CONFLICT OF INTEREST
MINORITY SHAREHOLDER PROTECTIONS
PRIVATE SECTOR CREDIT
ACCESS TO SERVICES
PRIVATE CREDIT BUREAU
CREDIT INFORMATION SYSTEM
COLLATERAL FOR LOANS
MINIMUM CAPITAL REQUIREMENT
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AbstractDoing business sheds light on how easy
or difficult it is for a local entrepreneur to open and run
a small to medium-size business when complying with relevant
regulations. It measures and tracks changes in regulations
affecting 10 areas in the life cycle of a business: starting
a business, dealing with construction permits, getting
electricity, registering property, getting credit,
protecting investors, paying taxes, trading across borders,
enforcing contracts and resolving insolvency. In a series of
annual reports doing business presents quantitative
indicators on business regulations and the protection of
property rights that can be compared across 183 economies,
from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe, over time. This economy
profile presents the doing business indicators for Paraguay.
To allow useful comparison, it also provides data for other
selected economies (comparator economies) for each
indicator. The data in this report are current as of June 1,
2011 (except for the paying taxes indicators, which cover
the period January-December 2010).
Copyright/LicenseCC BY 3.0 IGO
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General Principles for Credit ReportingWorld Bank (Washington, DC, 2011-09)Financial infrastructure broadly defined comprises the underlying foundation for a country's financial system. It includes all institutions, information, technologies, rules and standards that enable financial intermediation. Poor financial infrastructure in many developing countries poses a considerable constraint upon financial institutions to expand their offering of financial services to underserved segments of the population and the economy. It also creates risks which can threaten the stability of the financial system as a whole. This report describes the nature of credit reporting elements which are crucial for understanding credit reporting and to ensuring that credit reporting systems are safe, efficient and reliable. It intends to provide an international agreed framework in the form of international standards for credit reporting systems' policy and oversight. The Principles for credit reporting are deliberately expressed in a general way to ensure that they can be useful in all countries and that they will be durable. These principles are not intended for use as a blueprint for the design or operation of any specific system, but rather suggest the key characteristics that should be satisfied by different systems and the infrastructure used to support them to achieve a stated common purpose, namely expanded access and coverage, fair conditions, and safe and efficient service for borrowers and lenders. Section two provides a brief overview of the market for credit information sharing and credit reporting activities and then analyzes in some detail the key considerations underlying credit reporting. Section three outlines the general principles and related roles. Section four proposes a framework for the effective oversight of credit reporting systems.
Public Credit Registries as a Tool for Bank Regulation and SupervisionGirault, Matias Gutierrez; Hwang, Jane (2010-12-01)This paper is about the importance of
the information in Public Credit Registries (PCRs) for
supporting and improving banking sector regulation and
supervision, particularly in the light of the new approach
embodied in Basel III. Against the backdrop of the financial
crisis and the existence of information data gaps, the
importance of complete, accurate and timely credit
information in the financial system is evident. Both in
normal times and during crises, authorities need a device
that allows them to look at the universe of credits in a
detailed and readily way. And more importantly, they need to
develop tools that exploit as much as possible the
information therein contained. PCR databases contain
individual credit information on borrowers and their credits
which makes it possible to implement advanced techniques
that measure banks' credit risk exposure. It allows
optimizing the prudential regulation ensuring that
provisioning and capital requirements are properly
calibrated to cover expected and unexpected losses
respectively. It also permits validating banks'
internal rating systems, performing stress tests and
informing macroprudential surveillance. In this respect, it
is envisioned that the existence of a PCR will be a key
factor to enhance the supervision and regulation of the
financial system. Furthermore, the extent, accuracy and
availability of the information collected by the authorities
will determine the usefulness of the PCR as part of their
toolkit to monitor the potential vulnerabilities not only on
a microprudential level, but also on a macroprudential one.
SME Finance in Ethiopia : Addressing the Missing Middle ChallengeWorld Bank (Washington, DC, 2015-02-25)This study starts with a brief analysis of which firms are the main net job creators in Ethiopia and then focuses on the financing constraints of Ethiopian Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) as one of the key obstacles to job creation and growth. The study uses two demand-side and an ad-hoc supply side survey administered to 16 financial institutions. This survey allowed collecting data on the actual involvement of financial institutions with MSMEs, their perception of potential public policy approaches to enhance MSME access to finance and the adequateness of their current business models.
The combination of both demand-side and supply-side analysis allows to gain a full picture of MSME finance practices in Ethiopia by connecting information on firm experiences with the reporting of financial institutions on their business practices. While there was already anecdotal evidence that small firms were lacking proper access to finance in Ethiopia, the value added of this study is to provide accurate empirical evidence of the existence of a missing middle phenomenon.