The Philosophical Ethics collection gathers resources about major themes in philosophical ethics (abbr φethics), with a list of some major philosophers' personal webpage, in order to discover φethics, as close as possible to the author and to the dynamic of his latest research.

Recent Submissions

  • The Animal Clue to In-signifying Power: the Case of El Eternauta

    Valeria Wagner (Iberoamericana / Vervuert, 2020-03-01)
    This paper focuses on tangential figurations of the “animal question”. Starting from the difficulty to avoid reproducing the Great Divides that Donna Haraway observes in many theorists in the field of animal studies, and from Cornelius Castoriadis’ analysis of the institution and reproduction of power divisions, I follow the animal trail in some of Marx’s methodological reflexions and in the science fiction Argentinian comic El Eternauta (1957-59) by Héctor G. Oesterheld and Solano López.
  • GS o mirar los cuerpos sociales y emociones desde Georg Simmel

    Maya Aguiluz Ibargüen (Universidad de Ciencias y Artes de Chiapas, 2005-03-01)
    El artículo pone de relieve los vínculos existentes entre las claves
 de Georg Simmel sobre la constitución de lo social y la socialidad respecto a los cambios tecnológicos, arreglos culturales, campos discursivos y estructuras de percepción que se entretejieron alcanzando la vida social de las ciudades europeas y de los circuitos moderno-capitalistas del siglo XIX.
  • Entre o procedimento formal e o conteúdo selvagem: imanência e democracia em Jürgen Habermas e Antonio Negri

    Pedro Luiz Lima (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 2017-12-01)
    A partir de uma análise crítico-comparativa das teorias da democracia de Jürgen Habermas e Antonio Negri, o presente artigo busca esclarecer os fundamentos conceituais de ambas as obras, tomando como eixo a discussão sobre o modo pelo qual suas concepções de democracia se inscrevem, cada uma, em seu respectivo plano de imanência. Com a premissa de que a leitura cruzada desses dois autores favorece uma mais aguda compreensão dos componentes estruturantes, implicações normativas e limites de suas teorias, objetiva-se situá-las como alternativas distintas (deliberação/substância), e potencialmente complementares (entendido o consenso como forma e conteúdo), para se pensar a questão democrática contemporânea.
  • Max Weber e a corrente neoweberiana na sociologia das profissões

    Aldo Antonio Schmitz (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 2014-07-01)
    O ensaio trata da sociologia das profissões na obra de Max Weber, vinculada aos estudos da corrente neoweberiana, em especial dos sociólogos Eliot Freidson e Magali Larson. Justifica-se pelas potenciais contribuições ao suporte teórico para a compreensão do mundo do trabalho, visto que em Weber as profissões, o profissionalismo e a profissionalização são temas de suas abordagens no processo de racionalização e que os neoweberianos revisam e validam os estudos e a metodologia sociológica weberiana. O objetivo deste trabalho é verificar como as suas análises teóricas, empíricas e críticas concorrem para a sociologia das profissões. Porquanto, realizamos uma pesquisa exploratória para garimpar referências e concepções, capazes de formar um prontuário básico de estudo das profissões e da profissionalização, apoiado em Weber e na corrente neoweberiana.
  • A Racionalidade de Max Weber e a fabricalização das instituições de ensino superior privadas

    Edson Paiva Soares Neto; Andréa Bittencourt Pires Chaves (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 2018-12-01)
    A presente discussão apreciará como a sociologia clássica, sob a voz de Max Weber (1864-1920) pode suscitar a investigação científica crítica a respeito da natureza do Capitalismo e das organizações empresariais no século XXI. Para o estudo, realizou-se pesquisa de campo em Belém-Pará, com uso de entrevistas e observação das práticas docentes; o Método Compreensivo e o recurso heurístico denominado de tipo ideal para analisar a denominada fabricalização das Instituições de Ensino Superior Privadas no âmbito brasileiro, como expressão fenomênica modelada pelo paradigma burocrático e o acirramento do empresariamento da educação superior brasileira (gestão com fins econômicos e lucrativos) que se propõe a traduzir: o agudo processo de racionalidade técnica e científica, sob a lógica da valorização dos ganhos de capital e os seus impactos nas formas de dominação e controle na gestão dos trabalhadores docentes.
  • Partidos políticos: da visão dos clássicos aos desafios da (pós?) modernidade

    José Carlos Mendonça (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 2008-01-01)
    A partir da constatação de que a crise da modernidade no plano político colocou em questão todo o arsenal da política moderna, este artigo examina um aspecto deste arsenal questionado: a chamada crise das organizações partidárias. Inicia por contextualizar historicamente a evolução dos partidos políticos modernos no que diz respeito ao tratamento teórico dado por Karl Marx e Max Weber acerca do que são e que funções cumprem os partidos políticos; em seguida apresenta alguns dos principais pontos da crise que desafiam a continuidade histórica desta forma organizativa. Conclui apontando os condicionamentos atuais e as distintas possibilidades de futuro tanto para o partido marxiano, como também para o partido conforme teorizado por Weber.
  • Tensões e ambigüidades em Walter Benjamin: a modernidade em questão

    Maria de Fátima Costa de Paula (Universidade de São Paulo (USP), 1994-12-01)
    Este trabalho versa sobre o modo como Walter Benjamin pensa a questão da modernidade, sob a ótica das tensões e ambiguidades, atribuindo-lhe um caráter simultâneo de tempo do inferno, da catástrofe, e tempo da salvação. O autor analisado mostra-nos, na modernidade, a coexistência de polos e categorias opostas, como vivência x experiência, esquecimento x memória, flâneur x passante, embora aponte-nos o predomínio de determinadas categorias sobre outras. Nesse sentido, Benjamin analisa a modernidade sob o ponto de vista da ambiguidade e da contradição, mostrando-nos o mundo moderno na sua dupla faceta: a que desumaniza o homem, tornando-o um autômato, e a que aponta um caminho para sua re-humanização. A primeira parte do texto trata da tensão entre memória e esquecimento no mundo moderno, ressaltando as ambiguidades da perda da experiência e da aura. A segunda parte refere-se à tensão entre flâneur e passante, indivíduo e multidão, nas grandes cidades
  • A questão universitária em Max Weber: entre escritos metodológicos e Sociologia Política

    Mariana Toledo Ferreira (Universidade de São Paulo (USP), 2015-06-01)
    O presente artigo busca tratar da concepção de educação em Max Weber e, mais especificamente, em como ele aborda a questão universitária, em uma série de seus escritos. Além de textos mais conhecidos, tal qual Ciência como vocação, o estudo incorpora conferências e artigos de intervenção escritos por Weber e alguns de seus trabalhos identificados com sua Sociologia Política. Assim, se o processo de desencantamento do mundo é vital para que se consiga interpretar os diagnósticos elaborados à época, também ocupam lugar central o papel do docente e o conceito de probidade intelectual. Analogamente, o avanço da burocracia – em alguns casos, de maneira a cercear o trabalho intelectual e acadêmico – é tematizado pelo autor, notadamente pela análise crítica do “caso Bernhard” e do “sistema Althoff”. Este artigo busca, então, retraçar essas discussões de Weber, inserindo-as em um quadro analítico mais amplo, ao relacionar sua discussão sobre a educação a conceitos elaborados tanto no âmbito de sua Sociologia da religião quanto de sua Sociologia política. Por fim, delineia-se brevemente o modo como Weber reflete sobre o sentido da liberdade, sobretudo aquela de cunho acadêmico, para destacar a relevância que assumiriam formas de organização dos professores que pudessem atuar em defesa da autonomia exigida pelo trabalho científico-intelectual sério.
  • Florestan Fernandes e o conceito de patrimonialismo na compreensão do Brasil

    Aristeu Portela Júnior (Universidade de São Paulo (USP), 2012-12-01)
    O conceito de patrimonialismo é central nos modos habituais de se interpretar e analisar o Brasil. Sujeito a uma utilização nem sempre rigorosa, objeto de contestações quanto à sua validade analítica, ele precisa ser retomado de modo sistemático para que se possam delinear seus potenciais e suas limitações quanto à compreensão da sociedade brasileira e de sua história. O presente trabalho busca iniciar esse esforço, retomando tanto a conceituação original de Max Weber quanto a análise que Florestan Fernandes realiza do processo de constituição de nossa sociedade nacional. Buscou-se, assim, mostrar que Fernandes, ao apontar para o caráter não monolítico do Estado brasileiro, ao qual se associa, muitas vezes, a noção de patrimonialismo, supera limitações presentes nos modos mais habituais de utilização do conceito, abrindo novas possibilidades analíticas.
  • El estado de excepción en la época actual

    César Alejandro Flores Díaz (Instituto Electoral del Estado de México, 2014-01-01)
    En este ensayo se propone hacer una lectura sobre el estado de excepción a partir de las reflexiones de Walter Benjamin y Carl Schmitt, de cuyas ideas se presentan coincidencias y diferencias. A lo largo de esta exposición, la pregunta que guía nuestra lectura es: ¿quién tiene el poder para interponer el estado de excepción actualmente? Desde los ataques del 11 de septiembre, la “guerra contra el terror” mutó. La Ley Patriótica, establecida después de los ataques por los Estados Unidos de Norteamérica, es conocida sobre todo por permitir medidas que autorizan el encarcelamiento, juicio o, incluso, procesamiento por un periodo de tiempo indeterminado. La Ley Patriótica fue el punto de ruptura con el que se estableció la frontera entre un antes y un después en el pensamiento jurídico y político en el mundo. De esta manera, el cruce de la frontera que se dio el 11 de septiembre obliga a la población a acceder a la suspensión de sus libertades individuales. Todo el proceso puede ser resumido de la siguiente manera: con la Ley Patriótica, la excepción deviene la regla; con su renovación, la temporalidad deviene permanente. Por último, partiendo de esta premisa, se analizan los casos mexicanos de la “guerra contra las drogas” y la “guerra contra la delincuencia organizada”. / The purpose of this paper is to offer a reading over the state of exception from the perspectives of Walter Benjamin and Carl Schmitt, presenting coincidences and differences. Through his work, the main question gui-ding our intent points is: ¿who has the power to invoke the state of ex-ception actually? Since the attack of September 11 the “war against terror” changed. The Patriot Act, established after the attacks for United States of American, is known above all for the provisions that authorize the impri-sonment, for an indeterminate period of time and trial or even indictment. The Patriot Act was to point to a rupture that had occurred, to establish a boundary between a before and an after in juridical and political thoughts in the world. The crossing of this boundary an September 11 thus, in effect, compels the population to consent to the relinquishment of its individual liberties. The whole process can be summarized as follows: with the Patriot Act, the exception becomes the rule; with its renewal, the temporary beco-mes permanent. Finally, starting from this premise, are analyzed the Mexi-can cases of the “war against drugs” and the “war against organized crime”.
  • Técnicas de amplificatio en el Muqtabis de Ibn Hayyan

    Luis Molina (Universidad de Extremadura, 2006-10-01)
    Analysis of how the tenth century Cordovan chronicler Ibn Hayyan (987-1076) textually treated the passages which he copied from elder authors to elaborate his Muqtabis. From the study of the transmission of three texts from biographical dictionaries emerges that Ibn Hayyan rhetorically amplified the texts he reproduced.
  • The Age of World Film: Guy Debord and the defence of the Notion of The Society of the Spectacle

    Dario Vuger (Center for Philosophy of Media and Media Research, 2019-05-01)
    In this paper, the author will offer a new and specofoc reading of the contemporary media society, the society as it is understood by some of the most prominent thinkers of the media-economy like Jonathan Beller and Jinathan Crary, but here with a foundatiin in late situationist thought of the first french philosopher of the media, Guy Debord. Film as the media and the symptom of the contemporary society takes an essential place in the thought of Guy Debord, that of the mixture of both theory and practice in the thorough deconstruction of the conditions of production of the theory and practice as a socially engaged and progressive construct. No film is, therefore, more difficult than its era. It is exactly the Debords film Refutation of All the Judgments, Pro or Con, Thus Far Rendered on the Film “The Society of the Spectacle” a notible work and a description of the time in close relationship with the Age of the World Image, written by Martin Heidegger with the more or less same didactic intent.
  • Traces of Sadra's View on the Role of the Universe of Imagination in Resurrection in Ibn Arabi's Mysticism

    Morteza Hosseini Shahroudi; Mahdieh Nezakati Ali Asghari; Ali reza Kohansal (University of Isfahan, 2019-05-01)
    With the affirmation of the words of Ibn Arabi and Mulla Sadra, which either arise from their common benefit in verses and traditions as a common source or based on Mulla Sadra's belief in the originality of existence, which is equal to the unity of Ibn Arabi's existence, that Mulla Sadra believes this idea is based on the theory of Gradation, substantial movement and Ibn Arabi believes this idea is based on perpetual creation theory, the manifestation of the shadowy existence and the ultra-rationality of some perceptions of presence in the discussion of the universe of imagination. We must say that both are present in the universe of imagination, its characteristics, its types and levels, the effect and significance of this universe in two arcs of descent and ascension, its role in epistemology, ontology. <br />The results of the background of Mulla Sadra's views on Ibn 'Arabi's views about on imagination and its role in post-death universe are; 1- In some cases, they speak with verses and traditions; like (A) The existence of the general public at the initial level of imagination. B) the benefit of each person from the truth to the amount of capacity. (C) The nature of death. 2. In some cases, each according to the mystical and philosophical basis have own opinion, Such as Ibn Arabi, who manifests with grace and Mulla Sadra a) on the basis of the originality of existence, which equates to the unity of existence that is the mystical basis of Ibn Arabi<sup><sup>[1]</sup></sup> which these views are based on the idea of monotheism and the belief in the existence of a true trick. <br />B) with the help of Gradation in arch of descent and substantial movement in the arc of the ascension, which sparks of this theory are seen in the Ibn Arabi perpetual creation. C) By conveying the same equilibrium of two arches, they explain and prove, such as A) the universe of imagination and its degree. B) The location of the connected fancy and the disconnected fancy. C) Compliance and non-conformance of horn with out. D) mediating the imagination power between nature and the universe. E) Make changes. 3. In some cases, Mulla Sadra's innovations are clearly visible; for example (A) Attention to the power to create the power of imagination in the incorporeity. B) the type of connection of the imagination with the soul. C) the difference between the disconnected fancy world and the universe of ghosts like Platonic Norie and its reason. D) creativity of the soul towards the horn.E ) horn location. F) The existenceof Gradation of Ranks of power , talent, perfection and super perfection in the mode of imagination. 4. In some cases, in principle, the opinions are in agreement with each other and differ only in the manner of expression; such as: A) Understanding the nature of imagination through degrees. B) The relationship between the fancies and the imagination. (C) The existence of a suitable universe with horndepending on the existence of horn. D) the existence of the imaginary world in two arcs of descent and ascension. E) Similarity of the world of fantasy with divine power. F) The relationship of the soul with the imagination. G) The role of imagination at death. H) the evolution of the power of the soul. I) the meaning of death and its types. (I) the dignity and types and survival of the souls in the afterlife. <br />The attention of Ibn Arabi and Mulla Sadra to the importance of the role of imagination in the two arches of descent and ascension, the occurrence of death and resurrection, is that by help of the verses and traditions, the monotheistic beliefs and the belief in the unity of existence, which is the beginning and end of everything, also based on Substantial Motion, Soul Completion, and Perpetual creation, believe that the imagination in the arch of descent, with the incarnation of the divine spirit and spirits, causing emersion the world of meanings in the physical world, manifestation, the advent of the Most High God in the universe. It is also considered as the treasury of tangibles. That is why the tangible world is not intrinsic, and the manifestations and verses are the transcendental truth that refers symbolically to these truths. But in the arc of ascension, the imagination of the advent of the right in the figurative, the revelations, asking help of divine inspiration in the universe, provided the field of the ascension of bodies from the world of shadows into the world of pure light by death, which is the relationship between the two lives and the transfer of the soul to the next world and disintegration Body. Death, in his view, occurs in two types of voluntary, natural and sudden occurrences that reveal the facts. He by prove the virtue of imagination and explaining the role of imagination and its significance in the transmission of creations from this world to the other world, indicating the stages of death, horn, grave, and Soul Completion that for deactive soul as individual in the form of imagination and for active soul as survival in the form of rational. <br />Ibn Arabi and Mulla Sadra, although in the transition of soul to another world, have the same convictions, but they have different opinions about the quality of this transition. Mulla Sadra believes that human beings, like all other material objects in the world, began to develop the stages of perfection from an elementary element, then into a inanimates, vegetative, animal, touching, and a taste and smell, and hearing, and vision, and at last, to the weakness of the existence which in The Prophet's hadith is said to be "Ajab al-Zanb", which ends up. Ibn Arabi, who believes that the soul of Nateqah in this world is the manifestation of a comprehensive divine name and divine between divine attributes, and, in other words, a comprehensive one, believes that, in the end, the transfer of this generous landlord to the landlord with the accompaniment of "Ajab al-Zanb " will be done. Ibn Arabi, who believes that the rational soul in this world is the manifestation of a comprehensive divine name and limbo between divine attributes, and, in other words, a comprehensive one, believes that, in the end, the transfer of this generous landlord with the accompaniment of "Ajab al-Zanb " will be done. <br />Although they differ in the meaning of "ajab al-zanb", but the onset of the death of most people and their transfer to the disconnected fancy world are considered by the connected fancy and They believe that with the power of imagination, the dead man and buried in the grave sees his essence as physically and as it was in the world, and perceives the suffering for punishment and Blessings for rewarding, such as sleep. In Ibn 'Arabi's view, it is accompanied by the same power that at the stability of the truth of each object, causes a variety of appearance, and as a result of the emergence of stability of each object causes diversity and transformation in the afterworld and This transformation and evolution will continue so that the soul will be separated from the imagination and the intellect will be spent. One of the differences in their views on the importance of imagination in the afterworld and the stages of resurrection is in the place of horn that Ibn Arabi finds the place of the horn form outside the soul and Mulla Sadra believes in the soul that difference made them different opinions about the rest of the resurrection and the place of paradise and hell. <br />In short, it must be admitted in several sentences that, although based on the affidavits, the commonalities, similarities, and coordinations are observed in their opinions about the world of imagination; but the fundamental difference between the two in the creation of the horn, which Mulla Sadra considers soul and Ibn Arabi considers out of soul, should not be forgotten that this deep and rooted difference has caused differences in the explanation of the other stages of resurrection between them. <br /><br clear="all" /> <br /> <br />[1] . Ibn Arabi considers unity and the principle of being one.
  • The hysteron/proteron of Time

    Diana María Acevedo Zapata (Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 2015-12-01)
    Passage 218b21-219a of Aristotle’s Physics has led to the formulation of a concept of time that is determined by the perceptual conditions of the psyche. The paper shows that the conditions for perception, that which is prior, closer to the senses, and better known by human beings, are just the starting point for the investigation. The point of arrival is the necessary connection between the existence of time and change. The perception of change in the case of the sleeping Sardinian heroes makes it possible to determine those elements involved in the experience of time and, subsequently, those that make up the existence of the same.
  • A Brief Prehistory of Philosophical Paraconsistency

    William H. F. Altman (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 2010-01-01)
    Celebrando o papel de Newton da Costa na história da paraconsistência, este trabalho examina o uso e abuso da deliberada auto-contradição. Iniciado por Parmênides, desenvolvido por Platão, e continuado por Cícero, uma antiga tradição filosófica usava deliberadamente discursos paraconsistentes para revelar a verdade. Nos tempos modernos, o decisionismo tem usado uma deliberada auto-contradição contra a revelação Judaico-Cristão
  • On the Dialogue of Aesthetics and Philosophical Anthropology

    Georgia APOSTOLOPOULOU (Armenian State Pedagogical University, 2018-06-01)
    After the alleged ‘ends’ of metaphysics, of history, and of art, aesthetics reorganises the field of its enquiry. While retaining the question of the meaning of art for the human as the background justification of its theorising, aesthetics meets philosophical anthropology and enlarges its field. Philosophical anthropology explains that the instability of the human condition demands culture as the artificial stabilisation of the human world as well as of the human in the world. Expressivity, artificiality, and the aesthetic are interweaved with the meaning of the human world. In this context, pictures have priority over concepts and justify art as the eminent pictorial form of meaning. Since the human lives in nature and culture, the stabilisation of its open world is possible through creation of spatial correlates and of objects as well. Thus, aesthetics does need to expand enquiry beyond the discourse on art, so that it includes the issues concerning the aesthetic character of the human world and its spatial correlates. While Wolfgang Welsch and Richard Shusterman argue for a revision of aesthetics, Joseph Margolis and Helmuth Plessner support the stronger dialogue between philosophical anthropology and aesthetics in different ways. Further, Arnold Berleant explores aesthetics of human space.
  • Ibn Sínův Živý, syn Bdícího: překlad a komentář

    Kropáček, Luboš; Ondráš, František; Vitásková, Magdaléna (2010)
    English Summary The present study consists of two main parts, namely translation and commentary of the philosophical-mystical recital Hayy ibn Yaqdhan (The Living, Son of the Vigilant). The author is a significant philosopher of the Islamic East Ibn Síná (980-1037), whose biography is a part of this study. Although this treatise is not his most famous work, it belongs for its strong narrative aspects, aesthetic values and depth of the symbolism to brilliant writings of classical Arabic literature. The commentary is divided into chapters that correspond to the themes contained in the treatise. The main motive represents the journey of human intellect, who is guided by the Active intellect personified in the figure of The Living, son of the Vigilant towards a higher knowledge. Once the rational soul has realized its angelic potential sets on an intelectual journey into the world of the separated forms, which is finally crowned with a vision of God. Ibn Sīnā presents through this symbolic story central elements of his teachings, namely the theory of intellect, psychology and epistemology, the theory of matter and form, cosmology, emanation theory, angelology ant theology. The secret motive and philosophical-mystical message of the treatise is love, which is as an ascending principle of the creation opposite to...
  • Repugnancy in the Arab World

    Hamoudi, Haider Ala (Scholarship@PITT LAW, 2012-01-01)
    “Repugnancy clauses” -- those constitutional provisions that, in language that varies from nation to nation, require legislation to conform to some core conception of Islam -- are all the rage these days. This clause, a relatively recent addition to many modern constitutions, has emerged as a central focus of academic writing on Muslim state constitutions generally, and on Arab constitutions in particular. Much of the attention it has received has been enlightening and erudite. Yet one aspect of the broader repugnancy discourse that deserves some attention is an important, often de facto, temporal limitation on the effect of the clause. There appears to be a rising sentiment that repugnancy in the Arab world should not apply to legislation enacted prior to the date that the repugnancy clause was inserted into the constitution. Irrespective of electoral results throughout the region heavily favoring parties that seek a more robust role for shari'a in public life, the trend seem to be growing deeper roots. This is particularly ironic because the non-retroactive canon is fundamentally incoherent, both from the perspective of constitutional structure as well as substantive policy. As to the former, surely a constitutional amendment of this sort must generally have retroactive effect. It would make little sense to amend a constitution to grant all citizens equal protection under the law and then for a court to suggest that existing slavery laws might be exempted because enacted before the amendment in question. Such a result would be one that courts would generally resist to the extent it was possible to do so, given how much violence is done to the amendment by the limitations. This would seem to be no less the case for a clause requiring legislative conformity with Islam. Moreover, as a matter of policy, if there exists in any state a broad view that law should conform to Islam (a commonly stated Islamist position), and if that view is widespread (a fair conclusion given recent electoral results), then surely the advocates of that view should be as willing to apply it to past legislation as to future. Either the Islamicity of legislation is a cornerstone of the Muslim state or it is not. If it is, then the date of the legislation vis-à-vis the date of the repugnancy amendment is surely beside the point for the advocates of shari'a conformity. Indeed, the fact of the incoherence may well explain the reluctance to discuss it often, particularly openly.
  • La foi en l’obscur : le sacré sale et le mysticisme du jeu chez Georges Bataille

    Vecoli, Fabrizio; Lavoie, Vincent (2021-05-31)
    C’est durant la première moitié du vingtième siècle, c’est en étant contemporain des deux guerres mondiales, dans une France qui se sécularise, que Georges Bataille (1897 – 1962) construit une pensée – profondément nietzschéenne – scandaleuse. Conceptuellement, le corps n’est pas seulement au centre des préoccupations de Bataille, il se pense maintenant dans sa réalité outrancière : l’érotisme, l’ivresse et la souillure. On assiste à une sacralisation des débauches de toutes sortes. Et c’est ainsi que s’opère la singularité philosophique de Bataille puisque ce qui est sacré ne loge plus, selon lui, dans un sublime céleste, dans une divinité ou, en d’autres mots, dans les hauteurs, mais bien dans son exact contraire, c’est-à-dire dans le bas, dans l’excès, dans l’érotisme et dans le sale. Devant cette inversion de l’ordre du monde, ce qui est sacré, c’est la profanation même. C’est pourquoi, à partir de Mary Douglas, j’ai pu relier deux idées qui paraissent contraires : la souillure et le sacré. Ainsi, étant donné que Bataille est aussi écrivain (Sade fut l’une de ses influences majeures), j’ai pu inclure des récits de l’auteur qui illustrent parfaitement ces deux antinomies. C’est d’ailleurs l’un des traits les plus fondamentaux de son œuvre que j’ai aussi soulevé : toute l’œuvre de Bataille est paradoxale et antinomique. 
 C’est justement à partir de ce même constat que j’aborde la question du mysticisme chez Bataille. Mais comme avec la question du sacré, la conception du mysticisme implique une critique implicite du christianisme (opposition du ciel contre la terre, par exemple). Nécessairement, c’est l’instant et son hasard – l’absence de but – qui ouvrent la voie à l’expérience, alors que l’écriture communique son essence tout en la rendant davantage intelligible. De là provient justement, par le caractère arbitraire de l’expérience, l’idée de chance que Bataille établit en diapason avec Nietzsche. À ce sujet, Nietzsche devient très présent dans le mysticisme bataillien, pensons à la figure du surhumain qu’on peut associer à celle de l’homme souverain ou encore à la volonté de puissance qu’on peut relier à celle de la volonté de chance. Dès lors, Bataille met de l’avant une mystique du jeu, celle-ci étant une mise en jeu radicale de soi-même d’où émerge la chance que Bataille évoque et qui n’est rien d’autre que la possibilité de l’expérience même. Somme toute, force est de constater que la fragilisation mentale et physique du mysticisme bataillien cache également un sacrifice de soi au nom de la jouissance, certes, mais aussi au nom du texte.
  • Nature, Technology, and God: John Senior’s Antidote to the Technocratic Paradigm

    Wisnieski, Jonathan (UST Research Online, 2021-05-01)
    A proper theology of creation presupposes an encounter with the natural order. Throughout most of Christian history, this presupposition did not warrant much attention. Most people in Christendom lived their lives in close contact with creation, and those that did not were never far removed. Such a situation can no longer be taken for granted. The increasing presence and predominance of technology in modern civilization (what Pope Francis has called the “technocratic paradigm”) has insulated man from nature, both physically and mentally, thus inhibiting a robust theology of creation due to a lack of experiential contact with nature. Three 20th century thinkers recognized this progressive insulation: Martin Heidegger, Romano Guardini, and Joseph Ratzinger. Their work identified the potential pitfalls of an overly technological worldview. The solution to these pitfalls begins with a return to the philosophy of realism and an emphasis on encountering God in His creation. John Senior, best known for his work in the Integrated Humanities Program at the University of Kansas during the 1970’s, embodied these principles in his teaching style. His realist pedagogy provides a powerful antidote to technocracy and paves the way for a renewed encounter with God in the modern world.

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