Сотрудничество Китая, Японии и Южной Кореи в области безопасности
Author(s)МУРАТШИНА КСЕНИЯ ГЕННАДЬЕВНА
KeywordsЯПОНИЯ,КИТАЙ,РЕСПУБЛИКА КОРЕЯ,СОТРУДНИЧЕСТВО В ОБЛАСТИ БЕЗОПАСНОСТИ,JAPAN,REPUBLIC OF KOREA,SECURITY COOPERATION,CHINA
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AbstractИсследуется проблема наметившегося взаимодействия в сфере безопасности трех ведущих государств Восточной Азии КНР, РК и Японии. Страны сотрудничают в рамках трех типов форматов двустороннем, трехстороннем и многостороннем. Рассматриваются проекты, особенности сотрудничества в каждом из них, проблемы и перспективы взаимоотношений государств в данном контексте. Исследование выполнено с использованием значительного количества источников, включая дипломатические документы и актуальные материалы китайских, японских, южнокорейских, российских и западных СМИ.
The article is devoted to the analysis of security cooperation between the People's Republic of China, the Republic of Korea and Japan, as the three most powerful East Asian states. The cooperation is carried out in the framework of bilateral, trilateral and multilateral formats. The trilateral format is outlined first, as the most promising one, provided that all three states are equally presented. Earlier it had been involving mostly economic and cultural ties, but in 2008 the parties expanded their links to the sphere of nuclear security. They agreed to carry out information exchange and share the experience in the field of nuclear security and disaster management. However, the first joint exercises, scheduled for 2014, were called off. Furthermore, ROK claimed that a more multinational nuclear security institution should be founded in Northeast Asia. Considering the official documents of trilateral format, the above-mentioned initiatives are the only example of distinctive joint projects, that demonstrates the limits of security interaction and the lack of trust. The latter is primarily caused by severe territorial conflicts between the parties, along with the historical "debts" of Japan the inhuman crimes of World War II and colonial rule in Korea. These "hurdles" prevent the states from close security interaction in bilateral formats. Japan and South Korea do exchange observers and hold military and non-military joint exercises, but in 2012 ROK refused to sign joint military agreements, and an agreement on exchanging information on DPRK nuclear program was signed only in 2014 with the USA as the third party. The security cooperation between China and South Korea was initiated by PRC and demonstrated a bright start, but, taking into account PRC DPRK close ties, it looks a bit more like double dealing. China seems to be seeking the opportunity to affect South Korean relations with Japan and the US. Finally, multilateral formats include the Six-party talks on DPRK nuclear program and the meeting of deputy ministers of defense of Northeast Asian states. The latter has not provided any prominent results yet, however, it has at least become an important meeting point to discuss urgent questions regardless any current tensions. And the first started in 2003, but suspended in 2009 at the initiative of Pyongyang. The talks prevented Koreas from large-scale military conflict, although nothing did stop DPRK from carrying on with its nuclear and space programs. Thus, nuclear security and disaster management cooperation turn out to be the only example of relatively successful, dynamic and equal ties between China, Japan and ROK. Although trilateral security ties would help to bridge the misunderstanding gap between them, being essential for regional stability, the current situation is different. The cooperation experience is low, the bilateral interaction formats oppose each other, that does not contribute to regional security and mutual understanding.