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  • Indigenous Knowledge and Acceptability of Treated Effluent in Agriculture

    Andrew Emmanuel Okem; Alfred Oduor Odindo (MDPI AG, 2020-11-01)
    The twin challenges of lack of access to improved sanitation and food insecurity remain critical, particularly in the global south. With cognizance of the nutrient potential of human excreta, there has been increasing interest in linking sanitation innovations with agriculture by using nutrients recovered from human excreta for crop production, thus, closing the nutrient loop. While studies and field trials have explored and validated the technical feasibility of reusing nutrients recovered from human excreta in agriculture, there is still limited knowledge of its social acceptability. This study examined whether indigenous knowledge can be leveraged to increase the acceptability of human-excreta-derived plant nutrient sources such as treated effluent in agriculture. A qualitative research design comprising seven focus group interviews (five in rural areas and two in peri-urban areas) was conducted in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa. Findings from the focus groups reveal a willingness to grow and consume food using treated effluent. Additionally, participants made references to indigenous practices that encourage recycling and reuse of human excreta. Given the potential to simultaneously address issues of food insecurity and sanitation that characterize many peri-urban and rural areas in South Africa, we recommend further studies in this area.
  • Envisaging Mitigation Action Can Induce Lower Discounting toward Future Environmental Gains and Promote Pro-Environmental Behavior

    Liang-Chu Ho; Yu-Hsien Sung; Chia-Chun Wu; Pei-Shan Lee; Wen-Bin Chiou (MDPI AG, 2020-11-01)
    Low engagement with climate change may stem from the tendency to discount the distant benefits of mitigation action. Hence, a reduced tendency to discount the future should be associated with increased involvement in climate change mitigation. Prior research has demonstrated that episodic future thinking (EFT; i.e., envisioning future events that involve self-projection) can reduce discounting. In two laboratory studies, we showed that engaging in EFT about mitigation action was associated with a lower discounting tendency toward future environmental gains (Experiments 1 and 2) and a greater tendency to act pro-environmentally, as manifested by using air conditioning in an energy-saving manner (Experiment 1), choosing a meal with less environmental impact (Experiment 2), and willingness to participate in beach cleaning (Experiment 2). The present findings suggest that engagement in EFT about mitigation action may represent a promising strategy for improving personal involvement in climate change.
  • Finding the Links between Risk Management and Project Success: Evidence from International Development Projects in Colombia

    Rocío Rodríguez-Rivero; Isabel Ortiz-Marcos; Javier Romero; Luis Ballesteros-Sánchez (MDPI AG, 2020-11-01)
    The aim of this research is to help improve the effectiveness of international development projects (IDPs) with a focus on enhancing their success. For this purpose, this work seeks to identify links between the management of risks among five projects executed in Cauca (Colombia) and the success of these projects in terms of project management and impacts on the beneficiary communities. An analysis of these projects reveals the most critical risks encountered and the relationships between the management of those risks and the success of the projects. The use of fuzzy logic through the fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) program is key to performing this difficult task. The results of a qualitative study reveal that the most important risks correspond to economic, cultural, and political factors. A quantitative analysis by fsQCA shows a direct relationship between the management of cultural differences and the positive impacts of IDPs on the beneficiary communities.
  • A Systematic Review for Urban Regeneration Effects Analysis in Urban Cores

    Michela Tiboni; Francesco Botticini; Sílvia Sousa; Natacha Jesus-Silva (MDPI AG, 2020-11-01)
    In this article, we aim to promote a methodology to analyze the effects of urban regeneration in historical sites. Different case studies are observed in depth, and they allow us to understand certain aspects concerning ex-post and ex-ante assessments. This methodology, which is supported by Geographic Information System (GIS) software and an online database, is based on different phases: the first is the quantification of the resources employed within the process, giving attention to the policies that are the basis for social and environmental changes. Then, the analysis moves to the effects of the interventions. In particular, the goal of the methodology was to understand how different urban operations can contribute to creating public value, and importance was given to the available tools for public bodies to develop partnerships and to capture that value. With the ex-post assessment, it was feasible to compare the situations before and after the realization of the projects, whereas, with the ex-ante assessment, it was viable to assess different possible development scenarios and compare them with the baseline of the current situation. The methodology was tested for the ex-post assessment case study of the city of Porto (PT) and for the ex-ante assessment case study of the city of Brescia (IT).
  • The Digitalization Sustainability Matrix: A Participatory Research Tool for Investigating Digitainability

    Shivam Gupta; Mahsa Motlagh; Jakob Rhyner (MDPI AG, 2020-11-01)
    Rapidly increasing applications of Digitalization and Artificial Intelligence (D&AI) are already impacting our day-to-day life substantially, along with social and economic prospects worldwide. The accelerating utilization of D&AI has stirred the discussion concerning the responsible application of technologies for assisting the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). D&AI can raise productivity, lower costs, reduce resource intensity, and enable efficient public services. However, there are also risks and downsides that we all must identify and tackle to address any potential short-/long-term undesired impact. Notably, there exists a gap in knowledge about the mutual relationships between D&AI and the 17 SDGs. To address this gap and gather broader perspectives of experts on the potential uses and pitfalls of D&AI for SDGs and their respective indicators, we propose a participatory research approach: the Digitalization–Sustainability Matrix (DSM). The DSM serves as a means for collaborative methods, such as participatory action research (PAR), for the knowledge production process. We exercised the DSM in the Digitainable Thinkathon event, a gathering of experts from diverse sectors and backgrounds for capturing the action-oriented dialogues concerning the use of D&AI technologies for the indicators of SDGs 4 (Education) and 13 (Climate Action). As a tool, the DSM aided in the discussion by systematically capturing transdisciplinary knowledge generated on several aspects, such as: (1) the need for research–practice nexus action; (2) data-capturing efforts and social considerations; (3) collaborative planning for utilizing the power of D&AI; (4) lessons from the diverse community to encourage the purposeful use of technologies. Overall, the proposed approach effectively triggered a discussion on the crucial aspects that need to be considered for D&AI’s practices, a step towards deep-rooting the transdisciplinary perspectives for meaningful use of D&AI for SDGs.
  • The Application of ICT and Smart Technologies in Polish Museums—Towards Smart Tourism

    Mateusz Naramski (MDPI AG, 2020-11-01)
    The concept of Smart Tourism is rapidly developing alongside Smart Cities, with increasing numbers of ICT solutions being applied for the convenience of travelers as well as for gathering information, which has become a valuable resource. The vast progress in the development of Information Technologies has also impacted the needs and expectations of tourists. However, various branches of tourism are adopting this concept at a different pace, and thus a growing development gap might emerge. Cases from all over the world show that museums are not immune to this, and it is important for their future to meet these expectations. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the use of modern technologies in Polish museums and assess their readiness for adopting Smart Tourism. For this purpose, a nationwide online survey was conducted with a sample size of 218 museums (from 500 unique entities in total). The results show that the issue of Smart Tourism in Polish museums is ambiguous. The results reveal that, currently, the status of Smart Tourism adoption in museums is quite low, and significant gaps in some areas are shown; at the same time, other areas revealed a high potential for the future application of Smart Tourism.
  • Improving Cooperation among Farmers for Communal Land Conservation in Ethiopia: A Public Goods Experiment

    Shunji Oniki; Haftu Etsay; Melaku Berhe; Teklay Negash (MDPI AG, 2020-11-01)
    Farmers in developing countries depend on communal natural resources, yet countries in Sub-Saharan Africa are facing the severe degradation of communal lands due to the so-called “tragedy of the commons”. For the sustainable management of common resources, policy interventions, such as farmer seminars, are necessary to ensure high-level cooperation among farmers for land conservation. However, the effects of this type of information provision are not well known. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of the dissemination of conservation information on collaborative communal forest management using an economic field experiment with 936 farmers selected by random sampling from 11 villages in the northern Ethiopian Highlands. We conducted a public goods game experiment using a framework of voluntary contribution to communal land conservation with an intervention to remind participants about the consequence of their behaviors. The results show that the volunteer contribution increased after the intervention, and thereafter the decay of the contribution was slow. The results indicate that providing information about the consequences leads to a higher contribution. The effects of information provision are heterogeneous in terms of social condition, such as access to an urban area and social capital, and individual characteristics, such as wealth. These findings imply that information provision effectively improves farmer collaboration toward natural resource conservation in developing countries.
  • Videogames and Innovation: Fostering Innovators’ Skills in Online-Learning Environments

    Hendrys Tobar-Muñoz; Juan G. Cárcamo; Henner Solarte; Christiam Ventes; Jorge H. Mesa (MDPI AG, 2020-11-01)
    Innovation is quite important for economies and entrepreneurs around the world, especially for developing countries such as Colombia, where this study was based. Therefore, education for innovation becomes as important, and newer and innovative educational means must be adjusted for developing skills in innovation and entrepreneurship. Innovator’s DNA is a framework of skills that are meant to be developed by innovators. This framework proposes five discovery skills, which are: observing, associating, experimenting, networking, and questioning. This paper studied whether and how videogames can develop innovators’ skills in students of entrepreneurship and innovation in online-learning environments, by directly observing the participation of 23 participants during an interaction with a game specifically tailored for fostering these skills. The videogame used is called CAFET, and it consists of a card-based game where players enact coffee industry entrepreneurs in Colombia. A mixed-methods research was carried out by coding each observable action conducted by the participants and interviewing them about their behaviors. Results showed that participants enact actions that may involve and develop innovator’s DNA skills, specifically observing, associating, and experimenting. This study analyzed how videogames can develop innovation skills and explains the behaviors observed among other insights.
  • Building Orientation in Green Facade Performance and Its Positive Effects on Urban Landscape Case Study: An Urban Block in Barcelona

    Faezeh Bagheri Moghaddam; Josep Maria Fort Mir; Alia Besné Yanguas; Isidro Navarro Delgado; Ernest Redondo Dominguez (MDPI AG, 2020-11-01)
    This paper addresses the effect of building orientation efficiency of the green facade in energy consumption, for which the case study is an urban block in Passeig de Gracia, L’Eixample, Barcelona. Nowadays, many countries are faced with the trouble of the deficiency of energy resources and the incapability of saving them. Most of this energy is consumed in the cooling, heating, and artificial ventilation of buildings. For this reason, the development of an integrated strategy like a green facade is essential to transform buildings into structures that consume less energy and to improve the occupants’ comfort conditions. From the perspective of the urban landscape, the green facade can influence the quality of life in cities due to its positive effects such as the purification of air, the absorption of carbon dioxide, and the mitigation of dust, as well as the aesthetic and psychological aspects. Such criteria are based on the adoption of suitable orientation for the green facade, which is the second layer of the facade in an office building with a curtain wall as the main facade. Since the most important factor in the implementation of a green facade is the building’s orientation, the optimum orientation could be the key factor in regards to the reduction of energy consumption and cost and the improvement of overall energy efficiency. We used software that helped simulate the total energy consumption, the cost, and the energy use intensity annually and monthly. Consequently, after testing was carried out, it was proven that a green facade as a second layer with a southeast and/or a southwest orientation results in the maximum energy saving in a coastal city with a Mediterranean climate like Barcelona.
  • Sustainable Ambient Environment to Prevent Future Outbreaks: How Ambient Environment Relates to COVID-19 Local Transmission in Lima, Peru

    Tsai-Chi Kuo; Ana Maria Pacheco; Aditya Prana Iswara; Denny Dermawan; Gerry Andhikaputra; Lin-Han Chiang Hsieh (MDPI AG, 2020-11-01)
    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), universally recognized as COVID-19, is currently is a global issue. Our study uses multivariate regression for determining the relationship between the ambient environment and COVID-19 cases in Lima. We also forecast the pattern trajectory of COVID-19 cases with variables using an Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average Model (ARIMA). There is a significant association between ambient temperature and PM<sub>10</sub> and COVID-19 cases, while no significant correlation has been seen for PM<sub>2.5</sub>. All variables in the multivariate regression model have R<sup>2</sup> = 0.788, which describes a significant exposure to COVID-19 cases in Lima. ARIMA (1,1,1), during observation time of PM<sub>2.5</sub>, PM<sub>10</sub>, and average temperature, is found to be suitable for forecasting COVID-19 cases in Lima. This result indicates that the expected high particle concentration and low ambient temperature in the coming season will further facilitate the transmission of the coronavirus if there is no other policy intervention. A suggested sustainable policy related to ambient environment and the lessons learned from different countries to prevent future outbreaks are also discussed in this study.
  • A Model to Evaluate the Flooding Opportunity and Sustainable Use of Former Open-Pits

    Izabela-Maria Apostu; Maria Lazar; Florin Faur (MDPI AG, 2020-11-01)
    As a result of open-pit mining exploitations, impressive size gaps occur in the landscape. Their flooding leads to the occurrence of so-called open-pit lakes and represents an interesting way to reclaim and use sustainably the degraded land. In the literature, there are numerous plans, strategies, and guidelines for mine closure and open-pit recovery, but these are usually developed at the regional or national level and offer general suggestions, which must be evaluated and approached case-by-case. Because there is still no way to evaluate the opportunity of flooding the open-pits, a methodology for assessing this opportunity was developed to identify the open-pits that are suitable for flooding, this being the main objective of the paper. The paper is novel because of the multicriteria evaluation of open-pits and their remaining gaps, the logical succession of the criteria, and the proposed concept, methods, models, and equations that allow a complex assessment of the flooding opportunity. The methodology also aims to ensure maximum safety conditions in the former mining perimeter, the socio-economic and cultural requirements of local communities, the harmonization of the land in accordance with adjacent ecosystems, and the sustainable development of the region.
  • Sustainable Financing for New Vaccines in Indonesia: Challenges and Strategies

    Fonette Fonjungo; Debabrata Banerjee; Rizky Abdulah; Ajeng Diantini; Arif S. W. Kusuma; Muhammad Y. Permana; Auliya A. Suwantika (MDPI AG, 2020-11-01)
    Immunization is one of the most cost-effective interventions in global health and has a crucial role in achieving 14 of the 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs). The issue of sustainable financing for new vaccines is particularly pertinent as Indonesia transitions away from extensive Gavi support towards a self-financing immunization system. As the current immunization system transitions, practical solutions must be found and applied to provide more flexibility in the budget for financing immunizations without sacrificing the current healthcare system’s needs. Despite the fact that economic evaluation studies are essential as an initial step to ensure financial readiness, the lack of reliable data is the first barrier to Indonesia’s journey toward a self-financing immunization system. To overcome this problem, standardization of data collection strategies and methodologies are required. In particular, Indonesia may have to explore other options to increase revenue for its immunization system, such as through general revenue from the central government, a sector-wide approach to financing, and a national trust fund. To deal with the tight immunization budget and its consequences, Indonesia also has to restructure its immunization system, which can be implemented through province block grants, insurance mandate and subsidy. Taking the potential of a COVID-19 vaccine into account, the Indonesian government should consider a number of costs and issues beyond the development and procurement of vaccines. The costs of delivering vaccines to the remote parts of Indonesia, implementing the necessary infrastructure, and modifying vaccine delivery are also important in this time of transition. These constraints must be addressed in the new self-financing system and other public health efforts must be increased to decrease the burden of infectious disease as Indonesia develops a stronger immunization system.
  • Corporate Sustainability Assessments in the Information Communication Technology Sector in Malaysia

    Agnes Pranugrahaning; Jerome Denis Donovan; Cheree Topple; Eryadi Kordi Masli (MDPI AG, 2020-11-01)
    The United Nations’ 2030 Agenda has further propelled the need for the private sector to engage with sustainable development. Corporate sustainability research seeks to specifically address this; however, extant literature highlights a paucity of research on how this occurs. In this study, we utilise an emerging process that has been identified to support managers in addressing sustainability—the corporate sustainability assessment (CSA). Utilising an in-depth case study and qualitative data collection, this study highlights how CSAs are a systematic and comprehensive approach to guide managers in how they can address sustainability. This study empirically examines three distinct but interconnected aspects of the CSA including the sustainability governance system, measurement of sustainability performance and sustainability reporting. With scant empirical studies on both CSAs and multinational enterprises (MNEs) operating in emerging markets, this study provides unique insights into two key traits of MNEs to understand the interplay between home- and host-country contexts and the industrial sector the MNE is operating within.
  • Ethics and Happiness at Work in the Spanish Financial Sector

    Sonia Castellanos-Redondo; Domingo Nevado-Peña; Benito Yañez-Araque (MDPI AG, 2020-11-01)
    Happiness at work requires a good working environment, which undoubtedly improves productivity. In this sphere, the concept is closely related to job satisfaction, which is one of the main factors determining individual happiness, along with home ownership, security, and a healthy environment. Innovative policies to improve corporate well-being—organizational ethics—improve the image of the company, and help transfer the concept of ‘happy management’ to all stakeholders. In addition, remote working, which has become essential for many during the COVID-19 pandemic, poses a key issue in terms of human resource management that needs to be taken into account. Using a survey of working-age Spanish citizens, we established a measure of organizational ethics based on the possible discrepancy between citizens’ personal happiness and their happiness at work. The analysis focused on one of the essential economic sectors in the face of the pandemic, the financial sector. These workers demand organizational ethics with clear values in social responsibility and training, going beyond the achievement of a socially acceptable income. A comparative linear model is also used to test the relationships between a number of conditioning variables and organizational ethics. Citizens’/workers’ priorities are found to shift towards quality of life with a healthy environment, rather than sustainability.
  • Relationships between Organic Beef Production and Agro-Ecosystems in Mountain Areas: The Case of Catalan Pyrenees

    Marta Teston; Daniel Villalba; Marco Berton; Maurizio Ramanzin; Enrico Sturaro (MDPI AG, 2020-11-01)
    This study analyzed the link between organic beef production and agroecosystems in mountain areas and the potential effects of land use change in eight farms of Catalan Pyrenees with a three step approach: (i) assessment of structural and management features; (ii) comparison of forage productivity and manure loads of 71 farmland parcels in relation with management intensity (natural meadows, seminatural meadows, temporary crops) and, for meadow parcels, with the farmers’ willingness to convert them to temporary crops; (iii) life cycle assessment of the environmental impacts. Each farm managed around 150 ha of pastures and 23 ha of farmland (of which only 5 as temporary crops), and maintained a herd of around 130 livestock units. Forage productivity and manure loads of farmland were modest and extremely variable, and no productive advantages could be predicted from the conversion of meadows to temporary crops. Environmental impacts were mostly related to the on-farm stages, because of low-input management and very high feed self-sufficiency, and the diets used showed very low feed/food competition. These results indicate a balance between organic beef production and management of mountain agroecosystems, which is a key point for sustainability and should be a priority in European policies and strategies.
  • The Symbiotic Bond of Income Equality and Organizational Equilibrium

    Vicente Roca-Puig (MDPI AG, 2020-11-01)
    The corporate sustainability literature postulates that companies are social entities that constantly interact with the society in which they are located. Although this idea is generally accepted, one persistent research gap in this field relates to testing this connection through quantitative empirical studies. In this study, we shed light on the bidirectional relationship between income inequality and organizational equilibrium (i.e., balance in the employment relationship). From data on 2525 companies covering a nine-year period and using longitudinal structural equation modeling, findings demonstrate that equity in the distribution of resources among people in a society positively influences equity in the distribution of resources between employer and employees, and vice versa. A symbiotic union of mutual benefit between society and business is, therefore, developed over time. Theoretical and practical implications of our findings are presented.
  • A Systemic Design Approach Applied to Rice and Wine Value Chains. The Case of the InnovaEcoFood Project in Piedmont (Italy)

    Eleonora Fiore; Barbara Stabellini; Paolo Tamborrini (MDPI AG, 2020-11-01)
    Attention to food waste is an increasingly growing phenomenon today, especially in the context of a circular economy. The InnovaEcoFood project investigates the use of by-products of the Piedmontese rice and wine production chains to valorize their untapped potential in the food sector by applying the Systemic Design approach. We collected, systematized, and visualized a range of solutions for exploiting these by-products, starting from an in-depth literature review on the two value chains. With the support of a consortium of partners from both multidisciplinary industrial and academic sectors, it was possible to validate the links that have been generated. Eventually, the project created food products that integrated these outputs as ingredients (like flour and butter) because they have antioxidant properties and are rich in proteins. InnovaEcoFood has successfully tested how value could be created from waste. Moreover, using rice hull, marc flour, and bran lipid (butter) is of immediate technical and economic feasibility. It could be considered a viable way that deserves further experimentation.
  • Community-Based Processes for Revitalizing Heritage: Questioning Justice in the Experimental Practice of Ecomuseums

    Giusy Pappalardo (MDPI AG, 2020-11-01)
    Heritage is not only what societies inherit from the past: it is also an opportunity for practicing the principles of sustainability in the making of the future. A community-based approach is pivotal for generating long lasting processes aimed at revitalizing heritage. This assertion has been widely stated in several norms and conventions, such as the 2000 European Landscape Convention and the 2005 European Convention on the Value of Cultural Heritage for Society. Some practices aimed at revitalizing heritage with a community-based approach can be ascribed to the organizational form of the so-called ecomuseums, born in France in the 1970s and today spread worldwide. Ecomuseums soon became a tool for organizing community-based processes aimed at protecting and enhancing heritage in its various facets while promoting local development. However, not every existing ecomuseum is also able to grasp the opportunity of including disadvantaged persons and guaranteeing the right to heritage for all. This paper discusses the innovative elements and criticalities of ecomuseums, questioning how could they target heritage’s enhancement as well as justice simultaneously. This paper gains evidence from an ongoing action-research process and provides policy recommendations for EU southern regions that are now starting to experiment with the practice of ecomuseums, such as Sicily (IT).
  • Geopolitical Risk and Tourism Stocks of Emerging Economies

    Mudassar Hasan; Muhammad Abubakr Naeem; Muhammad Arif; Syed Jawad Hussain Shahzad; Safwan Mohd Nor (MDPI AG, 2020-11-01)
    A bulk of literature suggests that geopolitical events such as terrorist attacks dampen tourism demand. However, there is little research on whether this effect helps predict the return of the tourism equity sector. We provide country-level evidence on whether local and global geopolitical risk (GPR) predicts the first and second moments of tourism stocks in emerging economies. This objective was achieved by employing the non-parametric causality-in-quantiles (CiQ) model and a cross-quantilogram (CQ) test, which allowed us to uncover the predictive potential of GPR for the tourism sector equities. Our findings, obtained through the CiQ model, suggest that while both local and global GPRs carry significant potential for predicting the returns and volatility of tourism stocks of most emerging economies under normal market conditions, they seem to play no such role in certain countries. These countries include South Korea, for which only a limited number of tourism stocks trade on the domestic stock market compared to other sectors, and Colombia, for which both the domestic stock market and tourism sectors are at an emerging stage. Further, it turns out that, compared to its local counterpart, global GPR has a more pronounced predictive power for the tourism stocks of emerging economies. Finally, with some exceptions, the results are qualitatively similar, and hence reasonably robust, to those when a directional predictability model is applied. Given that geopolitical shocks are largely unanticipated, our findings underscore the importance of a robust tourism sector that can help the market recover to stability as well as an open economy that allows local investors to diversify country-specific risks in their portfolios. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.
  • An Economic Approach to Assess the Annual Stock in Beekeeping Farms: The Honey Bee Colony Inventory Tool

    Monica Vercelli; Luca Croce; Teresina Mancuso (MDPI AG, 2020-11-01)
    For beekeepers, the beehive stock represents a fundamental means of ensuring the continuity of their activity, whether they are professionals or hobbyists. The evaluation of this asset for economic purposes requires knowledge of the rhythms and adaptations of honey bee colonies during the annual seasons. As in any breeding activity, it is necessary to establish the numerical and economic size of the species bred. Beekeepers are interested in this evaluation to monitor beehive stock. For keeping economic accounts of stock, a specific tool has been developed and proposed, here called the “Honey Bee Colony Inventory (HBCI)”. The HBCI can be used as either a final or preventive scheme to assess the numbers of honey bee colonies and nuclei, and the mortality rate, in order to calculate the monetary value. This tool allows the strength of honey bee colony stocks to be monitored, including fluctuations throughout the year, and will prove useful for determining solutions to maintain or increase how long stocks last. Data can be registered in countries such as Italy where the veterinary authorities request data on the stock owned and its variations. Due to widespread Varroa mite infestations, in recent years, beekeepers have experimented with a range of different biotechniques that have included queen caging as well as drone and total brood removal. To verify its effectiveness for gathering honey bee colony data, the HBCI was used in nine beekeeping farms applying different biotechniques to control Varroa mites: chemical treatment, total brood removal, queen caging and old queen replacement by royal cell insertion. The results are compared and discussed. Out of the nine farms, seven showed negative monetary value according to the HBCI, as expected, due to multiple factors such as the unfavorable climate trend of 2017 in the studied area. The positive aspect is that the application of this tool will allow farmers to monitor, manage and maintain their beehive stocks.

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