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  • “Proud, brave, and tough”: women in the Canadian combat arms

    Emalie Hendel; Kate Hill MacEachern; Alma Haxhiu; Barbara T. Waruszynski (Frontiers Media S.A., 2024-05-01)
    Canada’s defence policy, Strong, Secure, Engaged, emphasizes the importance of leveraging Canada’s diversity to strengthen the Canadian Armed Forces. Currently, women in the Canadian military are underrepresented across most elements and occupations, especially in the combat arms occupations, including among officers and non-commissioned personnel in combat units such as infantry, armored corps, artillery, and combat engineering. Research suggests that the benefits associated with the inclusion of women in combat arms occupations include an increase in collective intelligence, operational effectiveness, task cohesion, and diversity. This article explores the gender gap in the Canadian combat arms by examining the findings from two recent qualitative research studies on the perceptions of women in the Regular Force and Primary Reserve. The authors analyze female military personnel’s perceptions of women serving in the combat arms, and the ways to increase their inclusion in the military. The key findings reveal the following themes on women’s perceptions of servicewomen in the combat arms: great job for those who want it; challenging environment (e.g., working within a masculinized culture, necessary toughness, tokenism and the “pink list,” being treated differently, and family loyalty); unique challenges faced by women in combat roles; combat takes a toll on women’s mental and physical health; and benefits of women’s participation in multinational operations. The discussion highlights the need to increase diversity, equity, and inclusion, promote a culture change that fosters greater inclusion of women in the combat arms, and increase operational effectiveness through training and policies.
  • Rise of remote work across borders: opportunities and implications for migrant-sending countries

    Inta Mieriņa; Inese Šūpule (Frontiers Media S.A., 2024-05-01)
    Contact restrictions imposed during the COVID-19 pandemic have contributed to the rapid expansion of remote work. With this expansion, new opportunities arise for the typical migrant-sending countries in Central and Eastern Europe to remotely involve their diaspora in their labor market. The aim of this paper is, by using the case study of Latvia, to show the potential of cross-border remote work for alleviating human capital losses caused by emigration. We assess the main obstacles and necessary adjustments in taxes, social benefits, labor market regulation and other areas to facilitate the labor market transition and show what incentives the country can use to become a place of choice for performing remote work for the diaspora. Combining the perspectives of employers, employees and the government, this study sheds new light on the challenges and opportunities related to the rise of remote work for countries suffering from emigration. The comprehensive analysis builds on triangulating secondary data, analysis of policy documents, a survey of employers, as well as a survey and in-depth interviews with cross-border remote workers.
  • Gender mainstreaming in sweetpotato breeding and dissemination in Ghana and Malawi

    Obaiya G. Utoblo; Putri Ernawati Abidin; Eric Kuuna Dery; John K. Bidzakin; Netsayi N. Mudege; Isaac Korku Dorgbetor; Marjolein Ebregt; Edward E. Carey (Frontiers Media S.A., 2024-04-01)
    Gender responsiveness in breeding programs to meet client and end user preferences for crops is essential. This case study analyzes the implementation experience of gender-responsive breeding and variety dissemination in Malawi and Ghana, focusing on good practices and challenges encountered. In Malawi, a training-of-trainers approach was employed to share knowledge among trained farmers. In Ghana, a research study was conducted to identify gender-based preferences for sweetpotato to define breeding objectives. The participation of social scientists, food scientists, and sweetpotato breeders in the GREAT (Gender Researchers Equipped for Agricultural Transformation) team provided a multidisciplinary perspective, addressing questions and responses in the field. Research efforts were strengthened by focusing on food quality through the establishment of an analytical laboratory for rapid evaluation of nutrition and food quality, including sugars. This helped develop sensory analytical capacity to better understand quality attributes and market segments, guiding breeding and improving market opportunities for women. Breeding outcomes resulting from gender inclusion led to the release of some sweetpotato varieties meeting end user and consumer preferences, as well as adoption of OFSP varieties by men and women. Other good practices for gender inclusion and responsiveness include providing funds for gender-based research and activities, engaging gender specialists and social scientists in trans-disciplinary teams, designing program activities with gender considerations, and incorporating traits in seed multiplication and dissemination decisions. Application of these gender inclusion practices resulted in adoption and development of acceptable sweetpotato varieties.
  • Older adults' experiences of wellbeing during the COVID-19 pandemic: a comparative qualitative study in Italy and Switzerland

    Iuna Dones; Ruxandra Oana Ciobanu (Frontiers Media S.A., 2024-05-01)
    BackgroundParticularly at the beginning of the pandemic, adults aged 65 and older were portrayed as a homogeneously vulnerable population due to the elevated health risks associated with contracting the COVID-19 disease. This portrayal, combined with travel restrictions, closures of economic sectors, country-wide lockdowns, and suggestions by governmental authorities to limit social contact, had important implications for the wellbeing of older individuals. However, older adults are a heterogeneous population who relies on different resources to cope with stressful periods, like the COVID-19 pandemic. Simultaneously, countries also employed different measures to contain the virus. Research thus far has focused on the short-term consequences of the pandemic, but studies have yet to address its long-term consequences.ObjectivesWe explore older adults' lived experiences nearly 2 years after the pandemic onset. Moreover, we focus on the bordering countries of Switzerland and Italy, who employed contrasting containment measures. This paper analyzes (1) How the COVID-19 pandemic impacted the experiences of wellbeing of older adults in these regions and (2) How older adults coped with the stressors brought about by the pandemic, in particular social distancing.MethodsThe paper draws on 31 semi-structured interviews with 11 Swiss natives residing in Switzerland, 10 Italian migrants residing in Switzerland, and 10 Italian natives residing in Italy. Interviews were conducted from December 2021 to March 2022.ResultsCoping mechanisms of the three groups related to acceptance, hobbies, cognitive reframing, telephone use, vaccine use and social distancing. However, results show heterogeneous experiences of wellbeing, with Swiss natives sharing more positive narratives than the other two groups. Moreover, Italian migrants and Italian natives expressed the long-term negative consequences of the pandemic on their experienced wellbeing.
  • Enhancing employee performance through motivation: the mediating roles of green work environments and engagement in Jakarta’s logistics sector

    Dewi Nusraningrum; Aisyah Rahmawati; Walton Wider; Leilei Jiang; Lester Naces Udang (Frontiers Media S.A., 2024-05-01)
    This study aims to analyze the mediating role of employee engagement and the green work environment in the relationship between motivation and the performance of logistics company employees in Jakarta, Indonesia. Employing a causal quantitative research approach, we distributed 222 questionnaires among logistics employees from four surrounding cities in Jakarta, namely Bogor, Depok, Tangerang, and Bekasi. These questionnaires were adapted from past studies. The data were processed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) with Partial Least Squares. The results showed that employee performance in logistics companies was positively and significantly influenced by motivation. Furthermore, a green work environment and employee engagement were found to significantly mediate the relationship between motivation and performance. These findings underscore the importance of a green work environment and employee engagement in enhancing motivation and performance in logistics companies. The study implies that employee performance in logistics companies can be elevated through the provision of a green work environment, alongside fostering employee motivation and engagement.
  • The gendered behaviors displayed by Disney protagonists

    Lucy L. Clarke; Benjamin Hine; Dawn England; Poppy P. M. S. Flew; Ritaj Alzahri; Stepheni N. Juriansz; Ma. J. B. C. Garcia (Frontiers Media S.A., 2024-05-01)
    Previous research suggests that the portrayal of male and female protagonists in Disney animations may be changing over time. The current study examined the portrayal of gendered behaviors displayed within some of Disney's most successful animated feature length films, including those beyond the Disney princess franchise. Extending the scope of the Disney animated films analyzed was important because both young girls and young boys report little personal interest in male characters within the Disney princess animations. This suggests that it is important to look beyond the Disney princess franchise to understand the gendered behaviors displayed by potentially influential male Disney protagonists. The current study also considered a greater number of masculine and feminine behaviors as well as some gender-neutral traits which had yet to be incorporated. A quantitative content analysis of 39 Disney protagonists from films released between 1937 and 2021 was conducted. The results revealed that male and female protagonists were statistically higher in feminine than masculine traits. Female protagonists from the earliest animations were the most feminine. However, there was no statistical difference in the gendered portrayals of females in the animations released in the 1990s and those released from 2009 to 2021 suggesting some continued stereotyping in females' profiles. Alternatively, male characters were more feminine relatively consistently across time-points. This study concludes that Disney is persistently portraying stereotyped female protagonists, and this could have implications on young females' behavioral profiles. However, the extent to which feminine traits are being celebrated when displayed by male protagonists needs to be examined, as well as the potential relationship between such messages and boys' behaviors and children's conceptualizations of gender more broadly.
  • Editorial: Blurring boundaries: reconfiguring social and digital spaces

    Vincenzo Auriemma; Gennaro Iorio; Maurizio Merico; Lucas Tavares Galindo Filho (Frontiers Media S.A., 2024-05-01)
  • To err is human but to persist is diabolical: Toward a theory of interactional policing

    Tanya Stivers; Andrew Chalfoun; Giovanni Rossi (Frontiers Media S.A., 2024-05-01)
    Social interaction is organized around norms and preferences that guide our construction of actions and our interpretation of those of others, creating a reflexive moral order. Sociological theory suggests two possibilities for the type of moral order that underlies the policing of interactional norm and preference violations: a morality that focuses on the nature of violations themselves and a morality that focuses on the positioning of actors as they maintain their conduct's comprehensibility, even when they depart from norms and preferences. We find that actors are more likely to reproach interactional violations for which an account is not provided by the transgressor, and that actors weakly reproach or let pass first offenses while more strongly policing violators who persist in bad behavior. Based on these findings, we outline a theory of interactional policing that rests not on the nature of the violation but rather on actors' moral positioning.
  • Sports press: an explanatory and identity scheme

    Bechir Nasri; Ines Souid (Frontiers Media S.A., 2024-05-01)
  • Double transition of young migrants in Luxembourg: vulnerable, resilient and empowering integration trajectories in the period of youth

    José Oliveira; Birte Nienaber; Jutta Bissinger; Amalia Gilodi; Catherine Richard; Isabelle Albert (Frontiers Media S.A., 2024-05-01)
    Migrant integration trajectories have become more complex, open, uncertain, and continuously changing, over time. For young migrants, their integration endeavour intersects with their process of transition to adulthood, a double transition that poses additional challenges. Recent theoretical perspectives such as “liquid integration” aim at focusing on the dynamic, processual, and temporal nature of migrant integration. The present article focuses on the dynamic interplay of obstacles and enablers that, over time, interact to construct complex, often non-linear, and open-ended integration and coming of age trajectories of young migrants (aged from 18 to 30 years) coming from outside the European Union (EU) to EU countries. Empirical results from the H2020 MIMY (Empowerment through liquid Integration of Migrant Youth in vulnerable conditions) research project in Luxembourg will be presented. In order to address the goal of the research, qualitative data were gathered by means of N = 38 interviews with young migrants with different migratory paths, characteristics and experiences, and specifically included: young migrants from non-EU Portuguese-speaking countries (N = 16), refugees living in reception centres (N = 15), migrants who since arriving in Luxembourg have become publicly visible (N = 7). Content analysis of the interviews allowed a twofold purpose: (1) capturing the unfolding of intersectional integration obstacles that over time play a decisive role in the building of conditions of vulnerability of the double transition under analysis; (2) capturing the multidimensional resources that interactively build up to give rise to resilient and empowering integration and coming of age experiences. The identification of decisive multidimensional obstacles and resources present in the integration endeavour during the process of coming of age allowed us to capture differentiated routes of vulnerability, on the one hand, and resilience/ empowerment on the other. Key ingredients of both vulnerable and more resilient and empowering integration and coming of age trajectories are identified as well as their relational dynamics, enabling to address key challenges for the resilience and empowerment of young migrants in the process of negotiating their transition to adulthood amidst their integration challenges in the Luxembourgish society.
  • Social class and moral judgment: a process dissociation perspective

    Andreas Tutic; Friederike Haiser; Ivar Krumpal (Frontiers Media S.A., 2024-04-01)
    Do social classes differ in moral judgment? Previous research showed that upper-class actors have a greater inclination toward utilitarian judgments than lower-class actors and that this relationship is mediated by empathic concern. In this paper, we take a closer look at class-based differences in moral judgment and use the psychometric technique of process dissociation to measure utilitarian and deontological decision inclinations as independent and orthogonal concepts. We find that upper-class actors do indeed have a greater inclination toward decisions consistent with utilitarian principles, albeit only to a quite small extent. Class-related differences are more pronounced with respect to deontological judgments, in so far as upper-class actors are less inclined to judgments consistent with deontological principles than lower-class actors. In addition, it is shown that class-based differences in utilitarian judgments are mediated by cognitive styles and not so much by empathic concern or moral identity. None of these potential mediators explains class-based differences in the inclination toward deontological judgments.
  • Barriers and recommendations for parent–child conversations about pornography

    Kate Dawson; Saoirse Nic Gabhainn; Ross Friday; Pádraig MacNeela (Frontiers Media S.A., 2024-04-01)
    IntroductionParents consistently report being worried about the impact of online pornography on their adolescent and pre-adolescent children’s development. Yet, most parents do not discuss pornography as part of parent–child conversations about sexuality. The current study sought to identify the barriers to parent–child conversations about pornography.MethodsWe present two studies. The first study employed one-to-one interviews to explore parents’ (n = 14) beliefs about their role in their child’s pornography education. The second study involved the quantitative assessment of Study 1 findings in a sample of parents of pre-adolescent and adolescent children (n = 408).ResultsFindings indicate that three overarching themes prevent parents from addressing pornography with their adolescent children, parents’ practical ability to discuss pornography, their attitudes toward discussing pornography, and the perceived positive impact of addressing pornography with their adolescent children. Practical ability was most often reported as the greatest barrier to parents engaging in parent–child conversations about pornography. Most notably, parents reported hesitancy in discussing pornography because they did not know how to define pornography or how to address pornography in an age-appropriate way. Fathers were also significantly less likely to believe that talking about pornography was socially acceptable.DiscussionWe discuss the implications of these findings and present recommendations for developing a parents’ pornography education resource.
  • Moral landscapes and morally meaningful encounters: how interaction ritual connects conversation analysis and cultural sociology

    Mervyn Horgan (Frontiers Media S.A., 2024-04-01)
    This article presents a theoretical argument for examining the previously unexamined interface between the strong program in cultural sociology ethnomethodology/conversation analysis (EMCA). While these two approaches have radically different theoretical and empirical commitments, they nonetheless share a common root in Durkheim’s sociology, specifically with regard to the centrality of solidarity, ritual, and morality to collective life. Similarly rooted in Durkheim, Goffman’s theory of interaction ritual provides an analytic pivot between EMCA and the strong program. The broader theoretical argument is illustrated using data from interviews with adults about their most recent encounter with a rude strangers in public space, which are here treated a breaches of the interaction ritual of civil inattention. Members readily draw on the specifics of a particular stranger interaction gone awry to reflect on the nature of life in public and to expound on their understandings of the ethics of face-to-face interaction and everyday morality more generally. Where EMCA focuses on the discoverability of the organizational features of everyday interaction, the position developed here is concerned with the organization of members’ interpretations of everyday interaction. While centered on specific kinds of interactional breaches, by finding common ground between EMCA and cultural sociology, the argument advances a potentially more broadly applicable approach that treats everyday encounters as morally meaningful and everyday lifeworlds as moral landscapes. Developing a comprehensive understanding of copresent interaction as a basic building block of society requires attention to both the organizational dynamics of copresent encounters and to the interpretive resources that ordinary members use to account for and justify their own and others’ conduct.
  • Insights, beliefs, and myths surrounding tuberculosis among pulmonary patients with delayed healthcare access in a high-burden TB state in Nigeria – a qualitative inquiry

    Beatrice Damilola Adeoye; Turnwait Otu Michael; Richard Dele Agbana (Frontiers Media S.A., 2024-04-01)
    IntroductionNigeria grapples with a substantial burden of tuberculosis (TB), particularly in Oyo State, designated as a high-burden State for TB. Effectively addressing this persistent health challenge necessitates more than just medical interventions; it requires a profound understanding of the diverse insights, beliefs, and myths held by TB patients.MethodsThis qualitative study explores the perspectives of pulmonary TB patients with delayed healthcare access in Oyo State, Nigeria, focusing on their beliefs, and conceptions. In-depth interviews were conducted with 25 TB patients and 20 healthcare providers.ResultsThematic analysis of patients’ responses revealed a complex interplay between cultural, spiritual, and biomedical insights. These challenges questioned the germ theory, associating TB with witchcraft and spiritual attacks. Beliefs in hereditary transmission, links between tobacco use and health outcomes, and uncertainties about infection nature underscored disparities influenced by socio-economic factors. Insights into transmission ideas, preventive measures, and treatment beliefs highlighted a blend of culturally influenced and scientifically supported strategies. Healthcare providers’ insights emphasized the necessity for targeted health education.DiscussionThese findings contribute to a nuanced understanding of TB perceptions, emphasizing the importance of culturally sensitive interventions to enhance awareness and promote timely and accurate health-seeking behaviors.
  • A narrative case study of an older disabled Muslim woman during the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK

    Amani Alnamnakani (Frontiers Media S.A., 2024-04-01)
    This paper explores the experiences and perceptions of Zora, an older Muslim woman living with a disability in the UK. Older disabled Muslim women in the UK often face multiple discriminations based on disability, age, gender, religious, and racial grounds and this has arguably been intensified by the COVID-19 pandemic. Drawing on multiple narrative interviews with Zora, this paper focuses on the intersections of disability, ageing, gender, race and religion within a particular social context during the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK. The paper describes the complex ways in which Zora experienced various modes of everyday disablism which were not related to the COVID-19 virus itself, rather the consequences of the movement restrictions associated with it. Much of the oppression and barriers she described were socially determined, both through direct discrimination, stares and prejudicial attitudes, and indirectly through stigmatization and an embodied fear of the reaction of others in public spaces. Nevertheless, Zora did not present herself as a victim. Instead she portrayed herself in affirmative terms, as a ‘brave’ woman who resisted and overcame daily social challenges and movement restrictions as part of working toward creating a more accessible, inclusive and age-friendly society. One that is inhabitable for herself and other older disabled women facing an uncertain future.
  • Veganism, cuisine, and class: exploring taste as a facilitator in adopting a vegan lifestyle in Santiago, Chile

    Claudia Giacoman; Camila Joustra (Frontiers Media S.A., 2024-04-01)
    IntroductionVeganism is a movement that avoids consuming animal products. This lifestyle is commonly represented as elitist despite the broad range of people who follow it. Using Bourdieu's taste theory, this study analyzes how personal culinary tastes of different social classes generate favorable (or unfavorable) dispositions to adopting veganism.MethodsWe analyzed 73 biographical interviews with 40 young vegans in three different waves.ResultsThe findings reveal that all social classes exhibit favorable dispositions towards veganism. In upper-class individuals, dispositions to embrace healthy and exotic food facilitate the adoption of new flavors and reflexivity in eating practices. Conversely, lower-class individuals have traditional meatless culinary practices rooted in their restricted budget, facilitating the transition to a plant-based diet.DiscussionThese results demonstrate the relevance of social class in understanding the diversity of vegan practices, and they contribute to breaking stereotypes around this movement.
  • Criminalised, victimised or other? A reflexive engagement with Queer Criminology utilising a relational pedagogical approach

    Liam Wrigley; Evangelia Koumentaki (Frontiers Media S.A., 2024-04-01)
    Queer Criminology is a newfound area of exploration within the discipline of Criminology, which is uniquely positioned to deal with issues regarding crime and victimisation concerning those from the LGBTQIA+ community and gender diverse/minoritized groups. The field of “Queer Criminology” has become vast and expanding, having explored issues of interpersonal, structural and systematic inequality concerning those from the community and beyond. To this end, narratives of victimisation, trauma and injustice have dominated (and limited) understandings of Queer Criminology. Moreover, limited thinking has been attributed within the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SOTL), which seeks to understand LGBTQIA+ individuals and groups—beyond binarized thinking of victimhood or criminalised. In this article, we offer the perspectives of two higher education professionals teaching Queer Criminology in a “flipped” classroom environment, which positions the learner as expert within the subject matter and utilises a relational pedagogy lens to do so. We discuss the use of our reflexive practice, as both Feminist Decolonial and Queer Criminologists. The article touches upon trauma informed approaches to teaching Queer Criminology. We offer several steps in building a coalition of learning, which can unpick the potential policy, theory, and practical tensions of teaching Queer Criminological Scholarship.
  • The metaverse of violence

    Michelangelo Pascali (Frontiers Media S.A., 2024-04-01)
    The metaverse appears to be a composite concept and a complex environment from an ontological perspective and from a purely dimensional point of view. Exploring its defining features not only allows one to identify the nature and effects of the social relations existing therein, but also influences the legal reading of what it contains and produces. Bringing to light the peculiar characteristics of the metaverse—for which the dichotomy between “real” and “virtual” sounds outdated—this article emphasizes the urgency to rethink the traditional forms of interpretation and design of preventive and repressive measures to counter deviant and illegal phenomena of a violent nature.
  • Political reconfiguration in the social space: data analysis and future perspective

    Daniele Battista (Frontiers Media S.A., 2024-04-01)
    This paper aims to explore the complex and sometimes controversial relationship between social media and politics. The correlation between these two areas of research has always been less linear than a simplistic narrative might suggest, mainly because of the involvement of different scientific disciplines, such as sociology, political science, communication, social psychology and computer science. The decision to explore this topic is motivated by the persistent relevance of social media platforms in the current era. This growing centrality is also due to the accelerated digitization process that occurred during the pandemic phase in the digital ecosystem. In particular, the pandemic has contributed to a significant evolution of the concept of social networks. The methodology used is based on secondary data, and the work seeks to highlight the expansion of digital space resulting from the shift from a simple place of interaction to a digital space that reconfigured the mobilization and political action of Campania’s governor Vincenzo De Luca. In conclusion, the study reveals important findings on the president’s use of social media. For example, active citizen engagement strategies through direct interaction, timely information sharing, and mobilization of online resources are evident. Therefore, it becomes necessary to ask and understand whether the potential of new social technologies is being used to cultivate critical and massive citizen participation in democratic processes or whether it is being distorted for the sole purpose of increasing or consolidating consent.
  • Zur Geschichte der Sinisierung des Katholizismus in China

    Zhuo, Xinping (China-Zentrum e.V., 2023)