The Implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 435 (1978) on the Independence of Namibia : the Impact of Leverage in the Mediation Process
Author(s)Hellao, Wilbard Manique Munenguni
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AbstractMini-dissertation (MA)--University of Pretoria, 2015.
Once mediation has started, the issue of leverage (sticks and carrots) as a specific tool of mediation often comes into play. There appears to be two divergent views on the use of leverage in the mediation process. One school of thought, although not actually propagating leverage, does concede that it might be necessary and useful under certain circumstances. The other disagrees and expresses caution in using leverage in the mediation process. This study will focus on the issue of leverage in the Namibian mediation process, culminating in the independence of Namibia on 21 March 1990. It specifically deals with the following questions: To what extent was leverage used in the mediation process? How did the mediator(s)employ leverage, what leveraging resources were brought to bear on the conflicting parties, and at what point in the process did this leveraging happen? The purpose is to determine whether, in the light of theoretical arguments for and against the use of leverage, one could conclude that, under certain conditions, leverage is both necessary and effective in ensuring a successful outcome to the mediation process.
The research study is structured as follows: Chapter 1 introduces the topic, the purpose and the nature of the study. An in-depth analysis of mediation theories, focusing specifically on the issue of leverage, is provided in Chapter 2, the purpose being to develop a framework for analysis in determining the extent to which leverage was utilised in the Namibian mediation process. An historical background to the conflict in Namibia is presented in Chapter 3 in order to contextualise the focus in the following chapters, dealing specifically with the Namibian mediation process. In Chapter 4, data analyses and findings are summarised, and aspects that might provide lessons for mediation, particularly as far as the use of leverage is concerned, are identified; and where applicable, further avenues for research are suggested. In conclusion, Chapter 5 presents a summary and critical look at all the mediation processes, both multilateral and bilateral, and the challenges that were encountered during these processes, leading up to the signing of Tripartite and Bilateral Agreements in New York on 22 December 1988.
Hellao, WMM 2015, The Implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 435 (1978) on the Independence of Namibia : the Impact of Leverage in the Mediation Process, MA Mini-dissertation, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, viewed yymmdd <http://hdl.handle.net/2263/46064>