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  • Like Priests Set Apart: A Source-Critical Problematization of Circumcision, Religious Othering, and Intermarriage

    Tumanan, Perdian (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2020-06-18)
    There is no biblical conception that so interferes with public life and invites endless debates and controversies as the theology of election. From a religious studies perspective, the theology of election has created a tremendous, hideous impact on the history of humankind, from colonialization to Shoah to the politics of identity and populism today. Rather than being the doctrine that unites humanity, the concept of election has been regarded as the core cause that creates otherness. This article argues that the ideation of otherness in the theology of election is deeply connected to and cannot be separated from sexuality issues. The notion of circumcision, as the main feature of post-exilic priestly election theology, inevitably constructs the ideal of lineage purity, thus forbidding intermarriage. The unfaithfulness of God’s people during the Judean monarchy era would later be perceived as the main cause for the suffering and traumatic experience of exile. Radical holiness in the form of religious separation from other nations must be observed for the priests to enjoy the continuation of God’s promise in the form of descendants. The continuation of priestly lineages would assure the continuity of the Temple's existence and worship.
  • Christ-Centered Worship: Letting the Gospel Shape Our Practice: by Bryan Chapell

    Augustan, Hansel (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2020-06-18)
    Sebuah resensi untuk buku Christ-Centered Worship.
  • Ruang-ruang Keadilan bagi Sang Margin

    Kurniawan, Danang (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2020-06-18)
    This essay examines just space(s) from the perspective of Christian hospitality towards the marginalized. The focus for Letty Russell in her theology addresses those considered the ‘unfortunate’ or those victimized by the variegated visage of injustice (the ‘unfair’) as that face is set against ‘the outsiders’; Miroslav Volf focuses on the ‘other,’ as does Amos Yong concerning “the stranger.” Nevertheless, they use these three terms interchangeably. To build just space(s) for the marginalized, I intend to approach the justice discourse via two arguments: first, by claiming that every theory of justice derived philosophically tends to get trapped in matters of techno-calculation; second, by proposing the relevance of a theological approach for “patching” such philosophical shortcomings. Following the parable of the workers in the vineyard in Matthew 20:10-16, we see that a theological approach yields a conceptualization of generosity—as the commentaries of Michael Green show—thereby demonstrating the relevance of such theological praxis. As a study in Christian hospitality, this essay proposes several ethical tenets for the building of just space(s) as spaces for justice that take as their point of departure the very same marginalized toward whom these spaces are oriented.
  • Menampakkan Corak Biru Kekristenan Indonesia: Sebuah Perspektif Ekoteologi

    Maggang, Elia (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2020-06-18)
    This paper seeks to interpret that which is blue of Indonesia—the largest archipelagic nation in the world—by way of proffering for Indonesian Christianity a range of blue hues (corak biru) following an ecotheological perspective. I start by discussing ecotheology and its contribution within Christianity to illustrate how this sub-discipline becomes a “brush” that for Christianity can render such blue hues. This is followed by a discussion on why and how a responsive ecotheology to the environmental/marine ecosystem crisis could render as “blue paint” for that subdisciplinary brush—a blue ecotheology (ekoteologi biru). To accomplish this, both Christianity’s abject appraisal of the sea, as well as Christianity’s own blue-hued anthropocentrism (corak biru antroposentrisme), are parsed and addressed in turn by the paradigm of a community of creation as “sketch.” These discussions summarily affirm the conviction that the sea must be considered and treated not as an object of human exploitation but as a proper subject working to support the life that is common among all of God’s animate creation. Humankind and the sea itself, alike, participate in that life. The spectrum of blueness I propose to be displayed across the “canvas” of Indonesian Christianity is this: to be sea-friendly in both outlook and attitude, in ways that safeguard the sea’s ongoing involvement in life. To conclude, this paper invites Indonesian Christianity to put the full array of its blue hues on display within both theological discourse and its activities as the church.
  • Menyoal Agapisme Klasik di Indonesia : Sebuah Dialektika Mengenai Anders Nygren dan Apropriasi Terhadap Eros dalam Etika

    Aruan, Abel Kristofel (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2020-06-18)
    In Indonesia, the discussion concerning the meta-ethical basis for the doing of good to others is still dominated by agapism, which is the line of thought claiming that agape is the highest form of love, done by God, and that which is proper for a Christian to bear out. Theological refutations have begun to emerge there, from theologians such as Ferry Mamahit and Joas Adiprasetya. Mamahit criticizes the dichotomous polarization of agape apart from eros, while Adiprasetya restores the goodness of philia vis-à-vis agape. This essay criticizes agapism, especially the classical agapism of Anders Nygren, from an overtly philosophical angle. With assistance from the philosophical anthropological apparatus of Christian thinker James K. A. Smith, I explicate how desire (erotic-love) is an inherent quality of being human. The problem does not lie in whether humankind should want to jettison eros—which is the normative prescription of Nygren—because eros is the ultimate impulse that in actuality underlies good deeds toward others. The issue lies precisely in what is to be the final purpose (causa finalis) of any good deed. To complement Smith’s thought, this essay employs Nicholas Wolterstorff’s proposal that shalom serve as the causa finalis of a person’s doing good. The intent of all this effort is to underscore that the Smith/Wolterstorff model is more in line with reality than is agapism.
  • Eksklusivisme dan Radikalisme dalam Kitab Ezra: Upaya Menelaah Penyebab Eksklusivisme dan Radikalisme Bangsa Israel dalam Kitab Ezra serta Menemukan Refleksi bagi Pembaca Kristen Indonesia pada Masa Kini

    Awijaya, Agetta Putri (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2020-06-18)
    The story of Israel’s journey in the Book of Ezra provides a description of how exclusivism and radicalism were able to grow among the group of Israelites returning from exile with Ezra. By paying attention to the social and political dynamics underlying the writing of this book, the reader can suss out how the situation of historical events provoked concerns related to identity within Ezra’s own cohort, eventually changing them to become an exclusivist and radicalized group. This article presents an excavation of the social and political context for the Book of Ezra, including a critique concerning the point of view of its author. The purpose of such an excavation is to investigate how exclusivism and radicalism emerged in the post-exilic period. Through this critical reading, readers, especially Indonesian Christians, can see how the seeds of exclusivism and radicalism grew in this given group of people, as well as how to prevent these seeds from causing conflict in order to preserve the unity in diversity of Indonesia [cf. Bhinneka Tunggal Ika].
  • Damage Indices and Photogrammetry for Decay Assessment of Stone-Built Cultural Heritage: The Case Study of the San Domenico Church Main Entrance Portal (South Calabria, Italy)

    Luciana Randazzo; Matteo Collina; Michela Ricca; Loris Barbieri; Fabio Bruno; Anna Arcudi; Mauro F. La Russa (MDPI AG, 2020-06-01)
    In recent decades, increasing attention is being paid to the multidisciplinary approach that allows the performance of both a preventive conservation and a more invasive restoration action. In this context, the present study aims to acquire information and data from field surveys undertaken in San Domenico Church, Southern Calabria, in order to provide a tool for the recording and the inventory of damage and decay phenomena, and assess their causes and scale. The subsequent calculation of damage indices also provided useful information in order to allow the prioritization of conservation and preservation responses.
  • The Effects of the Big Five Personality Traits on Stress among Robot Programming Students

    Anita Pollak; Małgorzata Dobrowolska; Anna Timofiejczuk; Mateusz Paliga (MDPI AG, 2020-06-01)
    This paper presents relationships between personality traits and stress levels in light of the transactional model of stress. The framework of the transactional model was applied to determine the significance of work with a robot for primary and secondary stress appraisal made by an individual. We decided to use the Big Five personality traits model as one which integrates the dimensions of personality and had been previously applied to research on stress. The participants in our three-wave study were 105 students doing an industrial robots programming course. Using Ten Item Personality Inventory (TIPI) and Questionnaire for Primary and Secondary Appraisal (PASA) questionnaires, we gathered information about the students’ personality, the level of anticipated stress, and the stress experienced while working with a robot after 6 and 12 weeks. The obtained results prove that emotional stability is significant for secondary appraisal of anticipated stress. The results also show that openness to experience is a negative predictor, whereas conscientiousness is a positive predictor of primary stress appraisal. The ability to cope with stress after 12 weeks of work with a robot is appraised as higher by older, more conscientious, and introverted people. The obtained results are discussed from the psychological perspective of stress and personality, which complements earlier studies in technical sciences. The limitations of the study are also indicated.
  • Adoption of Automatic Warehousing Systems in Logistics Firms: A Technology–Organization–Environment Framework

    Jingjing Hao; Haoming Shi; Victor Shi; Chenchen Yang (MDPI AG, 2020-06-01)
    The adoption of automatic warehousing systems, a type of green technology, has been an emerging trend in the logistics industry. In this study, we develop a conceptual model using a technology–organization–environment framework to investigate the factors which influence logistics firms to adopt green technology. Our model proposes that the adoption of green technology is influenced by perceived advantage, cost, technological turbulence, business partner influence, firm size, firm scope and operational performance. The objective of this study is to identify the conditions, as well as the contributing factors, for the adoption of automatic warehousing systems in logistics firms. Data were collected from 98 firms in China, and structural equation modeling with partial least squares is adopted to analyze the data. The results suggest that high perceived relative advantage, firm size, cost, firm scope, operation performance, technological turbulence and influence of business partners are important factors affecting IT adoption in small businesses. Therefore, decision support should be provided for enterprises from the three aspects of technology, organization and environment to improve the adoption of automatic warehousing systems.
  • Secular Trends in the Achievement of Physical Activity Guidelines: Indicator of Sustainability of Healthy Lifestyle in Czech Adolescents

    Josef Mitáš; Karel Frömel; Petr Valach; Aleš Suchomel; Michal Vorlíček; Dorota Groffik (MDPI AG, 2020-06-01)
    (1) Background: The increasing socio-economic and educational demands on adolescents should be reflected in their lifestyles accordingly. The aim of the study was therefore to identify the trends in the achievement of physical activity (PA) guidelines by Czech adolescents through objective and subjective PA monitoring. (2) Methods: The research was carried out between 2010 and 2017 and involved 49 secondary schools, 2 higher vocational schools, and 8 universities in the Czech Republic. In total, the projects involved 1129 girls and 779 boys. PA monitoring was performed by Yamax SW-700 pedometers and IPAQ-long questionnaires. (3) Results: The results according to the average number of steps/day confirm a decrease in the amount of PA in boys and girls and in the achievement of the recommended 11,000 steps/day. However, the estimates of meeting the recommended weekly PA expressed as MET-min/week based on the IPAQ-long questionnaire are not so convincing about the decrease. (4) Conclusions: The combination of objective monitoring of weekly PA using wearables and subjective estimates of weekly PA using a questionnaire regarding the ease of application, appears to be a sufficient indicator of the status of and trend in PA and thus the sustainability of a healthy lifestyle in youths.
  • The Role of Standards-Related Capacity Building on the Sustainable Development of Developing Countries: Focusing on the Korea’s Standards-Related AfT Case in Bolivia

    Seungyeon Moon; Heesang Lee (MDPI AG, 2020-06-01)
    Many countries provide standards-related aid for trade (AfT) to developing countries in association with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), such as sharing their experiences and providing training or infrastructure. Regarding the influence of standards-related AfT on the sustainable development of developing countries, we studied Korea’s standards-related AfT program to examine the role and features of standardsrelated AfT in terms of standardsrelated capacity building. In this study, we conducted a single case study with a focus on Korea’s standards-related AfT in Bolivia using qualitative descriptive analysis. The result indicated that Korea’s standards-related AfT is associated with three pillars of sustainable development in terms of standardsrelated capacity, namely standardization, conformity assessment, and metrology, and can be summarized with two key tasks: building testing infrastructure and improving Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) capacity. However, several limitations were found in Korea’s standardsrelated capacity building activities, such as limited scope, limited target of the program, and the lack of activities for building institutional foundations for standardsrelated capacity.
  • Experiments with Self-Organised Simulation of Movement of Infectious Aerosols in Buildings

    Ljubomir Jankovic (MDPI AG, 2020-06-01)
    The ultimate aim of sustainability in buildings gained an additional new dimension as the start of the year 2020 saw a rapid worldwide spread of the infectious disease caused by a coronavirus named COVID-19. There is evidence that, in addition to person to person contact, the disease transmission occurs through airborne droplets/aerosols generated by breathing, speaking, coughing or sneezing. For that reason, building heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems can play an important role, as they may both contribute as well as reduce the transmission risk. However, there is insufficient understanding of the movement of infectious aerosols in buildings. This article introduces a method of bottom-up emergent modelling of the movement of infectious aerosols in internal space using a physics engine, and reports on simple simulation experiments. The results show that the smallest droplets that are large enough to contain the virus can be suspended in the air for an extended period of time; that turbulent air flow can contribute to the infectious aerosols remaining in the room; and that unidirectional air flow can contribute to purging the room of the infectious aerosols. The model introduced in this article is a starting point for further development and for increasing our understanding of the movement of infectious aerosols in buildings, and thus for increased sustainability of building design.
  • The Experimental Study of the Utilization of Recycling Aggregate from the Demolition of Elements of a Reinforced Concrete Hall

    Katarzyna Kalinowska-Wichrowska; David Suescum-Morales (MDPI AG, 2020-06-01)
    The article shows a case study as to whether the thermal and mechanical recycling of concrete is suitable for concrete debris from the demolition of structural elements of a 30-year-old industrial hall. The experiment included 10 series of new composites made from heated recycled concrete aggregate (HRCA) subjected to different variants of heat treatment and one additional control series with only natural aggregate (NA). The compressive strength of the new concretes has been determined. The microscopic observations of HRCA have also been made. The test results revealed that proper heat treatment of concrete rubble makes it possible to obtain a high-quality recycled coarse aggregate, which can be used as a 100% replacement for natural coarse aggregates in new concretes.
  • Going Vegan: The Role(s) of ICT in Vegan Practice Transformation

    Dennis Lawo; Margarita Esau; Philip Engelbutzeder; Gunnar Stevens (MDPI AG, 2020-06-01)
    With the debate on climate change, topics of diet change and the reduction of animal products have become increasingly important in both public and academic discourses. However, sustainable ICT studies have so far focused on individual aspects, in particular investigating the criticized persuasive design approach. We argue for a broader perspective on the role(s) of ICT, one that helps in identifying opportunities to support consumer practice transformation, beyond motivational aspects. Based on retrospective interviews with 16 vegans, we argue to understand practice transformation as co-evolution of practices and ICT artefacts, as this perspective helps to understand how tensions arising from complex entanglements of practices, socio-material contexts, and communities can be resolved. Rather than a motivational process, we observe various roles of ICT artefacts co-evolving with practices: Ranging from initial irritation, to access to information about vegan practices, to the learning of vegan food literacy, to the negotiation of a vegan identity, and vegan norms at the intersection of the ‘odd’ and the ‘norm’.
  • The Influence of R&D Intensity on Financial Performance: The Mediating Role of Human Capital in the Semiconductor Industry in Taiwan

    Tsung-chun Chen; Yenchun Jim Wu (MDPI AG, 2020-06-01)
    Knowledge transfer is a strategy used by high-tech companies to acquire new knowledge and skills. Knowledge can be internally generated or externally sourced. The access to external knowledge is a quick fix, but the risks associated with reliance on external sources are often overlooked. However, not acquiring such knowledge is even riskier. There have been a slew of litigations in the semiconductor industry in recent years. The acquisition and assurance of intangible assets is an important issue. This paper posits that internal R&D should take into consideration the knowledge intensity and capital investment in the industry. This study focuses on the relationship between intangible assets and financial performance. It sourced the 2004 to 2016 financial data of semiconductor companies in Taiwan for panel data modeling and examined case studies for empirical validation. This study found that the higher the R&D intensity (RDI) in the value-added component of human capital, the better the financial performance of the company. RDI has a positive influence on the accumulation of human capital and financial performance metrics, and such influence is deferred. Meanwhile, human capital is a mediating factor in the relationship between RDI and financial performance. RDI is integral to the semiconductor industry’s pursuit of business sustainability.
  • Sustainable European Transport System in a 100% Renewable Economy

    Antonio García-Olivares; Jordi Solé; Roger Samsó; Joaquim Ballabrera-Poy (MDPI AG, 2020-06-01)
    Europe must move towards a 100% renewable transportation system for climate, energy and sustainability reasons. We estimate the capital and energy required for building and operating a renewable transportation system providing similar services as the EU-28 transport system of 2016. It could be based on: biogas or fuel cell vessels; liquid biogas powered aircrafts; electric railways and fuel cell or electric vehicles between major cities; and car sharing, electric buses and electric two- and three-wheelers, for short journeys. A system of charging posts on the streets and roads for passenger and commercial e-vehicles is studied. Alternatively, a Tracked Electric Vehicle system of continuous power on European roads would improve energy efficiency and the saving of scarce metals (Ni, Li), at a lower cost, if only national roads were electrified. The investment for the construction of the whole system would be 2.3–2.7% of the EU’s GDP per year for 30 years. The new system operation would require 16% less energy than that of 2016, with reduction of 70% in road transport. However, shipping and aviation would demand 162% and 149% more energy, respectively, if liquefied biogas were used as fuel. A type of land transport fully based on trains would provide a similar service to that of an electric vehicle fleet, with a 29% lower energy consumption.
  • Vibration-Based Seismic Damage States Evaluation for Regional Concrete Beam Bridges Using Random Forest Method

    Xiaoming Lei; Limin Sun; Ye Xia; Tiantao He (MDPI AG, 2020-06-01)
    Transportation networks play an important role in urban areas, and bridges are the most vulnerable structures to earthquakes. The seismic damage evaluation of bridges provides an effective tool to assess the potential damage, and guides the post-earthquake recovery operations. With the help of structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques, the structural condition could be accurately evaluated through continuous monitoring of structural responses, and evaluating vibration-based features, which could reflect the deterioration of materials and boundary conditions, and are extensively used to reflect the structural conditions. This study proposes a vibration-based seismic damage state evaluation method for regional bridges. The proposed method contains the measured structural dynamic parameters and bridge configuration parameters. In addition, several intensity measures are also included in the model, to represent the different characteristics and the regional diversity of ground motions. The prediction models are trained with a random forest algorithm, and their confusion matrices and receiver operation curves reveal a good prediction performance, with over 90% accuracy. The significant parameter identification of bridge systems and components reveals the critical parameters for seismic design, disaster prevention and structure retrofit.
  • An Analysis of the Economic Effects of Cover Crop Use on Farm Net Returns per Acre in Central Indiana

    Megan N. Hughes; Michael R. Langemeier (MDPI AG, 2020-06-01)
    Utilizing cover crop treatments can have significant agronomic benefits for a farm enterprise. However, implementing this technology introduces additional costs. Data were obtained from a Central Indiana case farm to evaluate the relationship between applied nitrogen and corn yield, and how this relationship is impacted by introducing three different species of cover crops: annual ryegrass, cereal rye, and an oats and radish blend. The resulting information was then translated into a partial budget so that the effects on net returns could be analyzed using historical prices and stochastic modelling. The results showed that the impact on net returns per acre varied among cover crop species. The implementation of annual ryegrass resulted in a negative change to net returns. Conversely, implementing cereal rye or an oats and radish blend resulted in a positive change to net returns, with the largest net benefits accruing to the oats and radish blend.
  • Digital Transformation for Business Model Innovation in Higher Education: Overcoming the Tensions

    Albert Rof; Andrea Bikfalvi; Pilar Marques (MDPI AG, 2020-06-01)
    The higher education sector is in the eye of the hurricane of the digital revolution, immersed as it is in an ongoing digital transformation (DT) process that is expected to result in significant changes in the current business model. Despite the relevance of this transformation, little remains known about how the business model is innovated (BMI), due to the impact of digital transformation in the context of higher education institutions (HEI). This research explores the impact of DT on the HEI business model, through analyzing the case of a traditional university, conceived non-digitally. The results present the HEI understanding of DT, the main tensions arising from the DT process for each of the business model dimensions, and the anticipated solutions for solving these tensions. Additionally, the results uncover the existence of an emergent (non-formalized) envisioned business model, which is a visualization of how the current business model is expected to be innovated, due to the impact of DT. The main originality of this paper is in addressing a research gap at the intersection of DT and BMI in the HEI context.
  • Sustainability and Its Place in the Self-Determination of Information-Based Companies

    Michał Baran (MDPI AG, 2020-06-01)
    The term sustainability is understood in many different ways. Its interpretation determines the behaviors of those who want to include the idea into their actions. The question, therefore, arises about how individual entities understand the term sustainability and how they express their vision in this regard. This issue is largely qualitative and requires the use of qualitative data analysis tools. In this context, information-based companies are a special case because they are free of burdens that affect enterprises with roots in the traditional economy. Attitudes towards the idea of sustainability in this group of enterprises are of the most voluntary nature. In the present discussion, the thesis was adopted that the context in which the entity refers to the idea of sustainability reveals the dimensions within the framework of which the entity determines its attitude to this idea. In the present discussion, the subjects of interest were exclusively the semantic categories of the context and not the typology of organizations using such semantic categories. A qualitative analysis (carried out on the basis of linguistic analysis) of the annual reports — a purposive sample of 20 selected enterprises and sector leaders whose activities are based on data processing — submitted to the US Securities and Exchange Commission has allowed us to identify four dimensions of self-determination in the context of sustainability (the detection of these dimensions was the main purpose of the conducted analysis). Due to the method used, which involved examining the linguistic significance of individual words and in accordance with scientific rules, the requirement of representativeness did not apply to the collected data. However, the data had to show the various concepts currently used (even if only once) by sector leaders in their public discourse. The detected dimensions are divided into two groups: internal, where two types specified as BASE and ROLE are listed, and external, with two successive types hidden under the names IDEA and CARE.

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