الحاويات في هذا القسم

تقديمات حديثة

  • Personalized truths or about our decision-making power in times of fake news: A reading under a philosophical view

    da Silva, Francisca Galiléia P.; da Cunha, Suelen Pereira (Editora da PUCRS - ediPUCRS, 2021-06-07)
    When the facts are not the verification matrix of reality, the speech obtains an independent ontological status. This identity between fact and speech is not free of consequences, especially when we observe the interference of this phenomenon in decision-making processes. For this reason, this article aims to reflect on the problem of the truth when we have ontological speech autonomy. Guided by the question: “How can we decide if we don’t know, for sure, about which object we decide?”, we use the classics of Philosophy to develop a discussion about the theme.
  • In Search of a Brazilian Colonial Philosophy

    Marques, Lúcio Álvaro (Editora da PUCRS - ediPUCRS, 2021-06-07)
    If it’s difficult to think of a meaning to the expression Brazilian philosophy, think of what it might mean a Brazilian colonial philosophy becomes even more challenging. To this, it will be necessary both the meaning and the scope of the issue in the period. We will do it in three steps: the first one situates the relationship between philosophy and coloniality in the constitution of the Portuguese America, considering the schools and the scope of the teaching in the colony, and it brings a brief state of the art of the research; the second one lists the corpora philosophica from the colleges of Maranhão, Pará, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and Mato Grosso; and the third one characterizes the forms of the writings, the levels of the teaching in the colleges and teachers-authors and, finally, the main philosophical matrices that are recognizable in the colonial writings. So, regardless of the general difficulty of the question, we propose to confront directly this hypothesis: what does mean a Brazilian colonial philosophy?
  • Human Rights, Hermeneutics and Intercultural Reconciliation: Reflections from Fidel Tubino

    Schulz, Michael (Editora da PUCRS - ediPUCRS, 2021-06-09)
    On the basis of the Peruvian philosopher Fidel Tubino’s reflections on a diatopic hermeneutics, this article discusses the intercultural problem of human rights; they must be developed together in intercultural dialogue and cannot be implanted in other cultures starting from Western culture. The diatopic hermeneutics avoids both cultural relativism and cultural imperialism; it serves the reconciliation of cultures.
  • The arcana imperii of the telematic era in the face of the crisis of the sign: The global pandemic and the theological-political destiny of the West - Interview with Prof. Dr. Fabián Ludueña Romandini

    Romandini, Fabián Ludueña; Pontel, Evandro (Editora da PUCRS - ediPUCRS, 2021-06-09)
    Entrevista com o Prof. Dr. Fabián Ludueña Romandini (UBA/Argentina), a partir da Conferência proferida durante o Congresso Internacional Biopolíticas no Século XXI (PUCRS/2020).
  • Hans Jonas and the philosophy of life: Ontology, biology and phenomenology

    de Oliveira, Jelson Roberto; Malta, Pedro Jaras (Editora da PUCRS - ediPUCRS, 2021-06-09)
    This paper intends to present the general lines of what would be the philosophy of life developed by Hans Jonas special in his work The Phenomenon of Life, from 1966. To do so, the ontological, biological and phenomenological elements will be recovered to promote an analysis that starts from the Jonasian critique of the traditional interpretation of life in the philosophical and scientific realm, which is opposed to its ontological revolution, based on the conception of an integral monism. From there, the concept of psychophysical unity and freedom will be analyzed as the guiding thread of this interpretation, which achieves the recovery of teleology as a self-affirming action of life itself.
  • Do we have free will?

    da Silva, Ângelo Roberto Ilha; Dias, Daison Nelson Ferreira (Editora da PUCRS - ediPUCRS, 2021-06-09)
    Adotei uma abordagem experimental para essa questão. Atos de vontade livre são precedidos por uma mudança elétrica específica no cérebro (readiness potential, RP)3, que inicia 550 milissegundos antes do ato. As pessoas tomaram consciência da intenção de agir 350-400 milissegundos depois do início do RP e 200 milissegundos antes do ato motor. O processo volitivo é, portanto, iniciado inconscientemente. Mas a função consciente ainda poderia controlar o resultado; pode vetar o ato. O livre-arbítrio não é, portanto, excluído. Essas descobertas impõem restrições às visões de como o livre-arbítrio pode operar; não faria iniciar um ato voluntário, mas poderia controlar a realização. As descobertas também afetam perspectivas de culpa e responsabilidade.
  • Spinoza in modernity: From the reign of quantity to the immanent refoundation of democracy

     Ramond, Charles (Editora da PUCRS - ediPUCRS, 2021-06-09)
    In this article, the author overviews the French reception of Spinoza, so as to unveil the conservative dimension of Spinoza’s political philosophy, insofar as the determinism that generally reigns over the Spinozan metaphysical system lends itself to a compatibilism with its ideas of obedience and freedom. In this sense, skeptical obedience to democratic laws, namely, obedience to the law of counting (quantity), frees us and emancipates us in that it frees us from all transcendence. It seems thus that our contemporary democracies, so attracted by republican values and their transcendent dimension, still have a long way to go before arriving at the immanent and formal democracy that Spinoza called the absolute regime (imperium absolutum).
  • La réalité conditionnelle du possible

    Margel, Serge (Association de la revue ThéoRèmesThéoRèmes, 2021-06-09)
    Cet article porte sur la théorie augustinienne du miracle. Il s’agit de montrer comment saint Augustin développe une conception naturaliste du miracle en inscrivant son phénomène dans les premiers principes de la création du monde. Qu’il soit considéré comme un événement, un signe ou un récit, le miracle n’entre jamais en contradiction avec les lois de la nature, mais il ne fait qu’en détourner le cours ordinaire. Le miracle est donc naturel en ce sens qu’il constitue toujours l’effet possible d’une cause naturelle, modifiée dans son cours ordinaire.
  • Importancia e implicaciones de un juramento en tiempos de pandemia

    Gamboa Bernal,Gilberto A. (Universidad de la Sabana, 2020-06-01)
  • DISFORIA DE GÉNERO EN NIÑOS Y CONTROVERSIAS EN SU TRATAMIENTO: DOS CONCEPCIONES DISTINTAS SOBRE LA IDENTIDAD DE GÉNERO

    Cox,Paula; Carrasco,María Alejandra (Universidad de la Sabana, 2020-06-01)
    Resumen La disforia de género es una marcada incongruencia entre el sexo que se siente o expresa y el que se asigna al nacer, asociada a un malestar clínicamente significativo o deterioro en lo social, que puede darse en niños, adolescentes y adultos. En relación con los pacientes pediátricos, no existe actualmente consenso sobre su tratamiento, así como tampoco evidencia que apoye claramente un enfoque por sobre otro. En la literatura se describen principalmente tres tipos de abordaje en niños preadolescentes: modelo terapéutico, watchful waiting (espera atenta) y modelo afirmativo. En este trabajo se realiza una breve revisión de la literatura existente sobre la disforia de género, se describen los distintos abordajes en niños y se analizan las visiones antropológicas que los sustentan. Plantearemos que existen al menos dos modos de entender la identidad de género, lo que ha dado lugar, en gran medida, a las controversias en los tratamientos propuestos. Por ello, resulta de gran importancia comprender los supuestos antropológicos en que se fundamentan estos modelos, ya que a cada uno de ellos subyacen diferentes maneras de entender la relación sexo-género en la persona y, por tanto, el rol de la corporalidad y de la autoconsciencia en la identidad de género.
  • Alcance de la calidad de vida en atención médica

    Páez,Gustavo; López-Gabeiras,María del Pilar; Moreno-D'Anna,Milagros (Universidad de la Sabana, 2020-06-01)
    Resumen La expresión calidad de vida tiene un uso cada vez más generalizado en la práctica biomédica, sobre todo en situaciones de final de la vida. La experiencia demuestra que, muchas veces, esa expresión se emplea con alcances muy diversos, en ocasiones contrapuestos. En el presente artículo se exponen los resultados de una revisión bibliográfica que muestra las diferentes posturas y se propone una delimitación del tema. El análisis compara los términos "calidad de vida", "dignidad humana" y "valor de la vida humana".
  • Percepções de docentes universitários sobre o ambiente de trabalho

    Nascimento,Vagner Ferreira do; Daibem,Ana Maria Lombardi (Universidad de la Sabana, 2020-06-01)
    Resumen Estudio descriptivo-interpretativo con enfoque cualitativo, realizado en una universidad pública del interior de Brasil. Su objetivo fue conocer las percepciones de los profesores universitarios sobre el entorno laboral. El estudio se realizó por medio de una entrevista guiada por una encuesta semiestructurada. El análisis de datos se realizó con base en el análisis de contenido. Se encontró que el entorno se degrada, ya sea debido a relaciones laborales poco saludables, ya sea a problemas con la gestión de la dinámica del trabajo y la realización de actividades. Este entorno presenta riesgos para la salud de los docentes y necesita más atención por parte de los gestores, especialmente en cuanto a la promoción del espacio de trabajo, con mayor igualdad y justicia.
  • ASPECTOS ÉTICOS RELACIONADOS CON LA ATENCIÓN DE ENFERMERÍA EN PERSONAS EN SITUACIÓN DE DISCAPACIDAD: UN ANÁLISIS CUALITATIVO

    Campillay-Campillay,Maggie; Rivas-Rivero,Edith; Dubó-Araya,Pablo; Calle-Carrasco,Ana (Universidad de la Sabana, 2020-06-01)
    Resumen Este estudio tiene como propósito describir aspectos éticos relacionados con la atención de enfermería en personas con discapacidad, población considerada socialmente vulnerable y reconocida en condiciones de desigualdad. Corresponde a una primera fase de estudio primario realizado en la región de Atacama, Chile, que utilizó metodología cualitativa y análisis de contenido. Se realizan entrevistas a profesionales de enfermería respetando los criterios éticos de Ezekiel Emanuel. Los principales hallazgos dan cuenta de las categorías ontológicas: razonamiento moral, sistema de valores, modelo de relación enfermera-paciente, consecuencias de la acción ética de enfermería, estrategias para superar conflictos morales y barreras en el cuidado. Se concluye que cuidar personas con discapacidad es fuente de dilema y angustia moral para los profesionales de enfermería, especialmente cuando se trata de sujetos con discapacidad sensitiva o cognitiva. El modelo médico paternalista predomina en el contexto clínico, lo que limita el derecho a la autonomía de las personas con discapacidad. A los valores morales tradicionales promovidos por los profesionales de enfermería se suman valores instrumentales como la eficiencia. No se mencionan valores cívicos considerados fundamentales ante el desafío de la diversidad humana y la vida en democracia.
  • Taking Away Excuses to Quit: The Role of Supports in Completion and Learning in Online Professional Development for Teachers

    Oregon Department of Education; Oregon State University Ecampus Research Fellowship grant; Understanding Language at Stanford University; Kenji Hakuta; Hsiaolin Hsieh; Betsy Williams,; Lisa Zerkel; Rutherford-Quach, Sara; Thompson, Karen; Rodriguez-Mojica, Claudia; et al. (The Online Learning Consortium, 2021-06-01)
    Online courses, particularly in the massive open online course (MOOC) format, have been lauded for their potential to democratize access to educational opportunities but criticized for their markedly low completion rates. Yet educators continue to enroll in online courses, including MOOCs, in high numbers. For teachers at under-resourced schools, free online courses may be the only professional development option. It thus remains important to understand whether online courses, in their various formats, can serve as vehicles to support teacher learning and whether this can happen on a large-scale. Extending prior research that explores the relationship between contextual factors, engagement, and learning in online settings, this mixed-method study examines outcomes in a MOOC designed for teachers of English learners (ELs). In particular, the study identifies and examines structural and social supports that were available to some course participants (release time, stipends, participating with colleagues, and having a facilitator who convened face-to-face meetings) and investigates whether these local conditions were significantly related to completion and learning. Findings indicate that participants who received more supports were significantly more likely to complete the course. While participants, on average, showed evidence of learning, participants receiving supports did not show evidence of learning more than other participants. This is potentially due to omitted variable bias because participants who completed the course without supports may differ from participants who completed the course with supports in important, unaccounted for ways. This study extends prior research about how learning environments impact online learning experiences and suggests that structural and social supports may be useful in facilitating MOOC completion.
  • Moderating Relationships: Non-Designer Instructor’s Teaching Presence and Distance Learners’ Cognitive Presence

    Silva, Laura; Shuttlesworth, Mary; Ice, Phil (The Online Learning Consortium, 2021-06-01)
    Distance learning enrollments in higher education continue to grow, and academic leaders increasingly use non-designer instructors (NDIs) to meet demand. NDIs have little control over some aspects of teaching presence, including course design through instructional media resources included in a predesigned master course. This study used the Community of Inquiry (COI) survey to investigate (a) do distance learners’ perceptions of their NDIs’ teaching presence predict their cognitive presence; and (b) does distance learners’ use of instructional media resources moderate the relationship between their perceptions of NDIs’ teaching presence and learners’ cognitive presence. Multiple regression results indicated that perceptions of NDIs’ teaching presence predicted learners’ perceptions of cognitive presence, but learners’ use of instructional media failed to moderate that predictive relationship. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed.
  • Faculty Perceptions on Accessibility in Online Learning: Knowledge, Practice and Professional Development

    Guilbaud, Thelma C; Martin, Florence; Newton, Xiaoxia (The Online Learning Consortium, 2021-06-01)
    This study examined the level of readiness of faculty in designing and delivering accessible online courses to meet the needs of all learners, including students with disabilities. A total of 182 tenured/non-tenured full time, part-time, adjunct and clinical faculty from three public universities of different sizes were surveyed to gauge their awareness, understanding, and practices related to disability laws, quality standards, utilization of tools, and professional development support. Results from the study indicated an uneven level of readiness by faculty regarding online learning accessibility. Results from the study showed that professional development training in online learning had a very significant influence on accessibility knowledge and practice. Also, high perceptions of knowledge for institutional policy and terminology and low perception of accessibility laws and standards were found. It is also found that training on disability-related laws and regulations provided by higher education institutions was insufficient and at times, does not align with the faculty’s schedule. Given the results of the study, it is recommended that higher education institutions reorient their approach to supporting faculty who teach online and develop a comprehensive strategy to reach the goal of helping all students, including students with disabilities, to fully engage online learning. The findings from this study have implications for course development and implementation to support students with disabilities. 
  • Professional Development and ICT: English Language Teachers’ Voices

    Kohnke, Lucas (The Online Learning Consortium, 2021-06-01)
    While technology use is becoming increasingly common in education, teachers remain reluctant to use it and hesitant on how best to incorporate it into their teaching and practice.  There is a strong demand from institutions for English language teachers to cope with the changing landscape of teaching in the 21st century.  This explorative study investigated Hong Kong tertiary teachers’ beliefs on continuing professional development activities to enhance their teaching.  The study had a two-phase research design, with an initial questionnaire (N = 58) followed by semistructured interviews (N = 12) to unpack the participants’ hidden voices.  The findings illustrated that most teachers are enthusiastic about professional development activities, though there is a misalignment between what universities value and reward and what teachers see as most beneficial for enhancing their teaching practices.  The results suggested that professional development activities should focus on sharing good teaching practice (e.g., informal chats, mentoring) within universities rather than on rewarding attending conferences and on-off, nonintegrated workshops.
  • The Community of Inquiry in Writing Studies Survey: Interpreting Social Presence in Disciplinary Contexts

    Conference on College Composition and Communication; Stewart, Mary K.; Hilliard, Lyra; Stillman-Webb, Natalie; Cunningham, Jennifer M. (The Online Learning Consortium, 2021-06-01)
    This article applies the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework to a particular disciplinary context: first-year writing (FYW). Students enrolled in online FYW courses across three institutions (n = 272) completed a version of the CoI survey that was slightly modified to fit the disciplinary context of writing studies. A factor analysis was conducted to determine how well the CoI in Writing Studies data aligned with typical CoI survey research; teaching presence and cognitive presence loaded onto single factors, but the social presence items divided into multiple factors. The authors put their findings in conversation with other scholarship about social presence, especially Carlon et al. (2012) and Kreijns et al. (2014), and advocate for differentiating between survey items that relate to “social presence,” “social comfort,” “attitude,” and “social learning.” They also recommend that future disciplinary uses of the CoI Survey include survey items that ask students to report on the extent to which they engaged in the types of social learning that the discipline values.

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