a Reformational philosophy, founded on God's revelation in his creation and in his Word. The study develops in the following way. The first main section contains an attempt to provide a brief summary of Aristotle's philosophy, mainly derived from his book De mundo, as well as secondary sources. The following aspects are analysed. First his hierarchical ontology or "great chain of being", from the lowest form of being to the godhead, from pure matter (an abstraction) to pure form, from a lack of being to the perfect being (god) are described. Although it does not seem so on the face of it, this is a purely cosmological philosophy, a static way of thinking in which everything has a fixed place in an ontological hierarchy. Secondly, Aristotle's view of god is investigated against his dualistic ontology, dividing reality in two parts, namely, transcendent (god) and non-transcendent (the cosmos). According to Aristotle his god is the first mover or cause, while he himself is immovable, as well as the final aim of everything. As an entirely self-centred and dispassionate being, no religious relationship with him is possible. Apart from superficial similarities between this notion of the divine and that of the Bible, Scripture does not proclaim a deus immutabilis, but a God fully participating in his creation. God's Word also does not teach about a predetermined human being, but a responsible one. In the third place Aristotle's hierarchical and dualistic ontology is causally determined. He distinguishes four different basic causes and explains reality from the transcendent god above to the lowest reality as a chain of cause and effect. In the light of biblical revelation God, however, cannot be regarded as a cause since the relationship of cause and effect is of a cosmic nature. Created reality is also much richer than simply a chain of causes and their consequences. In the fourth place it is argued that Aristotle's syllogistic reasoning cannot be applied to the Biblical concept of God, since he transcends human logical categories. The second and third last phases of Aristotle's development are especially insightful in the light of the philosophical conceptions of Gomarus (1563-1641) and Arminius (1560-1609), discussed in the preceding article in this journal (Van der Walt 2011). Gomarus' philosophical conception, underlying his theology, is in every aspect identical to Aristotle's third last conception (intellectualistic semi-mysticism). And Arminius 'final conception is exactly the same as the second last phase of Aristotle's development (inconsistent empiricism). The only difference being that Aristotle was a pre-Christian thinker, while these two theologians were synthetic Christian thinkers from the 17th century. The significant conclusion is that the real controversy at Dort was not that between the (correct and wrong) interpretations of the Bible of the two opposing parties, but a struggle between different interpretations of the pagan philosopher, Aristotle, possibly based on different phases in his thinking. As mentioned above, the second main section of this investigation is an attempt to find a genuine, Reformational answer to the relationship between God and mankind. The Christian philosopher, D.H.Th. Vollenhoven (1892-1978), provided a starting-point with a new ontology and his definition of religion as "the relationship of humankind to the God of the covenant in obedience or disobedience to his fundamental law of love". His viewpoint is explained as a liberating alternative to that of Reformed Scholasticism at Dort, based on Aristotle's philosophy. Instead of religion being viewed as something supernatural and mystic, and thus only part of human life, Vollenhoven regards religion as an inherent part of human existence, encompassing every aspect of human life. It can, however, be either directed in obedience to God's law of love or in disobedience. In conclusion it is mentioned that the Canons of Dort were initially intended to be a judgement, butfinally they became accepted as a confession. Following a brief discussion about how Reformed people today view the authority of this creed, new creeds or testimonies are suggested which, instead offocussing on dogmatic-ecclesiastical controversies, formulate human beings' various responsibilities in God's worldwide kingdom in different spheres of life. If this happens, the relationship between the sovereign God and the human being's responsibility can be expressed in a new, inspiring way in the contemporary world
  • Genesis 1-11 und Platos Symposion Überlegungen zum Austausch von hebräischem und griechischem Sprach- und Gedankengut in der Klassik und im Hellenismus

    Dafni, Evangelia G. (Old Testament Society of South Africa, 2007-08-28)
    Plato's teachings have never lost their dominance in the intellectual scene or the general education system of the Hellenistic world. Therefore one cannot seriously dispute the encounter of the Old Testamental thoughts with Plato's thoughts. The crucial question is: Did the Septuagint (LXX) manage to absorb linguistic forms from Plato's work without at the same time absording basic Platonic, philosophical concepts? The LXX translators wanted to proclaim the Old Testament belief to the Hellenistic world via the Greek language. At the same time they wanted to prevent that polytheistic concepts were introduced into the world of the Old Testament via the language. The LXX has thus adopted the refined forms of expression of Plato's work, which represents the first and only completely handed-down philosophic work of the antique Greeks, and changed them as necessary. The Platonic linguistic forms in the LXX can be seen as a type of Old Testamental meta-language of great theological importance. This meta-language was created due to philosophic reflection about linguistic and mental constructs of the Old Testament.
  • Platos Symposion und die Septuagintafassung von Genesis 2,23f. Methodische Überlegungen zum Austausch von hebräischem und griechischem Sprach- und edankengutin der Klassik und im Hellenismus

    Dafni, Evangelia G. (Old Testament Society of South Africa, 2007-08-27)
    There is no doubt, that a meeting of minds and languages between the Ancient Greeks and the people of the Old Testament took place in the Classical as well as in the Hellenistic period. This fact finds expression especially in the Platonic works. But how did Plato come to consult and criticize very particular Old Testamental formulations and arguments in his works? And how did the Hebrew Scriptures and their Septuagint translators face his endeavour to understand and explain the Hebrew theological and anthropological thought? My purpose in writing this article is to give some methodological insights into this problem field using as concrete examples the Septuagint version of Gen 2,23f. and the speech of Phaidros in the Platonic Symposion (178a-180b). Special attention has also been paid to the tragedy Alcestis of Euripides.
  • Confucian Leadership Meets Confucian Democracy

    Angle, Stephen C. (SelectedWorks, 2016-01-01)
    Many famous images of the inspirational, almost magical character of Confucian leadership seem very distant from any idea of democracy. Some modern Confucian celebrate this distance, arguing that modern Confucian polities should be ruled by elites, and perhaps that these elites should be venerated in something like the traditional way.3 Confucian democrats, in contrast, hold that the roles of Confucian political leaders must be rethought, just as the modern Confucian polity must shift from a monarchy to a constitutional democracy. This does not mean that modern Confucians must turn their backs on traditional Confucian views of leadership: the key traditional insights are still important, although to some degree they take on new significance in the new context of modern democratic Confucianism. In this essay I will articulate and defend this democratic vision of leadership; I make my case in four steps. First, drawing on recent work by Joseph Chan and Elton Chan, I outline a traditional Confucian view of the “inspirational” leader, and examine the view that process and institutions played a decidedly secondary role in traditional Confucianism. Second, I unpack and then critique Jiwei Ci’s argument that Confucian leadership rests on an “identification model” of agency that is incompatible with democracy. Third, I build on some of the argument from my book Contemporary Confucian Political Philosophy: Toward Progressive Confucianism to the effect that modern Confucians need to resolve a tension within traditional Confucianism by embracing a person-based democracy instead of mass-based authoritarianism. Finally, I conclude by making explicit why Confucian democracies still need leaders playing roles that are very much in the spirit of traditional leadership.

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