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  • Medieval penitentials and nature of women’s sins

    Katrenicova, Anabela (Ovidius University of Constanta (Romania), 2020-11-30)
    The medieval penitentials propose a very interesting source to understand the sight of the whole society on the women. In our study, the presented books of penance reveal the women in their different social roles. We see them as the poor victims of the sinful activity of men. Nevertheless, we can recognize them as evil sinners. In this study, we try to present the medieval view of women’s social position, the nature of their sins, and their manner of trespassing God’s commandments as well. The numerous penitentials denote that the women commit only some kinds of sins, from which we can mention murder, witchcraft, and lust. Thus the women in Middle-Ages arouse fear and that is why they must be subordinated by men in society. Fortunately, the 20th century brings to women the liberty and equality with men, the new situation to which the Catholic Church reacts with the exaltation of the women.
  • Gavin D’Costa. Catholic Doctrines on the Jewish People After Vatican II

    Cunningham, Philip A. (Center for Christian-Jewish Learning at Boston College, 2021-01-10)
    No abstract is available.
  • Karma Ben Johanan. A Pottage of Lentils: Mutual Perceptions of Christians and Jews in the Age of Reconciliation (Hebrew)

    Weissman, Deborah (Center for Christian-Jewish Learning at Boston College, 2020-12-28)
    No abstract is available.
  • Recycling and Upcycling in the Practice of Waste Management of Construction Giants

    Guanru Wang; Dariusz Krzywda; Sergey Kondrashev; Lubov Vorona-Slivinskaya (MDPI AG, 2021-01-01)
    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of recycling and upcycling technologies on the level of efficiency of large construction companies in the context of waste management practice. The research methodology was based on regression analysis and factorial analysis of variance. Based on the assessment of waste management efficiency in the context of recycling (upcycling), the positive dynamics of the efficiency of its implementation was determined in comparison with traditional waste disposal. The levels of the relationship among net profit, investment in waste management, and recycling efficiency for the companies under study were determined. Regression analysis of the impact of recycling efficiency on the performance of the companies under study in the context of waste management demonstrated a positive effect of an increase in the efficiency of recycling (upcycling) on the net profit of all companies under study. However, at the same time, there was a different effect and degree of influence of this indicator according to the formed scenarios. Despite the high efficiency of recycling (upcycling), the prospective increase in its level does not have a proportional relationship with profit but depends on the development factors of the construction company. Two-way analysis of variance demonstrated a strong influence of the efficiency of recycling (upcycling) and waste disposal on waste management efficiency. It was proven that companies that currently have a high level of recycling (upcycling) efficiency are practically not focused on traditional waste disposal, since recycling has a more significant and positive impact on the effectiveness of their activities.
  • Winter Sports Resorts and Natural Environment—Systematic Literature Review Presenting Interactions between Them

    Michał Żemła (MDPI AG, 2021-01-01)
    The systematic literature review method was adopted to analyze the content of papers published since 2001 that focused on interactions between winter sports resort operations and the natural environment. A total of 86 papers published in journals indexed in SCOPUS data base were analyzed. Three main groups of topics presented in analyzed papers were found: the environmental impact of winter sports resorts, the management of environmental impacts and sustainable development of winter sports resorts, and finally the impact of climate change on winter sports resort operations. The biggest number of publications were devoted to the latter topic, and interest in conducting research within this area has apparently grown during the last two decades. However, most conclusions reached by the authors of numerous studies are site-specific and difficult to extend to other resorts/destinations. Additionally, the conclusions presented in many papers are contrary to the results achieved in other publications. Several gaps in our contemporary scientific knowledge and directions of future research are suggested in addition to the abovementioned results of the analysis conducted in the presented paper as the final conclusion of the research.
  • Spatial Analysis and Geographic Information Systems as Tools for Sustainability Research

    Alexandre B. Gonçalves (MDPI AG, 2021-01-01)
    The multidisciplinary fields of study on sustainability, which relate to ecological, geophysical, societal and environmental research, demand for the availability and processing of data that is capable to represent spatial phenomena [...]
  • Predicting Behavioral Intention of Rural Inhabitants toward Economic Incentive for Deforestation in Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan

    Saif Ullah; Ali Abid; Waqas Aslam; Rana Shahzad Noor; Muhammad Mohsin Waqas; Tian Gang (MDPI AG, 2021-01-01)
    The conservation of forest in the northern areas of Pakistan is the major priority of the national environmental policy to fight against global warming. Despite the policy for the protection of forest, rural residents’ behavior toward economic incentives for deforestation may undermine their conservation goals. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to understand the factors that affect the illegal behaviors related to deforestation in the northern areas of Pakistan. The present study applied the socio-psychological theory of planned behavior to predict the behavioral intention of rural residents toward economic incentives for deforestation. Correlations were explored between background factors toward motivations for deforestation based on positive and negative views through open-ended questions. Attitude and descriptive norm were found good predictors to perceive the behaviors. The findings of the study suggest that rural communities’ support for compliance with policies is vital for the long-term efficacy and protection of the forest in the region. Further, change in the behaviors of inhabitants toward the ecosystem through training can be improved to manage the forest.
  • Should the Same Products Consumed in Different Retail Channels Have an Identical Carbon Footprint? An Environmental Assessment of Consumer Preference of Retail Channels and Mode of Transport

    Jenhung Wang; Pei-chun Lin (MDPI AG, 2021-01-01)
    This study involved an environmental assessment of retail channels using the simplified life-cycle assessment (LCA) method to quantify the environmental impact of packaged beverages consumed in 7-Eleven convenience stores (c-stores) and Carrefour hypermarkets, with the aim of offering shoppers more environmentally friendly chain stores. The life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) of packaged drinks at the point of sale (POS) shows the environmental impact of (1) consumer transportation mode and (2) truck distribution. A comparative analysis was conducted on the consumption of 1800 cartons of packaged beverages in c-stores compared to hypermarket channels replenished by individual distribution systems. The paired <i>t</i>-test was used to assess the impact of the consumption of 1800 boxes of 24 packs of 10-ounce drinks. The significance level of the beverages consumed in Carrefour and 7-Eleven c-stores differed by 0.1. The logistics-focused LCA explained the environmental and business rationale for replenishment and sustainable customer transportation. We conclude that, due to consumer preference for retail channels and mode of transport, the carbon footprint for the same products consumed in different channels should not be identical. The research demonstrated a tool to convey more environmental profiles of transportation mode selection to consumers and contribute to building sustainable communities.
  • Acoustic Panels Made of Paper Sludge and Clay Composites

    Tomas Astrauskas; Tomas Januševičius; Raimondas Grubliauskas (MDPI AG, 2021-01-01)
    Studies on recycled materials emerged during recent years. This paper investigates samples’ sound absorption properties for panels fabricated of a mixture of paper sludge (PS) and clay mixture. PS was the core material. The sound absorption was measured. We also consider the influence of an air gap between panels and rigid backing. Different air gaps (50, 100, 150, 200 mm) simulate existing acoustic panel systems. Finally, the PS and clay composite panel sound absorption coefficients are compared to those for a typical commercial absorptive ceiling panel. The average sound absorption coefficient of PS-clay composite panels (α<sub>avg</sub>. in the frequency range from 250 to 1600 Hz) was up to 0.55. The resulting average sound absorption coefficient of panels made of recycled (but unfinished) materials is even somewhat higher than for the finished commercial (finished) acoustic panel (α<sub>avg</sub>. = 0.51).
  • An Overview of the Transition to a Circular Economy in Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy Considering Technological, Legal–Regulatory and Financial Points of View: A Case Study

    Daniela Sani; Sara Picone; Augusto Bianchini; Fabio Fava; Patricia Guarnieri; Jessica Rossi (MDPI AG, 2021-01-01)
    The circular economy is a growing and strategic topic and has motivated changes and innovations in several segments of research, businesses, financial sectors and public administration. In this context, the Emilia-Romagna Region (Italy) is considered a pioneer in Italy, due to the efforts taken for the transition towards a circular economy. It was the first Italian region to launch a specific law on the subject besides to have relevant projects. Thus, the objective of this paper is to analyse the efforts aimed at the transition to a circular economy in the Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy, considering technological, legal–regulatory, and financial points of view under a market orientation. Complementary, we pointed out the main initiatives related to the circular economy and the areas of interest. To gather data, we conducted applied, descriptive and qualitative research. The data collection was based on documental analysis, and also considering the results of previous questionnaires and interviews. In addition, we applied a dedicated questionnaire and we consider the outcomes of the project Reinwaste—Remanufacture the food supply chain by testing Innovative solutions for zero inorganic waste. The unit of analysis was the project conducted by ART-ER, entitled “<i>Accelerare la transizione verso l’economia circolare in Emilia-Romagna: Uno studio sullo stato dell’arte, le competenze e i bisogni tecnologici e finanziari</i>”. This paper can be useful for researchers and practitioners acting in this field, which can use the results based on public and private policies, investment decisions and further studies.
  • The Impact of Technological Capability on Financial Performance in the Semiconductor Industry

    Jun Hong Park; Hyunseog Chung; Ki Hong Kim; Jin Ju Kim; Chulung Lee (MDPI AG, 2021-01-01)
    The modern semiconductor industry is going through rapid changes as new markets and technologies appear. In this paper, such technology-intensive firms’ relationship between technological capability and financial performance is analyzed with regression analysis. Revenue and market capitalization are used as dependent variables. For the independent variables, the technological intensity, technological diversity, technological asset, and technological efficiency are used. The analysis results revealed different effects of technological capability on financial performance. Also, regression analysis is conducted by dividing firms into high and low groups based on technological asset and technological efficiency, and the analysis result revealed different effects of technological intensity and technological diversity on financial performance. For technological asset, the financial performance in the high group is affected more by technological intensity, and the financial performance in the low group is affected more by technological diversity. For technological efficiency, only the financial performance in the high group is affected by technological intensity. Although both groups’ financial performance is somewhat affected by technological diversity, there was no statistically significant differences between the groups. By separating the effect of technological capability on financial performance, this research can provide more detailed analysis results compared to previous literature and the methods of managing technological capability for semiconductor firms.
  • How New Food Networks Change the Urban Environment: A Case Study in the Contribution of Sustainable, Regional Food Systems to Green and Healthy Cities

    Noël van Dooren; Brecht Leseman; Suzanne van der Meulen (MDPI AG, 2021-01-01)
    More and more people worldwide live in urban areas, and these areas face many problems, of which a sustainable food provision is one. In this paper we aim to show that a transition towards more sustainable, regionally organized food systems strongly contributes to green, livable cities. The article describes a case study in the Dutch region of Arnhem–Nijmegen. Partners of a network on sustainable food in this region were interviewed on how they expect the food system to develop, and in design studies possible futures are explored. Both the interviews and the designs give support to the idea that indeed sustainable food systems can be developed to contribute to green livable cities. They show that the quality and meaning of existing green areas can be raised; new areas can be added to a public green system, and connections with green surroundings are enforced. They also show that inhabitants or consumers can be stimulated to become so called food citizens, highlighting that the relation of food systems and livable cities is a very close one.
  • Simulation of Hydraulic Cylinder Cushioning

    Antonio Algar; Javier Freire; Robert Castilla; Esteban Codina (MDPI AG, 2021-01-01)
    The internal cushioning systems of hydraulic linear actuators avoid mechanical shocks at the end of their stroke. The design where the piston with perimeter grooves regulates the flow by standing in front of the outlet port has been investigated. First, a bond graph dynamic model has been developed, including the flow throughout the internal cushion design, characterized in detail by computational fluid-dynamic simulation. Following this, the radial movement of the piston and the fluid-dynamic coefficients, experimentally validated, are integrated into the dynamic model. The registered radial movement is in coherence with the significant drag force estimated in the CFD simulation, generated by the flow through the grooves, where the laminar flow regime predominates. Ultimately, the model aims to predict the behavior of the cushioning during the movement of the arm of an excavator. The analytical model developed predicts the performance of the cushioning system, in coherence with empirical results. There is an optimal behavior, highly influenced by the mechanical stress conditions of the system, subject to a compromise between an increasing section of the grooves and an optimization of the radial gap.
  • Estimating the Price Elasticity of Train Travel Demand and Its Variation Rules and Application in Energy Used and CO<sub>2</sub> Emissions

    Youzhi Zeng; Bin Ran; Ning Zhang; Xiaobao Yang (MDPI AG, 2021-01-01)
    Investigation shows that train travel has a lower pollution impact on the environment than flight travel or car travel. A stated preferences (SP) survey can effectively obtain the data of the commuter’s response to the hypothetical train price changes beyond the scope of previous observations. To this end, based on SP survey, we estimate the price elasticity of train travel demand and analyze its variation rules. It is shown that: (1) the own-price elasticities of demand are −1.049028 during peak period and −1.090438 during off-peak period, respectively; (2) the cross-price elasticities of demand are 0.001280 for train and air and 0.001156 for train and car during peak period; and 0.001350 for train and air and 0.001230 for train and car during off-peak period; (3) the own and cross-price elasticities of demand during off-peak period are bigger than the ones during peak period; (4) when the influence factors’ influence degree is 3 or 5, the own and cross-price elasticities of demand are largest; when the influence degree is 1, the own and cross-price elasticities of demand are smallest. A result application example shows that the elasticities obtained from this paper could be used to reduce energy used and CO<sub>2</sub> emissions effectively.
  • The Workability and Crack Resistance of Natural and Recycled Aggregate Mortar Based on Expansion Agent through an Environmental Study

    Junfang Sun; Ji Chen; Xin Liao; Angran Tian; Jinxu Hao; Yuchen Wang; Qiang Tang (MDPI AG, 2021-01-01)
    Greenhouse gas emission has been a serious problem for decades. Due to the high energy consumption of traditional construction and building materials, recycled aggregate and other environmentally-friendly materials or recycled materials have been researched and applied. The treatment and reuse of construction and demolition waste (CDW) is a good way to reasonably distribute the renewable resources in the urban city. The recycled aggregate can be used in road engineering, geotechnical engineering and structural engineering. The combined use of natural aggregate and recycled aggregate may possess better performance in real constructions. This paper investigates the mechanical performance, micro-mechanism and CO<sub>2</sub> footprint assessment of NAM (natural aggregate mortar) and RAM (recycled aggregate mortar). Compressive strength test, flexural strength test, XRD and SEM, and CO<sub>2</sub> emission evaluation were conducted and analyzed. The results indicate that NAM depicts better compressive strength performance and RAM has higher flexural strength. The XRD and SEM patterns illustrate that the ettringite and C-S-H are the most important role in shrinkage-compensating mechanism, which is more obvious in RAM specimens. The proportion of CaO and MgO hydrated into Ca(OH)<sub>2</sub> and Mg(OH)<sub>2</sub> is also a key point of the volume expansion through the curing period. Finally, the CO<sub>2</sub> emission of NA is higher than RA per unit. This indicates that utilizing recycled aggregate over other conventional resources will reduce the energy consumption, and hit the mark to be environmental-friendly.
  • Sustainable Management of Sports Federations: The Indirect Effects of Perceived Service on Member’s Loyalty

    Pedro Cuesta-Valiño; Pablo Gutiérrez-Rodríguez; Cristina Loranca-Valle (MDPI AG, 2021-01-01)
    Sports federations are non-profit organizations that compete for members and resources. These organizations are obliged to cooperate on the environment, nature conservation, and sustainability together with other public bodies. Given this situation and the necessity to differentiate themselves from commercial sports providers, it is essential for sports federations to create loyalty. The objective of this article is to provide an in-depth study of the variables that explain federation members’ loyalty, which is the best tool for federations to meet their sustainable and non-profit objectives. Having made an exhaustive review of the literature on loyalty, an empirical study is made of the loyalty antecedents (service quality, satisfaction, trust, and commitment), using a questionnaire of members of all of Spain’s karate federations. This empirical study has led to a model of structural equations that gives a perfect explanation of loyalty based on the relationships between the various variables, starting with service quality and considering the other variables to be mediating variables between service quality and loyalty. Furthermore, the findings show that service quality is the best option for improving member loyalty through some of the mediators proposed.
  • Towards the Construction of Productive Interactions for Social Impact

    Blanca L. Díaz Mariño; Frida Carmina Caballero-Rico; Ramón Ventura Roque Hernández; José Alberto Ramírez de León; Daniel Alejandro González-Bandala (MDPI AG, 2021-01-01)
    Understanding the value of research for society has become a priority, and several methodologies have been developed to assess the social impact of research. This study aimed to determine how productive interactions are developed during the execution of research projects. A retrospective study was conducted on 33 projects from 1999 to 2020. Semi-structured interviews with the technical managers were conducted to analyze how different actors of the project—researchers, government officials, and civil society and private sector stakeholders—were involved, illustrating how productive interactions occur in specific biodiversity contexts. The results revealed different levels and intensities of productive interactions; on the one hand, three projects involved all actors; eight involved researchers outside the institution; and 25 involved community members. The number of participants ranged from 2 to 37. All research evaluated had a disciplinary orientation. The type and time of interactions with other interested parties depended on the amount of funding, project type, project duration, and, significantly, on the profile of the technical manager. The importance of assessing and valuing productive interactions was identified as a fundamental element in promoting the social impact of research, as well as integrating inter- or multidisciplinary projects that impact the conservation of socio-ecological systems.
  • Preferences of Construction Managers Regarding the Quality and Optimization Criteria of Project Schedules

    Michał Tomczak; Piotr Jaśkowski (MDPI AG, 2021-01-01)
    In the literature on the scheduling of construction projects it is difficult to find a justification for adopting the criteria for evaluating work schedules based explicitly on the preferences of those who develop them. This article tries to fill this gap and provide information on the preferences of construction site managers for sustainable scheduling and organization of construction projects. The publication focuses on the views and needs of construction site engineering staff regarding methods of work organization, the need to reduce downtimes in the work of crews, the deadline for project realization and the selection of crews for tasks. This information was obtained on the basis of surveys conducted among managerial staff of various levels (74 people). The authors hope that the information provided in this publication will allow the creation of more reliable tools to support construction managers better adapted to their preferences and needs, and therefore more likely to be applied in practice.
  • The Level of Public Acceptance to the Development of a Coastal Flooding Early Warning System in Jakarta

    Nelly Florida Riama; Riri Fitri Sari; Henita Rahmayanti; Widada Sulistya; Mohamad Husein Nurrahmat (MDPI AG, 2021-01-01)
    Coastal flooding is a natural disaster that often occurs in coastal areas. Jakarta is an example of a location that is highly vulnerable to coastal flooding. Coastal flooding can result in economic and human life losses. Thus, there is a need for a coastal flooding early warning system in vulnerable locations to reduce the threat to the community and strengthen its resilience to coastal flooding disasters. This study aimed to measure the level of public acceptance toward the development of a coastal flooding early warning system of people who live in a coastal region in Jakarta. This knowledge is essential to ensure that the early warning system can be implemented successfully. A survey was conducted by distributing questionnaires to people in the coastal areas of Jakarta. The questionnaire results were analyzed using cross-tabulation and path analysis based on the variables of knowledge, perceptions, and community attitudes towards the development of a coastal flooding early warning system. The survey result shows that the level of public acceptance is excellent, as proven by the average score of the respondents’ attitude by 4.15 in agreeing with the establishment of an early warning system to manage coastal flooding. Thus, path analysis shows that knowledge and perception have a weak relationship with community attitudes when responding to the coastal flooding early warning model. The results show that only 23% of the community’s responses toward the coastal flooding early warning model can be explained by the community’s knowledge and perceptions. This research is expected to be useful in implementing a coastal flooding early warning system by considering the level of public acceptance.
  • Assessment of the Degree of Factors Impact on Employment in Ukraine’s Agriculture

    Nataliia Patyka; Olena Gryschenko; Anatolii Kucher; Maria Hełdak; Beata Raszka (MDPI AG, 2021-01-01)
    Agriculture is an important branch in Ukraine’s economy. The share of agriculture’s GDP in the national economy is more than 10%. The development of agriculture stimulates the development of other sectors in national economy. According to the results of the analysis of the employment dynamics in Ukraine’s agriculture, it was concluded that there was a negative tendency. That is why the aim of the article is to specify the factors of impact on employment in Ukraine’s agriculture and to assess the degree of their influence. To achieve this goal, the different methods were used: system analysis—for determination the factors influencing employment in agriculture; factor analysis, multiple regression analysis, principal components method—for evaluating the impact of various factors on the employment in agriculture of Ukraine. It was found that the most significant social-demographic factors of impact on employment in Ukraine’s agriculture include the total rural population at the age 16–64 and the demand for labor force in agriculture, and the most important economic factor is labor productivity. Determining the factors and measures of their impact on employment will substantiate public policy measures, methods and mechanisms for their implementation to solve employment problems in Ukraine’s agriculture.

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