Risk Factors Associated with Cerebral Vasospasm following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
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AbstractWe studied the risk factors associated with cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The subjects were 370 patients with ruptured aneurysms who fulfilled all of the following criteria: admission by day 2 after onset, operation performed by day 3 by the same surgeon (T.I.), Hunt-Hess grade I–IV, availability of bilateral carotid angiograms acquired by day 2 and repeated between days 7 and 9. The demographic, clinical, radiographic, surgical, laboratory, and electrocardiographic data were analyzed for angiographic vasospasm (AV), symptomatic vasospasm (SV), and cerebral infarction on computed tomography (CT) scan. Both CT-evident SAH and AV were graded as 0–IV. Among the 370 patients, AV grade III–IV, SV, and cerebral infarction occurred in 26%, 24%, and 20%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that Hunt-Hess grade III–IV, SAH grade III–IV, intracerebral or/and intraventricular hemorrhage, rebleeding, cigarette smoking, hypertension, alcohol intake, leukocytosis, hyperglycemia, and electrocardiographic QTc prolongation, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), and ST depression were significantly related to at least one of AV grade III–IV, SV, or cerebral infarction. Multivariate analysis showed that SAH grade III–IV was the most important risk factor for vasospasm followed by LVH on electrocardiogram, cigarette smoking, and hypertension. AV grade III– IV, SV, and cerebral infarction occurred in 57%, 54%, and 39% of the 46 smokers with LVH, and in 43%, 49%, and 35% of the 68 patients who had both LVH and hypertension, respectively. CT-evident SAH, LVH, cigarette smoking, and hypertension are associated with vasospasm. In smokers or hypertensive patients, premorbid LVH appears to predict much more severe vasospasm.