Acta Bioethica is a biannual journal published by the Interdisciplinary Center in Bioethics Studies. The journal presents pluralists perspectives on bioethics issues and constitutes an important platform for contributions of qualified authors compromised with an interdisciplinary vision of conditions and ethical consequences of scientific technology in research.

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The Globethics.net library contains articles of Acta Bioethica as of vol.6(2000) to current.

Recent Submissions

  • The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly: A pragmatic approach for revisiting ethics and Internet politics

    Saldías,Osvaldo; Züger,Theresa C (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, Universidad de Chile, 2013-06-01)
    The article stems from a broader ongoing research project on Internet, Global Constitutionalism and Ethics. We attempt to brisk up traditional ethical thinking against the background of urgent questions concerning the Internet. By revisiting the perspective of cosmopolitanism that was inspired by Kant s thesis of a universal rationality, reflecting upon Hanna Arendt s critical analysis of moral claims and political outcome, and building on Capurro s net ethics , we introduce a perspective aiming at an intercultural understanding that might guide our actions in global politics in times of the so called digital era. The article advances the idea by Hannah Arendt that a concrete example as such has moral relevance and therefore makes a case to foster this approach using best practices as explicit examples to follow.
  • THE GOOD, THE BAD, AND THE UGLY: A PRAGMATIC APPROACH FOR REVISITING ETHICS AND INTERNET POLITICS

    Osvaldo Saldías; Theresa C. Züger (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, 2013)
    The article stems from a broader ongoing research project on Internet, Global Constitutionalism and Ethics. We attempt to brisk up traditional ethical thinking against the background of urgent questions concerning the Internet. By revisiting the perspective of cosmopolitanism that was inspired by Kants thesis of a universal rationality, reflecting upon Hanna Arendts critical analysis of moral claims and political outcome, and building on Capurros net ethics, we introduce a perspective aiming at an intercultural understanding that might guide our actions in global politics in times of the so called digital era. The article advances the idea by Hannah Arendt that a concrete example as such has moral relevance and therefore makes a case to foster this approach using best practices as explicit examples to follow.
  • LA APLICACIÓN DEL CONCEPTO DE AUTOPOIESIS EN LOS ESTUDIOS DE GÉNERO: EL DERECHO A AUTOCOMPONERSE DEL SUJETO EN REFERENCIA A SU IDENTIDAD SEXUAL

    Vivanco Martínez,Ángela (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, Universidad de Chile, 2006-01-01)
    El presente artículo trata algunas claves aportadas por los estudios de género, en relación con los roles esenciales de hombre y mujer, y con el modo en el que el Derecho los asume. En esa perspectiva, se plantea la crítica de los estudios de género a un modelo patriarcal y su cuestionamiento ético y jurídico a un sistema universal de derechos y al concepto constitucional de "persona", el que afirmaría la jerarquización de los sujetos y su dependencia a los estereotipos. En cambio, se postula un sistema de autocomposición del sujeto que recoge las características que Maturana y Varela otorgaron a los seres vivos, superando el propio encapsulamiento de la sociedad que significa reconocerla como una unidad cerrada. Para ello, será necesaria la utilización sistemática del conflicto, en orden a posibilitar la "diferencia" y la existencia de estatutos diversos y omnicomprensivos de las realidades humanas
  • PARTICIPACIÓN POLÍTICA DE LAS MUJERES. ASPECTOS DE CONFLUENCIA ENTRE LA ÉTICA Y LOS DERECHOS HUMANOS

    Tatiana Rein Venegas (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, 2013)
    Este artículo explora los vínculos entre ética global y derechos humanos, con un foco particular en la participación política de las mujeres, como una forma de indagar en las posibles ampliaciones al campo de la ética global. Para ello, se determinan los alcances de los conceptos de ética y de ética global, así como de derechos humanos, y se examinan los vínculos entre ellos, particularmente la incorporación de consideraciones éticas por los derechos humanos y la fuerza que éstos les otorgan. Finalmente, el artículo se centra en los derechos de las mujeres y, específicamente, en la participación política; se analizan diversas alternativas, que van de las tradicionales de participación parlamentaria a formas como el establecimiento de agencias gubernamentales para mejorar la condición de las mujeres, y a formas de intervención a través de movimientos de mujeres. Se concluye apelando a la necesidad de que, tanto desde la ética como de los derechos humanos, se evalúen fórmulas para lograr la implementación de estos derechos que, en parte, pueden derivar de la incorporación más permanente de los movimientos de mujeres en la toma de decisión de políticas públicas.
  • DESPENALIZACIÓN DEL ABORTO EN CHILE. UNA CUESTIÓN DE JUSTICIA SOCIAL

    Claudia Donoso Sabando (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, 2016)
    Las posturas respecto de este tema se mueven en un continuo que va desde los movimientos ultraconservadores hasta los más liberales. En este contexto, establecer políticas sanitarias sobre la base de sistemas morales absolutos no resulta política ni éticamente correcto en sociedades pluralistas como la nuestra. Por lo mismo, urge establecer unos acuerdos mínimos que permitan el desarrollo de los proyectos de vida feliz de cada cual. Chile, con una política fuertemente antiabortista, necesita revisar sus legislaciones con el fin de asegurar una atención justa a todos sus ciudadanos. Los datos estadísticos revelan que la prohibición no elimina la práctica, más aún, coloca en una condición francamente disminuida a los que ya presentan una situación de desventaja producto de la lotería social de la vida. Poner atención a este tema y actuar de una vez manifestando de manera tangible lo que tantas veces se ha conversado en nuestro país, es una deuda de justicia que el estado chileno tiene con todas las mujeres.
  • LA VALORACIÓN DE LA VIDA, LA SUBJETIVACIÓN DEL EMBRIÓN Y EL DEBATE SOBRE EL ABORTO: APORTES DESDE UNA PERSPECTIVA CRÍTICA

    José Manuel Morán Faúndes (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, 2014)
    El artículo analiza críticamente la forma en la que se planteado el debate ético y jurídico en torno al aborto, como un conflicto de derechos entre el embrión y la mujer, mostrando los modos en los que se ha construido la figura del embrión, como un sujeto susceptible de valoración moral y protección jurídica. En particular, se discute la posición que asume al cigoto indefectiblemente como un sujeto moral, por el hecho de poseer un genoma distinto del de sus progenitores, otorgándole un estatuto jurídico equivalente al de las mujeres. Así, se establece una crítica en torno al modo como esta posición, a través del uso de un lenguaje científico que se presenta como objetivo, ha tendido a invisibilizar las formas sociales y culturales que construyen la valoración de la vida.
  • NURSE ATTITUDES IN RELATION TO HEALTH CARE ETHICS AND LEGAL REGULATIONS FOR NURSING

    Marta Elena Losa Iglesias; Ricardo Becerro de Bengoa Vallejo (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, 2014)
    The nursing environment is full of situations under ethical and legal constraints. Therefore this study focused on the knowledge, position and attitudes of nurses in relation to healthcare ethics and nursing legal regulations. We conducted a pretest and posttest study using a specific questionnaire administered to a convenience sample of nurses who worked in a healthcare system in Principado de Asturias, a northern state of Spain and were enrolled in a continuing nursing education program about ethical and legal aspects in the nursing profession. The main findings suggest that nurses are very concerned about situations that create ethical and legal conflicts but do not feel sufficiently trained. In general, they demonstrated suf - ficient knowledge to address the most frequent ethical and moral situations of nursing work, and the training received during a postgraduate course in ethics and legislation provided them with greater knowledge and tools to solve the dilemmas In conclusion, although the nurses have university-level education about professional deontology, bioethics and nursing legisla - tion, they require periodic continuing education.
  • RESEARCH ETHICS TRAINING OF TRAINERS: DEVELOPING CAPACITY OF BOLIVIAN HEALTH SCIENCE AND CIVIL SOCIETY LEADERS

    Annette Aalborg; Sarah Sullivan; Jacqueline Cortes; Armando Basagoitia; Daniel Illanes; Matthew Green (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, 2016)
    Research and research ethics (RE) capacity is a key element for addressing health priorities of low - and middle- income countries (LMICs). With support from a NIH/FIC Research Ethics Education and Curriculum Development grant, a RE Training of Trainers (TOT) was implemented in Bolivia. The Steering Committee, including representatives from four Bolivian universities and PAHO, developed the RE TOT that included face-to-face, online and practicum components. Twenty trainees including faculty, researchers and community leaders participated. Pre/Posttest results demonstrated significant increases in overall RE knowledge (13.1% improvement, p-value < 0.0001). An evaluation demonstrated participants valued participatory learning strategies and the flexibility of the online component. TOT participants during the practicum component delivered RE workshops to their university and civil society communities in four regions (n= 3,700 people). The goals of the grant were accomplished through the development of a Steering Committee and implementation of the TOT course. Next steps include the design and implementation of a masters level research ethics education program in Bolivia.
  • Nurse attitudes in relation to health care ethics and legal regulations for nursing

    Losa Iglesias,Marta Elena; Becerro de Bengoa Vallejo,Ricardo (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, Universidad de Chile, 2014-11-01)
    The nursing environment is full of situations under ethical and legal constraints. Therefore this study focused on the knowledge, position and attitudes of nurses in relation to healthcare ethics and nursing legal regulations. We conducted a pretest and posttest study using a specific questionnaire administered to a convenience sample of nurses who worked in a healthcare system in Principado de Asturias, a northern state of Spain and were enrolled in a continuing nursing education program about ethical and legal aspects in the nursing profession. The main findings suggest that nurses are very concerned about situations that create ethical and legal conflicts but do not feel sufficiently trained. In general, they demonstrated sufficient knowledge to address the most frequent ethical and moral situations of nursing work, and the training received during a postgraduate course in ethics and legislation provided them with greater knowledge and tools to solve the dilemmas. In conclusion, although the nurses have university-level education about professional deontology, bioethics and nursing legislation, they require periodic continuing education.
  • DEVELOPMENT ETHICS, DELIBERATIVE DEMOCRACY AND ENVIRONMENTAL CITIZENSHIP. THE GLOBAL CHALLENGE OF SUSTAINABILITY

    Villarroel, Raul (PROGRAMA REGIONAL DE BIOETICA DE LA ORGANIZACION PANAMERICANA DE LA SALUD / OMS, 2013)
  • MORAL DE MERCADO VERSUS SEGURIDAD ALIMENTARIA: UNA APROXIMACIÓN DESDE LA ÉTICA DEL BIEN COMÚN

    Lara Cortés,Claudio (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, Universidad de Chile, 2001-01-01)
    La persistencia del hambre en el mundo, a pesar de su insuficiente visibilidad en los medios de comunicación, replantea con urgencia la temática de la seguridad alimentaria. Actualmente los modelos y políticas económicas y las guerras son factores más importantes en el hambre que los desastres naturales o el decaimiento de la producción agrícola incriminados en otras épocas. También es claro que no es posible explicar el hambre por la escasez de alimentos en el mundo. Sin embargo, estas certezas no producen conductas y políticas coherentes, puesto que la lógica neoliberal impide, en particular, al Estado inmiscuirse en las reglas del mercado. Junto con el problema del hambre se acentúa la dependencia de muchos países de la Región respecto de la oferta alimentaria, generándose una verdadera inseguridad alimentaria. En este contexto convendría entender el problema de la seguridad alimentaria como un tema ético, en la perspectiva del bien común con objeto de reaccionar adecuada y oportunamente
  • Moral de mercado versus seguridad alimentaria: una aproximación desde la ética del bien común

    Claudio Lara Cortés (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, 2001)
    La persistencia del hambre en el mundo, a pesar de su insuficiente visibilidad en los medios de comunicación, replantea con urgencia la temática de la seguridad alimentaria. Actualmente los modelos y políticas económicas y las guerras son factores más importantes en el hambre que los desastres naturales o el decaimiento de la producción agrícola incriminados en otras épocas. También es claro que no es posible explicar el hambre por la escasez de alimentos en el mundo. Sin embargo, estas certezas no producen conductas y políticas coherentes, puesto que la lógica neoliberal impide, en particular, al Estado inmiscuirse en las reglas del mercado. Junto con el problema del hambre se acentúa la dependencia de muchos países de la Región respecto de la oferta alimentaria, generándose una verdadera inseguridad alimentaria. En este contexto convendría entender el problema de la seguridad alimentaria como un tema ético, en la perspectiva del bien común con objeto de reaccionar adecuada y oportunamente.
  • PUBLIC HEALTH AND PUBLIC HEALTH ETHICS

    Benatar,Solomon R (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, Universidad de Chile, 2003-01-01)
    Spectacular achievements in the health of individuals have not been matched by equivalent improvement in the health of whole populations. Indeed it is against the background of deterioration in levels of population health in some parts of the world and the emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases in association with powerful globalizing forces that there has been a recrudescence of interest in 'Public Health'. Here attention is drawn to the dominant values that have shaped our world, to the differences between broad and narrow definitions of public health, to some values that need to be promoted, and to an ethic of public health that considers both human rights and human needs
  • PUBLIC HEALTH ETHICS: TOWARDS A RESEARCH AGENDA

    Thompson,Alison; Robertson,Ann; Upshur,Ross (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, Universidad de Chile, 2003-01-01)
    Public health ethics, as distinct from clinical/medical bioethics, is an emerging field of study in academic settings. As part of a larger effort to address what the conceptual and content boundaries of this field are, or ought to be, a group at the University of Toronto hosted an international working symposium to discuss and outline a research agenda for public health ethics. The symposium, which took place in May 2002, was organized into four major areas of ethical concern central to public health: individual rights and the common good; risk and precaution; surveillance and regulation; and social justice and global health equity. This paper will provide an overview of some of the main themes and issues that emerged from the key papers that were developed from the symposium and discuss their importance in the emerging field of public health ethics. Significant issues were identified, such as the importance of distinguishing public health ethics from traditional bioethics; the development of the notion of common interests; broad definitions of public health, that include upstream sources of health inequities, and an understanding of the theoretical landscape from which public health ethics has emerged
  • FRAMEWORKS FOR ETHICS IN PUBLIC HEALTH

    Jennings,Bruce (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, Universidad de Chile, 2003-01-01)
    This paper constructs a conceptual framework for the normative study of public health. It argues that to develop discussions of ethics in public health without paying attention to the broader theoretical and ideological context of public health controversies and social conflicts will be of limited value. In defining that context, the author distinguishes three main types of ethical theory-utilitarianism, contractarianism, and communitarianism; and several varieties of political theory -liberal welfarism, liberal egalitarianism, libertarian liberalism, deliberative democracy, civic republicanism, and cultural conservatism. The meanings and interconnections of these theory formations are discussed. Illustrations to particular public health programs and issues are given. The paper also distinguishes four different types of applied ethical discourse in public health-professional ethics, advocacy ethics, applied ethics, and critical ethics. Each of these modes of ethics is important, but the development of work in critical ethics is the most important priority within the normative study of public health at present
  • THE AXIOLOGICAL DIMENSION IN PSYCHIATRIC DIAGNOSIS

    Lolas Stepke,Fernando (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, Universidad de Chile, 2009-11-01)
    This paper addresses the need to consider the valoric constitution of patients and therapists in the context of psychiatric encounters and proposes the notion of axiogram, a depiction of values and moral beliefs to incorporate into the clinical history as a proxy to a nosological dimension complementing the traditional multiaxial approach.
  • Ethics in psychosocial and biomedical research - A training experience at the Interdisciplinary Center for Bioethics (CIEB) of the University of Chile

    Fernando Lolas; Eduardo Rodriguez (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, 2012)
    This paper reviews the experience in training Latin American professionals and scientists in the ethics of biomedical and psychosocial research at the Interdisciplinary Center for Studies in Bioethics (CIEB) of the University of Chile, aided by a grant from Fogarty International Center (FIC) - National Institutes of Health from 2002 to 2011. In these 10 years of experience, 50 trainees have completed a 12-month training combining on-line and in-person teaching and learning activities, with further support for maintaining contact via webmail and personal meetings. The network formed by faculty and former trainees has published extensively on issues relevant in the continent and has been instrumental in promoting new master level courses at different universities, drafting regulations and norms, and promoting the use of bioethical discourse in health care and research. Evaluation meetings have shown that while most trainees did benefit from the experience and contributed highly to developments at their home institutions and countries, some degree of structuring of demand for qualified personnel is needed in order to better utilize the human resources created by the program. Publications and other deliverables of trainees and faculty are presented.
  • Genomics, public health and identity

    Ruth Chadwick (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, 2003)
    Spectacular achievements in the health of individuals have not been matched by equivalent improvement in the health of whole populations. Indeed it is against the background of deterioration in levels of population health in some parts of the world and the emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases in association with powerful globalizing forces that there has been a recrudescence of interest in `Public Health`. Here attention is drawn to the dominant values that have shaped our world, to the differences between broad and narrow definitions of public health, to some values that need to be promoted, and to an ethic of public health that considers both human rights and human needs.
  • Public health ethics: towards a research agenda

    Alison Thompson; Ann Robertson; Ross Upshur (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, 2003)
    Public health ethics, as distinct from clinical/medical bioethics, is an emerging field of study in academic settings. As part of a larger effort to address what the conceptual and content boundaries of this field are, or ought to be, a group at the University of Toronto hosted an international working symposium to discuss and outline a research agenda for public health ethics. The symposium, which took place in May 2002, was organized into four major areas of ethical concern central to public health: individual rights and the common good; risk and precaution; surveillance and regulation; and social justice and global health equity. This paper will provide an overview of some of the main themes and issues that emerged from the key papers that were developed from the symposium and discuss their importance in the emerging field of public health ethics. Significant issues were identified, such as the importance of distinguishing public health ethics from traditional bioethics; the development of the notion of common interests; broad definitions of public health, that include upstream sources of health inequities, and an understanding of the theoretical landscape from which public health ethics has emerged.
  • Public health ethics: tradition, profession, and values

    Lawrence O. Gostin (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, 2003)
    This article asks the difficult questions- what is public health? and what is public health ethics? The article also recognizes that even though public health and biomedical ethics overlap, they have distinct aspects. The article examines the unique population-based perspective of public health and how it can be distinguished from patientcentered biomedical ethics. Additionally, public health scholars and practitioners often use ethical analyses with other forms of reasoning, particularly law and human rights. The article, therefore, explores the relationship among public health ethics, public health law and human rights. The various meanings of each form of reasoning are discussed, as well as the similarities and differences among them. The article concludes with a proposal for reconciling the inherent tradeoffs between public health and civil liberties. Prior to exercising compulsory powers, public health officials should examine the risk to the public; the likelihood that the intervention will be effective; the opportunity costs; the burdens on human rights and the policy`s fairness.

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