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  • A Typology of Professional Learning Communities (PLC) for Sub-Saharan Africa: A Case study of Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, and Nigeria

    Soares, Fernanda; Galisson, Kirsten; Van de Laar, Mindel (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2020-11-03)
    In the bid to improve teaching quality and promote an approach to teacher development that is grounded in the context in which teachers are inserted, Professional Learning Communities (PLCs) have become a popular alternative model of teacher professional development in many countries. PLCs, however, have been more widely studied in high-resource contexts. In a recognition that existing conceptualizations from the Western literature may not reflect how PLCs are functioning in developing countries, this research aims to inductively create a typology of PLCs that incorporates elements that might be specific to these countries, with a focus on Sub-Saharan Africa in general and based on the cases of Equatorial Guinea, Ghana and Nigeria in particular. This study employs a multimethod approach, encompassing document analysis, semi-structured interviews with PLC experts and expert validation. The resulting typology categorizes PLCs into three models - autonomous, structured and scripted. This typology of PLCs is further integrated with dimensions previously proposed by the Western literature to form one cohesive conceptual framework. By acknowledging PLC variability, we are able to incorporate into a framework modes of PLC operation that are specific to our case countries, and possibly to Sub-Saharan African and low- and middle-income countries more generally.
  • Anonymity, Mutual Disclosure and Trust in Online Counselling Relationships among Students of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    Omotehinse, Oluwaseun Solomon; Adebowale, Olusegun Fatai (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2020-11-03)
      The study examined the influence of anonymity and mutual disclosure on trust in online counselling relationships in Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. The population for the study comprised undergraduate and postgraduate students of Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Ile-Ife, Nigeria.  Findings revealed that majority of the students showed moderate level of trust. It was also revealed that anonymity (β = 0.310, p < 0.05) and mutual disclosure (β= 0.627, p < 0.05) had positive and significant influence on counsellor-client trust. Also, sex significantly and inversely influenced counsellor-client trust (β= -1.683, p < 0.05), while the type of concerns presented by students had no significant relationship with counsellor-client trust (F= 2.313, p > 0.05).   
  • Personal Epistemic and Learning Approaches as Predictors of Pre-service Teachers use of Strategies to Counter Cognitive Dissonance from Supervisor Feedback

    Oyetoro, Oyebode Stephen; Adesina, Bosede Abimbola; Eyebiokin, Tolulope Segun (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2020-10-29)
    This study investigated how epistemic and learning approaches of pre-service teachers (PRESETs) in Obafemi Awolowo University, Southwestern Nigeria, predict their use of strategies to counteract cognitive dissonance arising from incongruent feedback from supervisors. The study adopted the descriptive survey research design. The population comprised 192 PRESETs in the third and fourth year of their teacher training. Findings revealed that the PRESETs possessed sophisticated personal epistemic approaches and utilised the deep approach to learning more than the surface approach. It was also revealed that the PRESETs are likely to utilise multiple strategies to counteract cognitive dissonance that may arise from conflicting feedback from university assigned supervisors during teaching practice. Findings revealed a function with coefficients as follows: deep approach (0.78), simple knowledge (0.21), surface approach (0.22), innate ability (-0.015), quick learning (-0.09), omniscient authority (0.17) and certain knowledge (0.24). The structure was maximised for 77% of PRESETs with high use of strategies to counteract dissonance arising from incongruent supervisors’ feedback; 36.7% and 67.6% of PRESETs with moderate and low dissonance reduction strategy users respectively. The conclusion reached was that teacher educators and other stakeholders should be made aware of these findings. Also, these findings should be incorporated in the implementation of course contents on sources of cognitive dissonances during teaching practice and how to counter them.
  • Class Experiences with Inquiry Learning Spaces in Go-Lab in African Secondary Schools

    Coenders, Fer; Gomes, Nuno; Sayegh, Rola; Kinyanjui, Isaac; Noutahi, Aurelle; Madu, Nissi (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2020-10-28)
    Inquiry Based Learning (IBL) is a form of active learning, often used in STEM education to promote conceptual learning and to acquire scientific investigation skills. This paper reports on a study in which teachers in Kenya, Nigeria and the Republic of Benin implemented IBL embedded in online and offline Inquiry Learning Spaces (ILS) in their classes using the Go-Lab platform ( After a brief description of the IBL methodology, of lab work and in particular virtual labs for STEM education, of the process of preparing teachers to use IBL in class, and of the context of this study, we highlight the methodology used, and finally report our results. These show that the introduction and class enactment of a digital inquiry based learning platform such as Go-Lab in Africa (i) is possible, although challenging, (ii) does lead to student learning, (iii) for this to take place teacher training is necessary, (iv) the digital infrastructure is present in the schools though minimal and fragile, and (v) a local partner needs to provide assistance when required.
  • Impact of Flipped Classroom on Mathematics Learning Outcome of Senior Secondary School Students in Lagos, Nigeria

    Makinde, Semiu Olawale (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2020-10-28)
    This study examined the impact of the flipped classroom on the learning outcome of secondary school students in mathematics in Lagos, Nigeria. It examined the impact of a flipped classroom package (FCP) on post-test performance (PP) and retention performance (RP) of students in Mathematics; it also sought to determine the influence of gender on PP and RP of students towards learning mathematics in the flipped classroom (FC). This is in response to the search for means to reverse the poor performance of students in mathematics O’level West African Secondary School Certificate Examinations. The flipped classroom, an innovative teaching technique, was introduced as a possible corrective that could produce effective student learning engagement and performance. A Quasi-experimental design was adopted and 275 Senior secondary school (SSS) 2 Students, 147experimental and 128 as control (conventional) intact classes, constituted the purposive sampled population for the study. Three research instruments: Flipped Classroom Package, Lesson Note and Performance Test were validated by expects and used for the study. The instruments were also checked for reliability; and the inter-rater reliability coefficient of a developed FC package was 0.79; lesson note, 0.83; and test instrument 0.85. Four hypotheses were raised and tested after 6 weeks of the experiment. The results of the findings indicated that the flipped classroom encourages good performance in mathematics and should, thus, be encouraged in schools for being a student centred learning approach. The study concluses among others that teachers should be encouraged to attend seminars and workshops on the use of the approach for effective performance of the learners.   
  • Knowledge and Awareness of Autism Spectrum Disorder Among Teachers in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    Omolayo, Benjamin; Auta, Michael; Akinyemi, Elizabeth; Dennis, Uba (Sustainable Programs to Reduce Educational and Avocational Disadvantages (SPREAD), 2020-10-28)
    This is an investigation of the knowledge and awareness of Autism Spectrum Disorder among secondary school teachers in Ekiti State, Nigeria. It is a school-based cross-sectional study using a multi-stage sampling method to select local government areas, secondary schools, and participants for the study. A total of 107 teachers selected from 21 secondary schools in 2 local government areas participated in the study. A Survey of Knowledge of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASK-ASD) was used to assess knowledge while an ordinary awareness questionnaire was used to assess the teachers' awareness of the disorder. Using Pearson correlation coefficient and one-way Analysis of Variance to test five hypotheses, results showed no significant relationship between knowledge of Autism Spectrum Disorder and participants having a family or friend with the disorder (r (105) = -.113 p>.05). Finding also revealed a significant relationship between knowledge of Autism and prior training on Autism (r(107) = -.266 p<.05). Age has a significant influence on knowledge of the disorder (F (2, 98) = 4.29 p<.05) but school type (F (2, 104) = 2.506 p>.05) and teaching experience (F (2,103) = 1.971 p>.05) do not have a significant influence on knowledge of Autism. The result further shows that 96.2% of the participants were aware of the disorder while 3.8% were unaware of it. It was recommended that secondary school teachers be equipped with information about Autism Spectrum Disorder through periodic seminars, workshops, and conferences.
  • Worship music localization : a case study of the revival Christian church of Hong Kong=敬拜音樂的本土化實踐 - 香港基督教復興教會的個案研究

    Fang, Bo (Christian Study Centre on Chinese Religion and Culture, Chung Chi College, Shatin, Hong Kong, 2017)
    In the musical scholarship of the past, Christian music was studied mainly in terms of genre, repertory, and its practitioners. This article proposes an ethnographic study of the “contemporary praise-andworship music” in Hong Kong by analyzing the music of the Revival Christian Church of Hong Kong, one of the most influential Pentecostal churches in Hong Kong and Mainland China, in its social and cultural context. This study illuminates the significant function of worship music in connecting modern Christian churches of Hong Kong to their local environment. The social functions of this kind of music are also explored, adding to a theoretical understanding that is significant to ethnomusicology and theology.
  • The indigenized characteristics of modern ministry poetry in the Chinese mainland during the republican period=民國時期大陸事工新詩的本色化特徵

    Xue, Yuanyuan (Christian Study Centre on Chinese Religion and Culture, Chung Chi College, Shatin, Hong Kong, 2017)
    The modern ministry poetry is non-singing poetry written by Christians for the missionary purpose. In this paper, the modern ministry poetry in the Chinese mainland flourishing from 1921 to 1949 will be studied against the background of the Christian Indigenization Campaign in the 1920s. Compared with western religious poetry, the objective of modern ministry poetry is clearly directed to missionary work. The contents of the poetry widely involve secular life, and the quality and writing skills of different modern ministry poems are disparate. These characteristics came from the special period of the Republic of China (1912–49) and gradually faded after 1949.
  • The creation of “Sino-Christian hymns” : from the perspective of the indigenization of Chinese Christianity=「漢語讚美詩」的生成 - 以中國基督教的本土化為視野

    Xu, Songzan (Christian Study Centre on Chinese Religion and Culture, Chung Chi College, Shatin, Hong Kong, 2017)
    This paper aims to present the creation of “Sino-Christian hymns” from the perspective of “Genetic Structuralism,” and the inner logic of the indigenization of Chinese Christianity. Since the early twentieth century, indigenous sects construct their sectarian identity by writing, editing, and singing their own hymns. Among these hymns, on the one hand, both intellectual writing and popular writing present Christian faith via traditional images and historical narratives. On the other hand, specific Sino-Christian hymns are selected by individual sects to present their identities and theological purport, which have shaped the distinctive developments of different indigenous sects.
  • “I’m on the way”: Shi Tiesheng’s viewpoint of Christianity based on the human world=「我在路上」 - 論史鐵生基於人間本位的基督教觀

    Yi, Jin (Christian Study Centre on Chinese Religion and Culture, Chung Chi College, Shatin, Hong Kong, 2017)
    Shi Tiesheng, a famous contemporary writer, expands the doctrine of original sin in Christianity to include the disability and limitation in humanity, and advocates making the wish of love in human world to transcend the limitation. His perspective always focuses on the world, advocating to combine the purpose with the process and to cope with the suffering of real life by believing in Christianity. He also distinguishes religious spirit from religious belief. In this paper, the actual attitude of Shi Tiesheng towards Christianity will be laid out by scrutinizing four aspects of his viewpoint of Christianity based on the world. His profound philosophical ideas and consciousness for social concern, which are reflected in his works, will be presented, thus facilitating future research on his achievement in literature.
  • “Does the sick need a doctor?” : the debate over divine healing in the reform-era Protestantism=有病的人需要醫生?- 改革開放以來基督新教的神蹟醫病論爭

    Wang, Zhixi (Christian Study Centre on Chinese Religion and Culture, Chung Chi College, Shatin, Hong Kong, 2017)
    Focusing on the magazine of the Protestant churches in China entitled Tian Feng, the article examines the debate over the issue of divine healing in the Reform-era Protestantism. It is widely thought that Christians get ill because they have sinned against God or are attacked by the Devil. Therefore, those who hold on to the conviction of divine healing believe that Christians who suffer from maladies should be healed by (and frequently only by) praying and/or exorcism. Accordingly, the Three-Self Church leaders who oppose to the advocates of divine healing interpret some biblical texts in arguing that “the sick needs a doctor.”
  • Strive for a healthy “body”: investigating the Christian anti-opium discourses in the late Qing New Age novels=富國.強身 - 清末時新小說的基督教治鴉片害表述

    Kwong, Chi-Leung (Christian Study Centre on Chinese Religion and Culture, Chung Chi College, Shatin, Hong Kong, 2017)
    After the First Sino-Japanese War (1894–95), John Fryer (1839– 1928) advertised to call for “New Age Novel” written in “Christian tone” concerning three late Qing social problems: opium smoking, eight-legged essay, and foot binding. The manuscripts, being rediscovered in 2006, can enhance our understanding of how Chinese Christians in late Qing thought about the issue of national survival. In this paper, the anti-opium discourses in Christian tone of the entries will be discussed under several themes. It aims to show how Christianity has shaped the interpretation of reality, and how the social contexts have shaped the interpretation of the Bible, among the participants. This paper is expected to contribute to the study of contextualization of Christianity and contextual interpretation of the Bible in China.
  • Reconstruction of Christianity in early nineteenth century China from Confucian views of religion: Yao Ying and Kangyou Jixing=從儒者宗教觀重探基督宗教

    Hung, Tak-Wai (Christian Study Centre on Chinese Religion and Culture, Chung Chi College, Shatin, Hong Kong, 2017)
    "This article focuses on Yao Ying (1785–1853) and his travel memoirs, Kangyou Jixing, to discuss his view of religions and understanding of Christianity. His experience of serving the Manchu court in diplomatic and religious affairs is crucial in the construction of his religious view. While “Tian Dao” in Confucianism was the core of his religious view, he admitted that diversified international society would give birth to different religions. Though all religions are assumed to be derivatives of “Tian Dao” and hierarchical, Yao did not propose Confucianism as the ultimate destination of other religions. His criterion for evaluating religion was its ability to maintain the order of human society, which is also the core of “Tian Dao.” Finally, this article points out that scholars should situate the study of Chinese Christianity in the context of Chinese intellectual and religious history. "
  • Reassessing on the authenticity of two Jingjiao manuscripts possessed by Kyou-shooku in Japan : an investigation from the perspective of Syrian-Chinese translation=日本杏雨書屋藏兩件唐代 景教寫本真僞再辨 - 基於敘漢譯詞角度之考察

    Wang, Lanping (Christian Study Centre on Chinese Religion and Culture, Chung Chi College, Shatin, Hong Kong, 2017)
    "Over the past few decades, the authenticity of The Discourse on Monotheism and The Jesus Messiah Sutra—two Jingjiao manuscripts which are collected by Japanese scholars Tomioka Kenzô and Takakusu Junjirô, have been questioned by Lin Wushu and Rong Xinjiang. They proposed that these two manuscripts were probably fabricated in the early twentieth century. One of the evidences is that the translations of “Jesus” or “Messiah” in the two manuscripts appear suspicious. In this article, the author finds out that the so-called evidence is not valid. On the basis of many Chinese characters translated from Syriac in the two manuscripts, we come to a completely opposite conclusion. "
  • The role of Taiwan religions in Sunflower Student movement : from the perspective of religious market theory=從宗教市場理論角度看 宗教在台灣太陽花學運中的角色

    Wang, Po-Hsien (Christian Study Centre on Chinese Religion and Culture, Chung Chi College, Shatin, Hong Kong, 2017)
    "During the Sunflower Student Movement, many religious groups were absent except the Presbyterian Church in Taiwan. Meanwhile, churches of other denominations began to provide reminders about the right attitude towards joining the movement. Whereas in Taiwanese Buddhism, though there was an episode, three major Buddhist groups took appropriate actions in their political participation. This study attempts to understand the response and role of religions in the student movement by using the theory of religious market. "
  • Transformation of cultural Identification of the Presbyterian Church in Taiwan after the 1980s=台灣基督長老教會文化認同的轉變 - 論 1980 年代後興起的台灣文化觀"

    Cheng, Mu-Chun (Christian Study Centre on Chinese Religion and Culture, Chung Chi College, Shatin, Hong Kong, 2017)
    "The Presbyterian Church in Taiwan is the largest Christian denomination in Taiwan and maintains a distinctive political stance on Taiwan independence. The shift of its self-identity from being proud of “the Greater China” to embracing “Taiwan” started around the 1990s. This article discusses the changes in the discourses of Taiwan Church News on Taiwanese culture, and studies how Taiwanese culture took the place of Chinese culture when the latter was viewed as hindering Taiwan from improvement. Furthermore, the article seeks to analyze the implications of such transition."
  • The decline of Christianity in traditional popular spots : a fieldwork study in Taogu Lisu village of Yunnan= 基督教在傳統熱點地區的衰落現象 - 雲南滔谷僳僳族村的實證調查"

    Lin, Changbai; Zeng, Li (Christian Study Centre on Chinese Religion and Culture, Chung Chi College, Shatin, Hong Kong, 2017)
    "The decline of Christianity in traditional popular spots : a fieldwork study in Taogu Lisu village of Yunnan The decline of Christianity in the traditional missionary centers and popular spots of ethnic groups in Yunnan reveals the developmental pattern of Christianity from a new perspective, which helps us to understand the localization process of Christianity in China. Based on documentary and fieldwork materials, this paper begins with the history of Christianity in a traditional popular spot, Taogu Lisu Village in the North Yunnan, and presents the decline of Christianity in modern social context from the internal and external perspective of religious life. In the end, it analyses the reasons of the decline of Christianity from the dimensions of believers, religious organization, and social context. "
  • The sovereignty conflict over border educational affairs between the nationalist government and the Protestant church in Northwestern Guizhou in the 1930s=從民族到國族 - 國民政府與貴州西北基督教會 教育主權的衝突與合作

    Hu, Chi-Jui (Christian Study Centre on Chinese Religion and Culture, Chung Chi College, Shatin, Hong Kong, 2017)
    "In this article, I will discuss the sovereignty conflict over border educational affairs between the Nationalist Government and the Protestant Church in northwestern Guizhou in 1930s. From late Qing Dynasty, the Protestant missionaries built lots of schools in border China and confused the minorities’ national identity. Under the pressure of the second Sino-Japanese War, the Government tried to take back the educational sovereignty from the churches among the minorities. On the other hand, the native intellects wanted to take this chance to promote their ethnicity and to show their agency in responding to the Government as a mediator between the Government and minority society. "
  • Two mission strategies of the early united Methodist church in Shimenkan =向上開拓與向下鞏固 - 石門坎循道公會早期的兩種傳教策略

    Hu, Qingxin (Christian Study Centre on Chinese Religion and Culture, Chung Chi College, Shatin, Hong Kong, 2017)
    "In the historical research on the United Methodist Church in Shimenkan, the glamour of Samuel Pollard shadows the efforts of his colleagues. In this article, with the help of the archives and personal correspondence of Samuel Pollard and Harry Parsons who was Pollard’s colleague and successor, I will retrace the history of Christianity in the Da Hua Miao ethnic group and discover the differences between Pollard’s and Parsons’ mission thoughts from the perspective of theology, mission strategy and attitude towards relationship between missionary and local community. Then I will reconstruct the development of the United Methodist church in Shimenkan, which was the fruit of Pollard’s emphasis on development plus Parsons’ pragmatic attitude. Both attributed to lay the foundation of the unique “Teacher-Preacher” community of the United Methodist Church. "
  • Twenty years of research on state-religion relations in China : sociological perspective=中國政教關係研究二十年—社會學的觀點

    Chan, Shun-hing (Christian Study Centre on Chinese Religion and Culture, Chung Chi College, Shatin, Hong Kong, 2017)
    Over the last two decades, social science researchers have published a variety of works on state–religion relations in China. This paper examines five different works, explains their theoretical models and approaches, and evaluates their contributions and limitations. These works include Richard Madsen’s model of control and resistance, Mayfair Yang’s secularization theory, Vincent Goossaert and David Palmer’s ecological approach, Yang Fenggang’s religious market theory, and Peter van der Veer, Yoshiko Ashiwa, and David Wank’s institutional theory. The conclusion proposes some suggestions for studying state–religion relations in contemporary China.

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